Name_______________________________ Date________________ Period____________
Evolution and Genetics
Area of Study: Influenza Pandemic in the US in 1918
Genetic Trait Being Studied: Resistance to the Flu Virus
Standard 1: Use mathematical equations, including graphs and data tables, to explain how natural selection may lead to increases or decreases in specific traits over time.
Directions: Read the following article for understanding to the topic. List points that might explain why some states and age groups had higher mortality rates than others.
Reading 1: Spanish Flu
Create an equation that would solve for the percentage of deaths from the Spanish flu per state in the pandemic of 1918.
Solve for the percentage of mortality rate for each state.
Graph the percentages of flu deaths per state in 1918. Check off points as you do them.
Determine the type of graph to use Label axes
Percents per state Title graph
States on X axis, percents on Y
Graph Link Data was taken from this graph.
Of 272,500 male influenza deaths in 1918, nearly 49 percent were aged 20 to 39. Construct an equation to determine how many males aged 20-39 died from influenza in the U.S. in 1918.
The total male population between ages 20 and 39 in 1918 was 15.896 million. How many males in this age group survived the epidemic of 1918? What percent? ___________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
Standard 2: Construct an explanation that describes how genetic differences between individuals increases the individual's probability of surviving and reproducing.
Directions: Read the article and highlight points relative to both standards.
Anywhere from 20 to 100 million people died, worldwide, from the Spanish Flu between 1917 and 1919. Infection of individuals was complicated by World War I, as who would never have met one another made contact on the battlefield or at the peace talks. Flu is spread by germs passing through the air or by touching an infected object (like a human body) and then touching the face. Sanitary conditions, horrendous during the war, and close contact of human beings caused large scale transfer of the virus. And then they took it home.
The environment and genetics shape our immune system. As we age we develop a personalized immunity based on these two factors. Individuals who recover from a virus retain an immunity to it as they have developed antibodies to fight it. These antibodies are passed from mother to infant to give the child a fighting chance. Infants, though, soon lose their mothers’ gifts and must develop their own immune system. Some scientists believe that the environment plays the major role. However, the genetics of the immune system is complex and is just now beginning to be studied.
Modern flu shots do not always protect an individual from the flu. Flu viruses adapt, so there is always a new one out there, looming on the horizon. These shots protect some individuals and not others.
Some individuals never develop the flu even without the shot. Some people are naturally immune to the flu and the virus just doesn’t make them sick.There are significant and complex immune responses in the people who got sick and the people who didn’t. Although scientists understand that some people’s immune systems naturally resist the virus, they still don’t know how or why that happens.
The genes governing the immune system adapt as the person is infected and recovers from a virus. These environmental factors cause some genes driving the immune system to become active and others to become inactive. These genes control a person’s resistance and tolerance to certain diseases. Such resistance and tolerance can be passed down through generations.
Directions: Read the article and take notes on points that provide evidence that some immunity is genetic.
Reading 2: Can Humans Evolve to Be Immune to Diseases?
Define “infer.” ____________________________________________________________________________________
Use the points you highlighted to infer reasons the Spanish flu ended and never come back.
Construct an explanation that describes how genetic differences between individuals increases the individual's probability of surviving and reproducing.
Standard 3: Gather and synthesize information about technologies that have influenced the way humans influence the inheritance of desired traits among organisms.
Step One: Brainstorm Ideas for Topics
Subject: technologies that have influenced human influence on inheritance of traits
Step 2: Find one book, one magazine article (may be digital) and one internet site with information on your topic.
Step 3: Search each source for information on the genetic technology you chose. Look for the following:
Source 1: Book
Page #’s You Used:
Source 1: Magazine
Title of Article:
Page #’s You Used:
Source 1: Internet Site
Page #’s You Used:
Your Thesis Statement: