Sacred Scripture

Course #: SAS 101: Sacred Scripture

Instructor: Fr. Randy Soto, SThD,

Email :

I. Descriptio Cursus

The course begins by expounding on the basic concepts and criteria used in Biblical and Theological Sciences: “Word, Revelation, Transmission, Truth in Scripture, Canonicity, Authenticity, Integrity, Magisterium, Tradition, etc.” Then it will acquaint the students with the Book of the Bible per se: languages; traditions, the text, translations, manuscripts, papyri, codices, uncials, the Textus Receptus, and contemporary editions. A third unit is dedicated to explaining the Catholic principles for hermeneutics and exegesis. A particular emphasis is placed in teaching the methods used by the Fathers of the Church and Lectio Divina.

II. Objectives

Unit 1: Fundamental Biblical and Theological Vocabulary

Objective: The students will improve their knowledge of the different technical words used in the Theology and Scripture fields; through a series of discussions, reflections and activities based on the book: Hahn, Scott, Faith and Revelation. Semester Edition (Woodridge, 2009).

Unit 2: The Multicultural Environment (Sitz im Leben) of the Bible text.

Objective: The students will improve their knowledge of the different technical words used in the Theology and Scripture fields; through a series of discussions, reflections and activities based on the book: Hahn, Scott, Faith and Revelation. Semester Edition (Woodridge, 2009).

Unit 3: Catholic Principles of Hermeneutics and Exegesis.

Objective: Students will identify and explain the key principles of Catholic exegesis by reading the Magisterial documents called: Dei Verbum (1963), and Interpreting the Bible in the Catholic Church (PBC 1993); the CCE §§ 101-141 (1997); and Verbum Domini (2010).

Unit 4: Pastoral Application

Objective: The students will expand their self-awareness of what it means to be Teacher of the Faith; through writing a Term Paper on specific Biblical and Theological Words.

III. Classroom Procedure, Attendance, and Grading

1. The students will read the following books:

a. Scott Hahn, Faith and Revelation. Semester Edition (Woodridge, 2009).

b. Catechism on Scripture (PDF) CCC §§ 101-141

c. Dei Verbum (PDF)

d. Interpreting the Bible in the Catholic Church (PDF)

e. Verbum Domini (PDF).

3 The students will read and post every week the assigned questions by the instructor.

4. Grades will be based on seven lesson exercises 35%; seven PowerPoints of Magisterial Documents 35; and the Term Paper 30%.

IV. Calendar

Subject Assignments

Week One: General Introduction to the Class


Week Two: Fundamental Vocabulary. The students will read the text book Faith and Revelation (henceforth F&R) and will post only the answers asked in this chart to the Study Questions and Exercises given at the end of the chapter. Be brief with your answers. Pithy and bold.

F&R Chapter One

Study Questions 1, 7, 11, 13, 15, 17, 24

Exercises 2, 3, 4

Week Three: Fundamental Vocabulary F&R Chapter Two

Study Questions 1, 5, 8, 12, 13, 17, 19

Exercises 2, 3, 5

Week Four:

The Text of the Bible: The Inspired Word of God

F&R Chapter Three

Study Questions 1, 3, 6, 9, 14, 16, 19

Exercises 1, 2, 3

PowerPoint of the Section of the Catechism on Scripture CCC §§ 101-141

Week Five:

The OT and NT Sitz im Leben

F&R Chapter Four

Study Questions 1, 3, 4, 8, 12, 29, 30

Exercises 2, 5, 6

Week Six:

History of Salvation: Promise-Fulfillment Binomial and the OT Covenant

F&R Chapter Five

Study Questions 2, 3, 5, 8, 14, 17, 33

Exercises 1, 9, 10

Week Seven:

Jesus Christ: Fullness of Divine Revelation

F&R Chapter Six

Study Questions 2, 3, 4, 10, 11, 16, 27, 31

Exercises 4, 7

Week Eight:

The Church Transmits God’s Revelation

F&R Chapter Seven

Study Questions 1, 3, 6, 9, 10, 17, 28

Exercises 2, 4, 9

Week Nine:

The Vatican II on Revelation. Read Dei Verbum Post a PowerPoint on Dei Verbum (1965)

Week Ten:

The Pontifical Biblical Commission on The Reading of the Bible in the Church Parts I-II

PowerPoint of Interpreting the Bible in the Church Parts I-II (1993)

Week Eleven:

The Pontifical Biblical Commission on The Reading of the Bible in the Church Parts III-IV

PowerPoint of Interpreting the Bible in the Church Parts III-IV (1993)

Week Twelve:

Ordinary Synod on the Role of Scripture in the New Evangelization Part I (2009 )

Summary or PowerPoint of the Apostolic Exhortation: Verbum Domini Part I (2010)

Week Thirteen:

Ordinary Synod on the Role of Scripture in the New Evangelization 2009

Summary or PowerPoint of the Apostolic Exhortation: Verbum Domini Part II (2010)

Week Fourteen:

Ordinary Synod on the Role of Scripture in the New Evangelization 2009

Summary or PowerPoint of the Apostolic Exhortation: Verbum Domini Part III (2010)

Week Fifteen:

Post a PDF of your Term Paper Term Paper Due

VI. List of Words for research and presentation (Term Paper).

Students will choose one or two items from among the list below for the Term Paper. The format of the paper is a Dictionary Entry (follow the way an article is presented in a Biblical Dictionary),

to present his or her definition(s) definition(s). While there is no limits to its length, I suggest it be no longer, than five pages.

Concepts Institutions Persons

Salvation History Greeks and Romans Peter

Creation OT Priesthood Paul

Covenant Publicans and Sinners King Herod

Retribution Philistines and Assyrians Andrew

Jerusalem Apostles and Elders John

Temple Worship Prophets and Scribes James the Greater

Major Feasts Zealots and Nazarenes James the Lesser

Sanctuaries Anahuim and Essenes Bartholomew and Phillip

Blessings and Curses Angels and Cherubim Judas Thaddeus & Joseth

Desert and Sea Sanhedrin and Herodians Simon the Zealot

Sheep Jesus Christ Salome & Zebedee

Vine Babylonians and Persians Mary of Cleopas

Biblical Stones Seleucids and Ptolomites Our Lady

Biblical Animals Marriage Mary Magdalene

Biblical Plants Monarchy Mary, Martha, Lazarus

Biblical Fish Evangelists Thomas

Types Sadducees and Pharisees Judas Iscariot

VI. Selected Bibliography A. Magisterial Teachings

1. Primary Sources: CCE, Catechismus Catholicae Ecclesiae, (Romae, 1997). Libreria Editrice Vaticana.

Louis, C. (ed.), Rome & the Study of Scripture: A Collection of Papal Enactments on the Study of Holy Scripture Together with the Decisions of the Biblical Commission (7th ed.). St. Meinrad, IN: Abbey Press, 1964.

Pontifical Biblical Commission, The Historicity of the Gospels. Boston: Daughters of St. Paul,


Pontifical Biblical Commission, The Interpretation of the Bible in the Church. Boston: Daughters

of St. Paul, 1993.

Pope Leo XIII. Providentissimus Deus (Encyclical on the Study of Sacred Scripture, 1893).

Boston: Daughters of St. Paul.

Pope Benedict XV. Spiritus Paraclitus (Encyclical on the Fifteenth Centenary of the Death of St.

Jerome, 1920). Boston: Daughters of St. Paul.

Pope Benedicct XVI., Verbum Domini (Apostolic Exhortation on the Word of God, 2010).

Pope Pius XII. Divino Afflante Spiritu (Encyclical on the Promotion of Biblical Studies, 1943).

Boston: Daughters of St. Paul.

Vatican II. Dei Verbum (The Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation, 1965). Boston:

Daughters of St. Paul.

2. Secondary Sources: Bea, Augustin. The Study of the Synoptic Gospels. New York: Harper & Row, 1965.

_______. The Word of God and Mankind. Chicago, IL: Franciscan Herald Press, 1967.

Harrison, Brian W. The Teaching of Pope Paul VI on Sacred Scripture. Rome: Pontificium

Athenaeum Sanctae Crucis, 1997.

Megivern, James J. (ed.). Official Catholics Teachings: Bible Interpretation. Wilmington, NC:

McGrath, 1978.

Myers, Edith. What Does the Church Really Say About the Bible? St. Paul, MN: Wanderer Press,


Pope, Hugh. The Catholic Church and the Bible. New York: Macmillan, 1928.

B. Biblical Inspiration and Authority ({P} = Protestant) Benoit, Pierre, Aspects of Biblical Inspiration. Chicago: Priory Press, 1965.

Benoit, Pierre and P. Synave. Prophecy and Inspiration: A Commentary on the Summa

Theologica II, Q. 171-178. New York: Desclee, 1961.

Burtchaell, James T. Catholic Theories of Biblical Inspiration Since 1810. New York: Cambridge,


Carson, Donald A. and J. D. Woodbridge (eds.). Scripture and Truth. Grand Rapids, MI:

Zondervan, 1983. {P}

Conn, Harvie (ed.). Inerrancy and Hermeneutic: A Tradition, A Challenge, A Debate. Grand

Rpaids, MI: Baker, 1988. {P}

Farrow, Douglas. The Word of Truth and Disputes About Words. Winona Lake, IN: Carpenter

Books, 1987. {P}

Geisler, Norman (ed.). Inerrancy. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1979. {P}

Hagerty, Cornelius. The Authenticity of Sacred Scripture. Houston, TX: Lumen Christi Press,


Hannah, John D. (ed.). Inerrancy and the Church. Chicago: Moody Press, 1984. {P}

Levie, Jean. The Bible, Word of God in Words of Men. New York: P. J. Kenedy, 1961.

McDonald, H. D. Theories of Revelation: An Historical Study 1700-1960. Grand Rapids, MI:

Baker, 1979. {P}

Most, William. Free From All Error: Authorship, Inerrancy, Historicity of Scripture, and Modern

Scripture Scholars. Libertyville, IL: Prow Books Franciscan Marytown Press, 1985.

O'Neill, J. C. The Bible's Authority. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1991. {P}

Steinmueller, John E. The Sword of the Spirit. Fort Worth, TX: Stella Maris Books, 1977.

Walvoord, John F. (ed.). Inspiration and Interpretation. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1957. {P}

Wenham, John. Christ and the Bible (3rd ed.). Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1993. {P}

C. Scripture, Tradition and Canonicity Congar, Yves. Tradition and Traditions: The Biblical, Historical and Theological Evidence for

Catholic Teaching

on Tradition. Granville, OH: Basilica Press, 1998.

Farmer, WIlliam R. and D. Farkasfalvy. The Formation of the New Testament Canon. New York:

Paulist, 1983.

Graham, Henry G. Where We Got the Bible: Our Debt to the Catholic Church. Rockford, IL: Tan,


Lienhard, Joseph T. The Bible, the Church, and Authority: The Canon of the Christian Bible in

History and Theology. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1995.

Shea, Mark P. By What Authority? An Evangelical Discovers Catholic Tradition. Huntington, IN:

Our Sunday Visitor, 1996.

Sungenis, Robert (ed.). Not By Scripture Alone: A Catholic Critique of the Protestant Doctrine of

Sola Scriptura. Santa Barbara, CA: Queenship, 1998.

Varillon, Francois. Announcing Christ Through Scripture to the Church. Westminster, MD:

Newman, 1963.

Whiteford, John. Sola Scriptura: An Orthodox Analysis of the Cornerstone of Reformation

Theology. Ben Lomond, CA: Conciliar Press, 1995.

D. Scripture in the Liturgy and Catechesis Barthelemy, Dominique. God and His Image: An Outline of Biblical Theology. New York: Sheed

& Ward, 1966.

Bouyer, Louis. The Word, Church & Sacraments. New York: Desclee, 1961.

Bradley, Robert I. The Roman Cathechism in the Catechetical Tradition of the Church. Lanham,

MD: University Press of America, 1990.

Breck, John. The Power of the Word in the Worshipping Church. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's

Seminary, 1986.

Corbon, Jean. Path to Freedom: Christian Experience and the Bible. New York: Sheed & Ward,


Danielou, Jean. The Bible and the Liturgy. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1956,

Deiss, Lucien. God's Word and God's People. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1976.

Jackson, Pamela, E. J. Journeybread for the Shadowlands: The Readings for the Rites of the

Catechumenate. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1993.

Paris, Charles W. Biblical Catechetics After Vatican II. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1971.

Vogels, Walter. Reading and Preaching the Bible. Wilmington, DE: Michael Glazier, 1986.

E. History of Interpretation Blowers, Paul M. (ed.). The Bible in Greek Christian Antiquity. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre

Dame Press, 1997.

_______. Exegesis and Spiritual Pedagogy in Maximus the Confessor. Notre Dame, IN:

University of Notre Dame Press, 1991.

Brown, Dennis. Vir Trilinguis: A Study in the Biblical Exegesis of Saint Jerome. Kampen: Kok

Pharos, 1992.

Chau, Wai-Shing. The Letter and the Spirit: A History of Interpretation from Origen to Luther. New

York: Peter Lang, 1995.

Danielou, Jean. From Shadows to Reality: Studies in the Biblical Typology of the Fathers. London:

Burns & Oataes, 1960.

De Lubac, Henri. Medieval Exegesis (Volume I). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1998.

De Margerie, Bertrand. An Introduction to the History of Exegesis (3 vols.). Petersham, MA: Saint

Bede's Publications, 1993-95.

Evans, G. R. The Lauguage and Logic of the Bible: The Earlier Middle Ages. New York:

Cambridge, 1984.

Finan, Thomas and Vincent Twomey (eds.), Scriptural Interpretation in the Fathers: Letter and

Spirit. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 1995.

Froelich, Karlfried (ed.). Biblical Interpretation in the Early Church. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1984.

Gorday, Peter. Principles of Patristic Exegesis. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1983.

Grant, Robert M. The Bible in the Church: A Short History of Interpretation. New York: Macmillan,


_______. The Letter and the Spirit. New York: Macmillan, 1957.

McNally, Robert E. The Bible in the Early Middle Ages. Westminster, MD: Newman, 1959.

Montague George T., Understanding the Bible: A Basic Introduction to Biblical Interpretation. New

York: Paulist Press 2007.

Preus, James S. From Shadow to Promise: Old Testament Interpretation from Augustine to the

Young Luther. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1969.

Reist, Thomas. Saint Bonaventure as a Biblical Commentator. Lanham, MD: University Press of

America, 1985.

Sadowski, Frank. The Church Fathers on the Bible: Selected Readings. Staten Island, NY: Alba

House, 1987.

Simonetti, Manlio. Biblical Interpretation in the Early Church: An Historical Introduction to Patristic

Exegesis. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1994.

Smalley, Beryl. The Study of the Bible in the Middle Ages. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre

Dame Press, 1973,

_______. Medieval Exegesis of Wisdom Literature. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1986.

Trigg, Joseph W. (ed.). Biblical Interpretation. Wilmington, DE: Michael Glazier, 1988.

Valkenberg, Wilhelm G. "Did Not Our Hearts Burn?": The Place and Function of Holy Scripture in

the Theology of St. Thomas Aquinas. Utrecht: Thomas Instituut te Utrecht, 1990.

F. Introductory Manuals and Commentaries Aquinas, Thomas. Catena Aurea: A Commentary on the Four Gospels Collected Out of the Works of the Fathers (translated and edited by John Henry Newman). Southampton: Saint Austin Press, 1997.

Barrosse, Thomas. God Speaks to Men: Understanding the Bible (2nd ed.). Notre Dame, IN:

Fides, 1964.

Bouyer, Louis. The Meaning of Sacred Scripture. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame

Press, 1958.

Brown, Raymond et al. (eds.). The New Jerome Biblical Commentary (rev. ed.). Englewood Cliffs,

NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990.

Casciaro, Jose Maria (ed.). The Navarre Bible (New Testament - 12 vols). Dublin: Four Courts

Press, 1989-92.

Charlier, Dom Celestin. The Christian Approach to the Bible. London: Sands, 1961.

Fuentes, Antonio. A Guide to the Bible. Houston, TX: Lumen Christi Press, 1987.

Hahn, Scott. A Father Who Keeps His Promises: God's Covenant Love in Scripture. Ann Arbor,

MI: Servant Books, 1998.

Hahn, Scott, Faith and Revelation. Semester Edition, (Woodridge, 2009).

Hahn, Scott, Understanding the Scriptures. Semester Edition, (Woodridge, 2010).

Hartman, L. (ed.). A Commentary on the New Testament. Kansas City: Catholic Biblical

Association, 1942.

Heidt, William G. A General Introduction to Sacred Scripture: Inspiration, Canonicity, Texts,

Versions and Hermeneutics. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1970.

Kodell, Jerome. The Catholic Bible Study Handbook. Ann Arbor, MI: Servant, 1985.

Lattey, Cuthbert. Back to the Bible. Harrison, NY: Roman Catholic Books, 1995.

Lapide, Cornelius A. The Great Commentary of Cornelius a Lapide (8 vols.). Edinburgh: John

Grant, 1908.

Laux, John. Introduction to the Bible. Rockford, IL: TAN Books, 1990.

Oden, Thomas (general editor). Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture (27 vols; 2 presently

available). Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1998-.

Orchard, Bernard et al. (eds.). A Catholic Commentary on Holy Scripture. NY: Thomas Nelson

and Sons, 1951.

Pope, Hugh. The Catholic Student's Aids to the Bible (5 vols., rev. ed.). New York: P. J. Kenedy,


Rooney, Gerard. Preface to the Bible. Milwaukee: Bruce, 1952.

Steinmueller, John E. A Companion to Scripture Studies (3 Vols.). Houston, TX: Lumen Christi

Press, 1969.

Winzen, Damasus. Pathways in Scripture: A Book-By-Book Guide to the Spiritual Riches of the


Ann Arbor, MI: Word of Life, 1976.

G. Introduction to the Old Testament Archer, Gleason L. A Survey of Old Testament (2nd ed.). Chicago: Moody, 1994. {P}

Boadt, Lawerence. Reading the Old Testament: An Introduction. NY: Paulist, 1984.

Casciaro, J. M. and J. M. Monforte. God, the World and Man in the Message of the Bible. Dublin:

Four Courts, 1996.

Childs, Brevard S. Introduction to the Old Testament as Scripture. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1979.


_______. Old Testament Theology in a Canonical Context. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1985. {P}

Dillard, Raymond B. and Tremper Longman III. An Introduction to the Old Testament. Grand

Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1994. {P}

De Vaux, Roland. Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions. NY: McGraw-Hill, 1961.

Duggan, Michael. The Consuming Fire: A Christian Introduction to the Old Testament. San

Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1991.

Hill, Andrew E. and John H. Walton. A Survey of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, MI:

Zondervan, 1991. {P}

Hopkins, Martin. God's Kingdom in the Old Testament. Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1964.

Jensen, Joseph. God's Word to Israel. Wilmington, DE: Glazier, 1982.

Kaiser, Walter. The Messiah in the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1995. {P}

_______. Toward an Old Testament Theology. Grand Rapids, MI; Zondervan, 1978. {P}

Martin, George. Reading Scripture as the Word of God (3rd ed.). Ann Arbor, MI: Servant, 1998.

Merrill, Eugene H. A Kingdom of Priests: A History of Old Testament Israel. Grand Rapids, MI:

Baker, 1987. {P}

Sailhamer, John H. Introduction to Old Testament Theology: A Canonical Approach. Grand

Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1995. {P}

Smith, Archbishop William. The Mosaic Authorship of the Pentateuch (2nd ed.). London: Sands,


Steinmueller, John E. Some Problems of the Old Testament. Milwaukee: Bruce, 1936.

Sullivan, Kathryn. God's Word and Work: The Message of the Old Testament Historical Books.

Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1958.

Van Imschoot, Paul. Theology of the Old Testament. NY: Desclee, 1965.

Young, E.J. An Introduction to the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1964. {P}

H. Introduction to the New Testament Bonsirven, Joseph. Theology of the New Testament. Westminster, MD: Newman Press, 1963.

Carson, Donald A. et al. An Introduction to the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan,

1992. {P}

Childs, Brevard S. The New Testament as Canon. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1985. {P}

De Grandmaison, Leonce. Jesus Christ: His Person, His Message, Mis Credentials (3 vols.). New

York: Sheed and Ward, 1935.

Egger, Wilhelm. How to Read the New Testament. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1996.

Fillion, L. C. The Life of Christ: A Historical, Critical and Apologetic Exposition (3 vols.). St. Louis:

Herder, 1948.

Guthrie, Donald. New Testament Introduction (2nd ed.). Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press,

1990. {P}

Harrington, Daniel J. Interpreting the New Testament. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1990.

Hopkins, Martin. God's Kingdom in the New Testament. Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1964.

Johnson, Luke T. The Writings of the New Testament. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1986.

Matera, Frank J. New Testament Ethics. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1996.

Most, William. The Thought of St. Paul. Front Royal, VA: Christendom Press, 1994.

Orchard, Dom Bernard, Born to be King: The Epic of the Incarnation. London: Ealing Abbey, 1993.

Prat, Ferdinand. Jesus Christ: His Life, His Teaching, and His Work. Milwaukee: Bruce, 1950.

_______. The Theology of St. Paul (2 vols.). Westminster, MD: Newman, 1950.

Quesnell, Quentin. This Good News: An Introduction to the Catholic Theology of the New

Testament. Milwaukee: Bruce, 1964.

Schelckle, Karl H. Theology of the New Testament (4 vols). Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press,


Spicq, Ceslaus. Agape in the New Testament (3 vols.). St. Louis: Herder, 1963.

Wright, Nicholas T. Jesus and the Victory of God. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, 1996. {P}

_______. The New Testament and the People of God. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, 1992. {P}

I. Methods and Issues in Biblical Interpretation Felder, Hilarin. Christ and the Critics (2 vols.). London: Burns Oates and Washbourne, 1933.

Fitzmyer, Joseph A. An Introductory Bibliography for the Study of Scripture (3d ed). Rome: Biblical

Institute Press. 1990.

Fogarty, Gerald P. American Catholic Biblical Scholarship. New York: Harper & Row, 1989.

Fowl, Stephen E. (ed.). The Theological Interpretation of Scripture: Classic and Contemporary

Readings. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell, 1997.

Jeffrey, David L. People of the Book: Christian Identity and Literary Culture. Grand Rapids, MI:

Eerdmans, 1996.

Kelly, George. The Church's Problem With Bible Scholars. Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press,


_______. The New Biblical Theorists. Ann Arbor, MI: Servant Books, 1983.

Linnemann, Eta. Historical Criticism of the Bible: Methodology or Ideology? Grand Rapids, MI:

Baker, 1990.

Maier, Gerhard. The End of the Historical Critical Method. St. Louis: MO: Concordia, 1977. {P}

McCarthy, John F. The Science of Historical Theology: Elements of a Definition. Rockford, IL:

TAN Books, 1991.

Meyer, Ben F. Reality and Illusion in New Testament Scholarship. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical

Press, 1994.

Montague, George. Understanding the Bible: A Basic Introduction to Biblical Interpretation. New

York: Paulist Press, 1997.

Morrow, Stanley B. Basic Tools of Biblical Exegesis. Rome: Biblical Institute Press, 1978.

Neuhaus, Richard J. (ed.). Biblical Interpretation in Crisis: The Ratzinger Conference on Bible

and Church. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1989.

Ratzinger, Joseph Cardinal. Biblical Interpretation in Crisis. Rockford, IL: Rockford Institute, 1988.

Robinson, Robert B. Roman Catholic Exegesis Since Divino Afflante Spiritu. Atlanta: Scholars

Press, 1988.

Stuhlmacher, Peter. Historical Criticism and Theological Interpretation of Scripture: Towards a

Hermeneutics of Consent. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1977. {P}

Stump, Eleonore and Thomas P. Flint (eds.). Hermes and Athena: Biblical Exegesis and

Philosophical Theology. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1993.

Taguchi, Paul Cardinal. The Study of Sacred Scripture. Boston, MA: Daughters of St. Paul, 1974.

J. Reference Works Aharoni, Yohanan. et al. The Macmillan Bible Atlas (rev. ed.). New York: Macmillan, 1993.

Artola A., Biblia y Palabra de Dios, Navarra: Verbo Divino 1995.

AAVV, The Collegeville Bible Commentary, Minnesota: Collegevile 1989.

AAVV, The New Jerome Biblical Commentary, New Jersey, 1990.

AAVV, Harper’s Bible Commentary, San Francisco 1988.

AAVV, Introducción Crítica a la Biblia, Barcelona 1981.

Bauer, J. B. (ed.). An Encyclopedia of Biblical Theology. New York: Crossroad, 1981.

Bromiley, Geoffrey W. (ed.). The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (rev. ed.). Grand

Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1979-1988. {P}

Brown, Colin (ed.). The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology (4 vols). Grand

Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1975-86. {P}

Danker, Frederick W. Multipurpose Tools for Bible Study (rev. ed.). Minneapolis: Fortress, 1993.

Green, Joel B. and Scott McKnight (eds.). Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels. Downers Grove,

IL: Intervarsity Press, 1992. {P}

Grelot P., La Biblia, Palabra de Dios, Barcelona 1968.

Hahn, Scott, Understanding the Scriptures, Woodridge: MTF, 2005.

Hartdegen, Stephen J. Nelson's Complete Concordance of the New American Bible. Nashville,

TN: Thomas Nelson, 1977.

Hawthorne, Gerald and Ralph Martin (eds.). Dictionary of Paul and His Letters. Downers Grove,

IL: Intervarsity Press, 1992. {P}

Latourelle R., Il Vaticano II e la Costituzione “Dei Verbum,” Assisi 1980.

Leon-Dufour, Xavier (ed.). Dictionary of Biblical Theology (rev. ed.). New York: Seabury, 1973,

Manucci V., La Biblia como Palabra de Dios, Bilbao: Desclee 1995.

Mertens H., Manual de la Biblia, Barcelona: Herder 1989.

Negev, Avraham (ed.). The Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land (rev. ed.). New York:

Thomas Nelson, 1986.

Spicq, Ceslas. Theological Lexicon of the New Testament (3 vols.). Peabody, MA: Hendrickson,


Steinmueller, John E. and K. Sullivan (eds.). Catholic Biblical Encyclopedia. New York: Joseph

Wagner, 1956.

Tenney, Merrill (ed.). The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible (4 vols). Grand Rapids,

MI: Zondervan, 1976. {P}

Thompson, Newton and Raymond Stock. Complete Concordance to the Bible (Douay Version).

St. Louis: Herder, 1945.

Whitaker, Richard E. The Eerdmans Analytical Concordance to the Revised Standard Version of the Bible (with the Deuterocanonical/Apocryphal Books). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1988.

Young, Robert. Young's Analytical Concordance to the Bible. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson,


Zimmermann H., Los métodos histórico-críticos en el Nuevo Testamento

(Madrid: BAC 1969.

K. Lectio Divina Bianchi, Enzo, Praying the Word, Kalamazoo, Michigan: Cistercian Publications, 1998 Casey, Michael, Sacred Reading, Liguori, Missouri: 1995. Dumm, Demetrius, Flowers in the Desert. A Spirituality of the Bible, New York: Paulist

Press, 1987. Dumm, Demetrius, Cherish Christ above All, the Bible in the Rule of St. Benedict,

NewYork: Paulist Press,

de Wahl, Esther, A Life-Giving Way, A Commentary on the Rule of St. Benedict,

Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 1995. Earle, Mary C., Broken body, Healing Spirit: Lectio Divina and Living with Illness, New

York: Morehouse Publishing, 2003. Guenther, Margaret, The Practice of Prayer, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Cowley

Publications, 1998. Hall, Thelma, Too Deep for Words, New York: Paulist Press, 1988. Keating, Thomas, Intimacy with God, New York: The Crossroad P. Company, 1994. Keating, Thomas, “The Ancient Monastic Practice of Lectio Divina,” in Contemplative

Outreach News, Vol. 12, #2: Winter, 1998. Magrassi, Mariano, Praying the Bible, an Introduction to Lectio Divina, Collegeville:

Liturgical Press, 1998 Masini, Mario, An Ancient Prayer that is ever new: Lectio Divina, New York: Alba House,

1998. Merton, Thomas, Opening the Bible, Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press, 1986. Miller, Robert J., Falling Into Faith: Lectio Divina Series, Wisconsin: Sheed & Ward, 2000. Miller, Robert J, Fire in the Deep, Wisconsin: Sheed & Ward, 2001. Mulholland, Jr. M. Robert, Shaped by the Word, Revised Edition, Nashville, TN: The

Upper Room Books, 2000. Pennington, Basil, Lectio Divina: Renewing the Ancient Practice of Praying the Scriptures,

New York: The Crosswords Press, 1998. Salvail, Ghislaine, At the Crossroads of the Scriptures: An Introduction to Lectio Divina,

Boston, Massachusetts: Pauline Books and Media, 1996 Smith, Martin, The Word is Very Near You, A Guide to Praying with Scripture,

Massachusetts: Cowley Publications, 1989. Stewart, Columba, Prayer and Community, Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 1998. Vest, Norvene, Gathered in the Word, Praying the Scripture in Small Groups, Nashville,

TN: The Upper Room Books, 1996.


(Students who have difficulty with research and composition are encouraged to pursue assistance with the Online Writing Lab (available at


A 94-100; A- 90-93; B+ 87-89; B 84-86; B- 80-83; C+ 77-79; C 74-76; C- 70-73 D 60-69; F 59 and below


Students at Holy Apostles College & Seminary are expected to practice academic honesty.

Avoiding Plagiarism In its broadest sense, plagiarism is using someone else's work or ideas, presented or claimed as your own. At this stage in your academic career, you should be fully conscious of what it means to plagiarize. This is an inherently unethical activity because it entails the uncredited use of someone else's expression of ideas for another's personal advancement; that is, it entails the use of a person merely as a means to another person’s ends.

Students, where applicable:

• Should identify the title, author, page number/webpage address, and publication date of works when directly quoting small portions of texts, articles, interviews, or websites.

• Students should not copy more than two paragraphs from any source as a major component of papers or projects.

• Should appropriately identify the source of information when paraphrasing (restating) ideas from texts, interviews, articles, or websites.

• Should follow the Holy Apostles College & Seminary Stylesheet (available on the Online Writing Lab’s website at Consequences of Academic Dishonesty: Because of the nature of this class, academic dishonesty is taken very seriously. Students participating in academic dishonesty may be removed from the course and from the program.


Even though you are not required to be logged in at any precise time or day, you are expected to login several times during each week. Because this class is being taught entirely in a technology- mediated forum, it is important to actively participate each week in the course. In a traditional classroom setting for a 3-credit course, students would be required to be in class 3 hours a week and prepare for class discussions 4.5 hours a week. Expect to devote at least 7 quality hours a week to this course. A failure on the student’s part to actively participate in the life of the course may result in a reduction of the final grade.


An Incomplete is a temporary grade assigned at the discretion of the faculty member. It is typically allowed in situations in which the student has satisfactorily completed major components of the course and has the ability to finish the remaining work without re-enrolling, but has encountered extenuating circumstances, such as illness, that prevent his or her doing so prior to the last day of class.

To request an incomplete, distance-learning students must first download a copy of the Incomplete Request Form. This document is located within the Shared folder of the Files tab in Populi. Secondly, students must fill in any necessary information directly within the PDF document. Lastly, students must send their form to their professor via email for approval. “Approval” should be understood as the professor responding to the student’s email in favor of granting the “Incomplete” status of the student.

Students receiving an Incomplete must submit the missing course work by the end of the sixth week following the semester in which they were enrolled. An incomplete grade (I) automatically turns into the grade of “F” if the course work is not completed.

Students who have completed little or no work are ineligible for an incomplete. Students who feel they are in danger of failing the course due to an inability to complete course assignments should withdraw from the course.

A “W” (Withdrawal) will appear on the student’s permanent record for any course dropped after the end of the first week of a semester to the end of the third week. A “WF” (Withdrawal/Fail) will appear on the student’s permanent record for any course dropped after the end of the third week of a semester and on or before the Friday before the last week of the semester.


Fr. Randy Soto is a Roman Catholic priest from San Jose, Costa Rica, currently serving as Professor of New Testament at Kenrick-Glennon Seminary in the Archdiocese of St. Louis. He completed his Sacred Theology Doctorate (SThD) in Biblical Theology at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome in 2003 and has also since served as a parish pastor and Director of Faith Enculturation in the Archdiocese of San Jose, Professor of New Testament at the Instituto Ciencias Religiosas while in Toledo, Spain.