River Beach Science Skills Progression

Working Scientifically

This skills progression map aims to ensure that all pupils develop an understanding of the nature, processes and methods of science through different types of science enquiries that help them to answer scientific questions through the world around them.

Fundamental Areas

EYFS

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

Year 6

Asking Questions

Show curiosity about objects, events and people Playing & Exploring

Questions why things happen Speaking: 30-50 months

Comments and asks questions about aspects of their familiar world such as the place where

they live or the natural world

The World: 30-50 months

Explore the world around them and raise their own simple questions

Ask people questions and use simple secondary sources to find answers

Recognise that they may need to ask multiple questions to fully understand what they want to know, or think carefully about what they should ask.

Use a wide range of secondary sources to find answers to a single question, to get a wider overview of an answer.

Raise their own relevant questions about the world around them

Recognise when and how secondary sources might help them to answer questions that cannot be answered through practical investigations

Consider how practical activities can often raise more questions.

Begin to consider the reasons they may get different answers to the same question.

Use their science experiences to explore ideas and raise different kinds of questions

Recognise which secondary sources will be most useful to research their ideas and begin to separate opinion from fact

Ask questions and develop a line of enquiry based on observations of the real world, alongside

prior knowledge and experience

Planning and Setting Up Different Types of Enquires

Engage in open-ended activity Playing & Exploring

Take a risk, engage in new experiences and learn by trial and error

Playing & Exploring

Experience different types of science enquiries, including practical activities

Begin to recognise different ways in which they might answer scientific questions

Begin to understand that there are a variety of different methods for answering the same question and that there are factors that contribute to getting different answers – begin to consider why.

Should be given a range of scientific experiences including different types of science enquiries to answer questions

Start to make their own decisions about the most appropriate type of scientific enquiry they might use to answer questions

Experience how to plan different types of scientific enquiry and what they must ensure they consider. Begin to plan independently.

Talk about how scientific ideas have developed over time

Select and plan the most appropriate type of scientific enquiry to use to answer scientific questions

Understand that scientific methods and theories develop as earlier explanations are modified

to take account of new evidence and ideas, together with the importance of publishing results

and peer review

Select and plan the most appropriate types of scientific enquiries to test predictions, including identifying independent, dependent and control variables, where appropriate

Performing Tests

Find ways to solve problems / find new ways to do things / test their ideas Creating & Thinking

Critically

Carry out simple tests

Set up tests and consider what components are important for it to work.

Set up simple practical enquiries, comparative and fair tests

Recognise when a simple fair test is necessary and help to decide how to set it up

Set up practical enquiries, comparative and fair tests.

Begin to explain why their set up creates a fair test.

Recognise when and how to set up comparative and fair tests and explain which variables need to be controlled and why

Carry out the most appropriate types of scientific enquiries to test predictions,

including identifying independent, dependent and control variables, where appropriate

Using Equipment

Choose the resources they need for their chosen activities

ELG: Self Confidence & Self Awareness

Handle equipment and tools effectively ELG: Moving & Handling

Use simple measurements and equipment (e.g. hand lenses, egg timers) to gather data

Use a variety of non-standard and standard units of measure and begin to explain why we get different answers with non-standard when we repeat tests/compare to different results. What is accuracy?

Take accurate measurements using standard units

learn how to use a range of (new) equipment, such as data loggers / thermometers appropriately

Independently choose the most appropriate equipment to make measurements with

Choose the most appropriate equipment to make measurements with increasing precision and explain how to use it accurately.

Take repeat measurements where appropriate.

Use appropriate techniques, apparatus, and materials during fieldwork paying attention to health and safety

Evaluate the reliability of methods and suggest possible improvements

Evaluate risks

Pay attention to concern for accuracy, precision, repeatability.

Observing and Measuring

Closely observes what animals, people and vehicles do

The World 8-20 months

Use senses to explore the world around them

Playing & Exploring

Make links and notice patterns in their experience Creating & Thinking Critically

Observe closely using simple equipment

With help, observe changes over time

With guidance, they should begin to notice patterns and relationships

Begin to explore how patterns reveal themselves and what they look like within data.

Make systematic and careful observations

Help to make decisions about what observations to make, how

long to make them for and the type of simple equipment that might be used

Begin to look for naturally occurring patterns and relationships and decide what data to collect to identify them

Explore why we make observations and how to focus on one specific area for observation (challenge: discuss a dependent variable)

Analyse patterns and begin to discuss why they are occurring

Make their own decisions about what observations to make,

what measurements to use and how long to make them for

Look for different causal relationships in their data and identify evidence that refutes or supports their ideas

Make and record observations and measurements using a range of methods for different

Investigations

Interpret observations and data, including identifying patterns and using observations, measurements and data to draw conclusions

Identifying and Classifying

Develop ideas of grouping, sequences, cause and effect

Creating &Thinking Critically

Know about similarities and differences in relation to places, objects, materials and living things

ELG: The World

Use simple features to compare objects, materials and living things and, with help, decide how to

sort and group them (identifying and classifying)

Begin to group into Carroll and Venn diagrams.

Talk about criteria for grouping, sorting and classifying; and use simple keys

Explore why it’s important to group, sort and classify; it’s purposes; and use simple keys

Use and develop keys and other information records to identify, classify and describe.

Use and develop keys and other information records to identify, classify and describe living things and materials, and identify patterns that might be found in the natural environment

Gathering and Recording Data

Create simple representations of events, people and objects

Being Imaginative: 40-60+ months

Record simple data

Record observations and measurements using drawings and diagrams including labels.

Begin to use Carroll diagrams, Venn diagrams and bar graphs.

Collect and record data from their own observations and measurements in a variety of ways: notes, bar charts and tables, standard units, drawings, labelled diagrams, keys and help to

make decisions about how to analyse this data

Collect and record data from their own observations and measurements in a variety of ways: begin to use axis and line graphs, bar charts and tables, standard units, drawings, labelled diagrams, keys and help to

make decisions about how to analyse and explain this data

Decide how to record data and results of increasing complexity

from a choice of familiar approaches: scientific diagrams and labels, classification keys, tables, scatter graphs, bar and line

graphs

Record observations systematically and logically and choose the most appropriate method for recording these.

Reporting, Presenting and Communicating Data/Findings

Answer how and why questions about their experiences ELG: Understanding

Make observations of animals and plants and explain why some things occur, and talk about changes

ELG: The World

Develop their own narratives and explanations by connecting ideas or events

ELG: Speaking

Builds up vocabulary that reflects the breadth of their experience Understanding: 30-50 months

Use their observations and ideas to suggest answers to questions

Talk about what they have found out and how they found it out

With help, they should record and communicate their findings in a range of ways and begin to use simple scientific language

Form simple explanations about their observations using scientific observations to justify their results

With help, pupils should look for changes, patterns, similarities and differences in their data in order to draw simple conclusions

and answer questions

Use relevant simple scientific language to discuss their ideas and communicate their findings in ways that are appropriate

for different audiences, including oral and written explanations; and displays

Pupils should look for changes, patterns, similarities and differences in their data, mostly independently, in order to draw simple conclusions

and answer questions

Use relevant simple scientific language to discuss their ideas and communicate their findings in ways that are appropriate

for different audiences, including presentations of results and conclusions

Identify scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas or arguments

Use relevant scientific language and illustrations to discuss,

communicate and justify their scientific ideas,

use oral and written forms such as displays and other presentations to report conclusions, causal relationships and explanations of degree of trust in results

Present reasoned explanations, including explaining data in relation to predictions and hypotheses

Using Results

With support, they should identify new questions arising from the data, making predictions for new values within or beyond the data they have collected.

Begin to retest and understand why it is essential to undertake retests.

With support, they should identify new questions arising from the data, making predictions for new values within or beyond the data they have collected and finding ways of improving what they have already done

Use their results to make predictions and identify when further observations, comparative and fair tests might be needed

Make predictions using scientific knowledge and understanding

Evaluate data, showing awareness of potential sources of random and systematic error

Identify further questions arising from their results

Programme of Study – See curriculum guidance for links to Working Scientifically

Fundamental Areas

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

Year 6

Plants

- identify and name a variety of common wild and garden plants, including deciduous and evergreen trees

- identify and describe the basic structure of a variety of common flowering plants, including trees

- observe and describe how seeds and bulbs grow into mature plants

-find out and describe how plants need water, light and a suitable temperature to grow and stay healthy

- identify and describe the functions of different parts of flowering plants: roots,

stem/trunk, leaves and flowers

- explore the requirements of plants for life and growth (air, light, water, nutrients from soil, and room to grow) and how they vary from plant to plant

- investigate the way in which water is transported within plants

- explore the part that flowers play in the life cycle of flowering plants, including pollination, seed formation and seed dispersal

Animals, including humans

- identify and name a variety of common animals including fish, amphibians, reptiles,

birds and mammals

- identify and name a variety of common animals that are carnivores, herbivores and omnivores

- describe and compare the structure of a variety of common animals (fish,

amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, including pets)

- identify, name, draw and label the basic parts of the human body and say which part of the body is associated with each sense.

- notice that animals, including humans, have offspring which grow into adults

- find out about and describe the basic needs of animals, including humans, for

survival (water, food and air)

- describe the importance for humans of exercise, eating the right amounts of different types of food, and hygiene

- identify that animals, including humans, need the right types and amount of nutrition, and that they cannot make their own food; they get nutrition from what they eat

- identify that humans and some other animals have skeletons and muscles for support, protection and movement

- describe the simple functions of the basic parts of the digestive system in humans

- identify the different types of teeth in humans and their simple functions

- construct and interpret a variety of food chains, identifying producers, predators and prey.

- describe the changes as humans develop to old age

- identify and name the main parts of the human circulatory system, and describe the functions of the heart, blood vessels and blood

- recognise the impact of diet, exercise, drugs and lifestyle on the way their bodies function

- describe the ways in which nutrients and water are transported within animals,

including humans

Living things and their habitats.

- explore and compare the differences between things that are living, dead, and things that have never been alive

- identify that most living things live in habitats to which they are suited and describe how different habitats provide for the basic needs of different kinds of animals and

plants, and how they depend on each other

- identify and name a variety of plants and animals in their habitats, including microhabitats

- describe how animals obtain their food from plants and other animals, using the idea

of a simple food chain, and identify and name different sources of food

- recognise that living things can be grouped in a variety of ways

- explore and use classification keys to help group, identify and name a variety of living things in their local and wider environment

- recognise that environments can change and that this can sometimes pose dangers to living things

- describe the differences in the life cycles of a mammal, an amphibian, an insect and a bird

- describe the life process of reproduction in some plants and animals

- describe how living things are classified into broad groups according to common

observable characteristics and based on similarities and differences, including microorganisms, plants and animals

- give reasons for classifying plants and animals based on specific characteristics

Evolution and inheritance

- recognise that living things have changed over time and that fossils provide

information about living things that inhabited the Earth millions of years ago

- recognise that living things produce offspring of the same kind, but normally offspring vary and are not identical to their parents

- identify how animals and plants are adapted to suit their environment in different ways and that adaptation may lead to evolution

Materials

- distinguish between an object and the material from which it is made

- identify and name a variety of everyday materials, including wood, plastic, glass,

metal, water, and rock

- describe the simple physical properties of a variety of everyday materials (hard/soft; stretchy/stiff; shiny/dull; waterproof/not waterproof; absorbent/not absorbent; opaque/transparent)

- compare and group together a variety of everyday materials on the basis of their simple physical properties

(Everyday materials)

- identify and compare the suitability of a variety of everyday materials, including

wood, metal, plastic, glass, brick, rock, paper and cardboard for particular uses

- find out how the shapes of solid objects made from some materials can be changed by squashing, bending, twisting and stretching

(Uses of everyday materials)

- compare and group materials together, according to whether they are solids, liquids

or gases

- observe that some materials change state when they are heated or cooled, and

measure or research the temperature at which this happens in degrees Celsius (°C)

- identify the part played by evaporation and condensation in the water cycle and

associate the rate of evaporation with temperature

(States of Materials)

- compare and group together everyday materials on the basis of their properties,

including their hardness, solubility, transparency, conductivity (electrical and thermal), and response to magnets

- know that some materials will dissolve in liquid to form a solution, and describe how to recover a substance from a solution

- use knowledge of solids, liquids and gases to decide how mixtures might be

separated, including through filtering, sieving and evaporating

- give reasons, based on evidence from comparative and fair tests, for the particular

uses of everyday materials, including metals, wood and plastic

- demonstrate that dissolving, mixing and changes of state are reversible changes

- explain that some changes result in the formation of new materials, and that this kind of change is not usually reversible, including changes associated with burning and

the action of acid on bicarbonate of soda

(Properties and changes of materials.)

Rocks

- compare and group together different kinds of rocks on the basis of their appearance

and simple physical properties

- describe in simple terms how fossils are formed when things that have lived are

trapped within rock

- recognise that soils are made from rocks and organic matter

Forces and Magnets

- compare how things move on different surfaces

- notice that some forces need contact between two objects, but magnetic forces can act at a distance

- observe how magnets attract or repel each other and attract some materials and not

others

- compare and group together a variety of everyday materials on the basis of whether

they are attracted to a magnet, and identify some magnetic materials

- describe magnets as having two poles

- predict whether two magnets will attract or repel each other, depending on which poles are facing

- explain that unsupported objects fall towards the Earth because of the force of

gravity acting between the Earth and the falling object

- identify the effects of air resistance, water resistance and friction, that act between

moving surfaces

- recognise that some mechanisms, including levers, pulleys and gears, allow a smaller force to have a greater effect

Electricity

- identify common appliances that run on electricity

- construct a simple series electrical circuit, identifying and naming its basic parts,

including cells, wires, bulbs, switches and buzzers

- identify whether or not a lamp will light in a simple series circuit, based on whether or

not the lamp is part of a complete loop with a battery

- recognise that a switch opens and closes a circuit and associate this with whether or not a lamp lights in a simple series circuit

- recognise some common conductors and insulators, and associate metals with being good conductors

- associate the brightness of a lamp or the volume of a buzzer with the number and

voltage of cells used in the circuit

- compare and give reasons for variations in how components function, including the

brightness of bulbs, the loudness of buzzers and the on/off position of switches

- use recognised symbols when representing a simple circuit in a diagram

Light

- recognise that they need light in order to see things and that dark is the absence of

light

- notice that light is reflected from surfaces

- recognise that light from the sun can be dangerous and that there are ways to protect

their eyes

- recognise that shadows are formed when the light from a light source is blocked by a

solid object

- find patterns in the way that the size of shadows change

- recognise that light appears to travel in straight lines

- use the idea that light travels in straight lines to explain that objects are seen because they give out or reflect light into the eye

- explain that we see things because light travels from light sources to our eyes or

from light sources to objects and then to our eyes

- use the idea that light travels in straight lines to explain why shadows have the same shape as the objects that cast them

Sound

- identify how sounds are made, associating some of them with something vibrating

- recognise that vibrations from sounds travel through a medium to the ear

- find patterns between the pitch of a sound and features of the object that produced it

- find patterns between the volume of a sound and the strength of the vibrations that

produced it

- recognise that sounds get fainter as the distance from the sound source increases

Seasonal Changes

- observe changes across the four seasons

- observe and describe weather associated with the seasons (weather changes; not to look into the sun) and how day length

varies

Earth and Space

- describe the movement of the Earth, and other planets, relative to the Sun in the solar system

- describe the movement of the Moon relative to the Earth

- describe the Sun, Earth and Moon as approximately spherical bodies

- use the idea of the Earth’s rotation to explain day and night and the apparent

movement of the sun across the sky