Name_______________________________ Date________________ Period____________

Evolution and Genetics

Area of Study: Influenza Pandemic in the US in 1918

Genetic Trait Being Studied: Resistance to the Flu Virus

Standard 1: Use mathematical equations, including graphs and data tables, to explain how natural selection may lead to increases or decreases in specific traits over time.

Directions: Read the following article for understanding to the topic. List points that might explain why some states and age groups had higher mortality rates than others.

 Reading 1: Spanish FluStates:Age Groups:Other Facts:

Equation

Create an equation that would solve for the percentage of deaths from the Spanish flu per state in the pandemic of 1918.

Solve for the percentage of mortality rate for each state.

 State % Mortality Michigan % Mortality State % Mortality New York California Virginia Pennsylvania New Jersey Louisiana Illinois Indiana Kansas Ohio Wisconsin Massachusetts North Carolina Missouri Kentucky

Graph the percentages of flu deaths per state in 1918. Check off points as you do them.

Determine the type of graph to use                    Label axes

Percents per state                                        Title graph

States on X axis, percents on Y

Graph Link  Data was taken from this graph.

Of 272,500 male influenza deaths in 1918, nearly 49 percent were aged 20 to 39. Construct an equation to determine how many males aged 20-39 died from influenza in the U.S. in 1918.

The total male population between ages 20 and 39 in 1918 was 15.896 million. How many males in this age group survived the epidemic of 1918?  What percent? ___________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________

• Discuss with neighbors. Some estimates for global deaths are as high as 100 million people. If this were accurate, (1) what would happen to the genetic variation of the human population? (2) Find the % of variation based on the population of the world in 1919 and 100 million dead to give you a better idea.
• 1.___________________________________________________________________

• 2.  __________________________________________________________________

Standard 2: Construct an explanation that describes how genetic differences between individuals increases the individual's  probability of surviving and reproducing.

Directions: Read the article and highlight points relative to both standards.

Anywhere from 20 to 100 million people died, worldwide, from the Spanish Flu between 1917 and 1919. Infection of individuals was complicated by World War I, as who would never have met one another made contact on the battlefield or at the peace talks. Flu is spread by germs passing through the air or by touching an infected object (like a human body) and then touching the face. Sanitary conditions, horrendous during the war, and close contact of human beings caused large scale transfer of the virus. And then they took it home.

The environment and genetics shape our immune system. As we age we develop a personalized immunity based on these two factors. Individuals who recover from a virus retain an immunity to it as they have developed antibodies to fight it. These antibodies are passed from mother to infant to give the child a fighting chance. Infants, though, soon lose their mothers’ gifts and must develop their own immune system. Some scientists believe that the environment plays the major role. However, the genetics of the immune system is complex and is just now beginning to be studied.

Modern flu shots do not always protect an individual from the flu. Flu viruses adapt, so there is always a new one out there, looming on the horizon. These shots protect some individuals and not others.

Some individuals never develop the flu even without the shot. Some people are naturally immune to the flu and the virus just doesn’t make them sick.There are  significant and complex immune responses in the people who got sick and the people who didn’t.  Although scientists understand that some people’s immune systems naturally resist the virus, they still don’t know how or why that happens.

The genes governing the immune system adapt as the person is infected and recovers from a virus. These environmental factors cause some genes driving the immune system to become active and others to become inactive. These genes control a person’s resistance and tolerance to certain diseases. Such resistance and tolerance can be passed down through generations.

Directions: Read the article and take notes on points that provide evidence that some immunity is genetic.

 Notes

Define “infer.” ____________________________________________________________________________________

Use the points you highlighted to infer reasons the Spanish flu ended and never come back.

1. __________________________________________________________________________________________
2. __________________________________________________________________________________________
3. __________________________________________________________________________________________
4. __________________________________________________________________________________________

Standards Assessment:

1. Essay

Construct an explanation that describes how genetic differences between individuals increases the individual's  probability of surviving and reproducing.

1. Restate the question with your answer in it. __________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________
2. Provide 4 reasons to support your thesis statement. ___________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________
3. Beginning with the term , therefore, restate your thesis. _________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

1. Describe how you used mathematical equations, including graphs and data tables, to explain how natural selection may lead to increases or decreases in specific traits over time. _______ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

Standard 3: Gather and synthesize information about technologies that have influenced the way humans influence the inheritance of desired traits among organisms.

Step One: Brainstorm Ideas for Topics

Subject:  technologies that have influenced human influence on inheritance of traits

 ideas

Step 2: Find one book, one magazine article (may be digital) and one internet site with information on your topic.

Step 3: Search each source for information on the genetic technology you chose. Look for the following:

• When you type a topic into the computer, the search screen often gives you questions. Choose one you think will give you enough information for a one page paper. For example, I chose gene splicing and the question, “How can gene splicing be used.”
• When you type the question into the search bar, choose three ideas that are interesting to you.
• Research each idea so you have enough detail for 3 paragraphs. You will have notes on each of the three answers to your questions in each box.

 Topic: Question: Source 1: BookTitle:Author:Publisher:Place Published:Year Published:Page #’s You Used: Notes Source 1: MagazineTitle of Article:Author:Magazine Title:Place Published:Publishing Date(M/Y):Page #’s You Used:Internet Link: Notes Source 1: Internet SiteTitle:Author:Publisher:Place Published:Year Published:Page #’s You Used:Internet Link: Notes

• Step 4: Take similar ideas from each box and write them together in each box below. This is called synthesizing, or combining, your ideas.

 Idea One: Idea Two: Idea Three:

• Step 5: You now have three ideas for your paper that you can turn into 3 paragraphs. Now you need a thesis statement. For example, you could say:
• Gene splicing is a modern technology that can be used to manipulate human genes to cure diseases, breed organisms that provide better quality food, or for making designer babies.