Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement
The publication ethics and publication malpractice statement for Al-‘Arabiyya and its publisher Georgetown University Press is mainly based on the Code of Conduct and Best-Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors and the Code of Conduct for Journal Publishers (Committee on Publication Ethics, 2011).
Fair Play and Editorial Independence
Editors should be accountable for everything published in their journals. They should strive to meet the needs of readers and authors; constantly improve their journal; have processes in place to assure the quality of the material they publish; champion freedom of expression; maintain the integrity of the academic record; and always be willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions and apologies when needed.
Editors evaluate submitted manuscripts exclusively on the basis of their academic merit (importance, originality, study’s validity, clarity) and its relevance to the journal’s scope, without regard to the authors’ race, gender, sexual orientation, ethnic origin, citizenship, religious belief, political philosophy or institutional affiliation. Decisions to edit and publish are not determined by the policies of governments or any other agencies outside of the journal itself. The editor has full authority over the entire editorial content of the journal and the timing of publication of that content. Editors should strive to ensure that peer review at their journal is fair, unbiased, and timely. Editors should take all reasonable steps to ensure the quality of the material they publish, recognizing that journals and sections within journals will have different aims and standards.
Editors and editorial staff will not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and the publisher, as appropriate. Editors must obey confidentiality laws in their own jurisdiction. Regardless of local statutes, however, they should always protect the confidentiality of individual information obtained in the course of research or professional interactions.
Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest
Editors will not use unpublished information disclosed in a submitted manuscript for their own research purposes without the authors’ explicit written consent. Privileged information or ideas obtained by editors as a result of handling the manuscript will be kept confidential and not used for their personal advantage. Editors will recuse themselves from considering manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships/connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers; instead, they will ask another member of the editorial board to handle the manuscript.
The editor is responsible for deciding which papers submitted to the journal will be published. Editors ensure that all submitted manuscripts being considered for publication undergo peer-review by at least two reviewers who are expert in the field. The editor will evaluate manuscripts without regard to the authors' race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy. The decision will be based on the paper’s importance, originality, and clarity, and the study’s validity and its relevance to the journal's scope. The editor may confer with other editors or reviewers in making this decision. New editors should not overturn decisions to publish submissions made by the previous editor unless serious problems are identified. Current legal requirements regarding libel, copyright infringement, and plagiarism should also be considered.
Involvement and Cooperation in Investigations
Editors will work with the publisher and the association to respond when ethical concerns are raised with regard to a submitted manuscript or published paper. Editors should not simply reject papers that raise concerns about possible misconduct. They are ethically obliged to pursue alleged cases. Every reported act of unethical publishing behavior will be looked into, even if it is discovered years after publication. If, on investigation, the ethical concern is well-founded, a correction, retraction, expression of concern, or other relevant note will be published in the journal.
Contribution to Editorial Decisions
Peer review assists editors in making editorial decisions and, through editorial communications with authors, may assist authors in improving their manuscripts.
Any referee who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should immediately notify the editors so that alternative reviewers can be contacted.
Any manuscripts received for review are confidential documents and must be treated as such; they must not be shown to or discussed with others except if authorized by the editor. This also applies to reviewers who decline the review invitation.
Standards of Objectivity
Reviews should be conducted objectively and evaluations formulated clearly with supporting arguments so that authors can use them for improving the manuscript. Personal criticism of the authors is inappropriate.
Acknowledgment of Sources
Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any statement that is an observation, derivation, or argument that has been reported in previous publications should be accompanied by the relevant citation. They should point out whether observations or arguments derived from other publications are accompanied by the respective source. Reviewers will notify the editor of any ethical concerns about a manuscript including, any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper of which they have personal knowledge.
Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest
Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions associated with the papers.
Authors of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed and the results, followed by an objective discussion of the significance. The manuscript should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Review articles should be accurate, objective, and comprehensive, while opinion or perspective pieces should be clearly identified as such. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable.
Data Access and Retention
Authors may be asked to provide the raw data of their study together with the manuscript for editorial review and should be prepared to make the data publicly available if practicable.
Originality and Plagiarism
Authors should write and submit only entirely original works, and appropriately cite the work and/or words of others, if used. Publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the work reported in the manuscript should also be cited.
Multiple, Duplicate, Redundant, or Concurrent Submission/Publication
Papers describing essentially the same research should not be published in more than one journal or primary publication. Manuscripts that have been published as copyrighted material elsewhere cannot be submitted. In addition, manuscripts under review by the journal should not be resubmitted to copyrighted publications. Submission of a manuscript concurrently to more than one journal is unethical publishing behavior and unacceptable.
Authorship of the Manuscript
Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. The corresponding author ensures that all contributing co-authors and no uninvolved persons are included in the author list. The corresponding author will also verify that all co-authors have approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.
Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest
All authors should include a statement disclosing any financial or other substantive conflicts of interest that may be construed to influence the results or interpretation of their manuscript. Examples of potential conflicts of interest that should be disclosed include financial ones such as honoraria, educational grants, or other funding; participation in speakers’ bureaus, membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; and paid expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements, as well as non-financial ones such as personal or professional relationships, and affiliations.
Acknowledgment of Sources
Authors should ensure that they have properly acknowledged the work of others, and should also cite publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work. Information obtained privately (from conversation, correspondence, or discussion with third parties) must not be used or reported without explicit, written permission from the source. Authors should not use information obtained in the course of providing confidential services, such as refereeing manuscripts or grant applications, unless they have obtained the explicit written permission of the author(s) of the work involved in these services.
Authors are obliged to participate in the peer review process and cooperate fully by responding promptly to editors’ requests for raw data, clarifications, and proof of ethics approval, research participant consents, and copyright permissions. If revisions are deemed necessary, authors should respond to the reviewers’ comments systematically, point by point, and in a timely manner, revising and re-submitting their manuscript to the journal by the deadline given.
Fundamental Errors in Published Works
When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and to cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper in form of an erratum or retract the paper.
Relationship with the Editor
The relationships between the editor, the association, and Georgetown University Press are defined in separate contracts. The publisher will foster editorial independence in the journal. The publisher is also committed to the permanent availability and preservation of scholarly research and ensures accessibility by partnering with organizations and maintaining its own digital archive.
Intellectual Property and Misconduct
Separately, the publisher is committed to protecting intellectual property and copyright. In cases of alleged or proven misconduct, fraudulent publication, or plagiarism, the publisher will assist the editor and the association in the investigation of suspected research and publication misconduct and, where possible, facilitate in the resolution of these cases. The publisher will publish corrections, clarifications, and retractions, as needed. The publisher, together with the editors, shall take reasonable steps to identify and prevent the publication of papers where research misconduct has occurred, and under no circumstances encourage such misconduct or knowingly allow such misconduct to take place.