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Language and Literature Handbook

2019-2020

Class of 2020 & Class of 2021

  1. Aims & Assessment Objectives
  2. Assessment
  1. Standards Based Grading
  2. Class of 2021 IB Assessments (New Subject Guide)
  3. Class of 2020 IB Assessment (Old Subject Guide)
  1. Overview
  1. Areas of Exploration
  2. Global Issues & Seven Central Concepts
  3. Learner Portfolio
  4. Literature
  1. Helpful Resources
  1. Criterion A: Analyzing  & Criterion B: Author’s Choices
  2. Criterion C: Organization
  1. How to structure a detailed paragraph
  2. organizers
  1. Criticion D: Language
  1. Punctuation checklist
  2. Word lists (active verbs, mood, tone)
  1. Paper One
  1. Class of 2020
  2. Class of 2021
  1. Paper Two
  1. Class of 2020
  2. Class of 2021
  1. Individual Oral Commentary
  1. Class of 2020
  2. Class of 2021
  1. HL Essay
  1. Class of 2021


Aims & Objectives

Aims for Language and Literature

The aims of all subjects in studies in language and literature are to enable students to:

1. engage with a range of texts, in a variety of media and forms, from different periods, styles, and

cultures

2. develop skills in listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing, presenting and performing

3. develop skills in interpretation, analysis and evaluation

4. develop sensitivity to the formal and aesthetic qualities of texts and an appreciation of how they

contribute to diverse responses and open up multiple meanings

5. develop an understanding of relationships between texts and a variety of perspectives, cultural

contexts, and local and global issues and an appreciation of how they contribute to diverse responses

and open up multiple meanings

6. develop an understanding of the relationships between studies in language and literature and other

disciplines

7. communicate and collaborate in a confident and creative way

8. foster a lifelong interest in and enjoyment of language and literature.

Assessment Objectives

Know, understand and interpret:

• a range of texts, works and/or performances, and their meanings and implications

• contexts in which texts are written and/or received

• elements of literary, stylistic, rhetorical, visual and/or performance craft

• features of particular text types and literary forms.

Analyse and evaluate:

• ways in which the use of language creates meaning

• uses and effects of literary, stylistic, rhetorical, visual or theatrical techniques

• relationships among different texts

• ways in which texts may offer perspectives on human concerns.

Communicate

• ideas in clear, logical and persuasive ways

• in a range of styles, registers and for a variety of purposes and situations

• (for literature and performance only) ideas, emotion, character and atmosphere through performance.

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Criteria for Standards Based Grading

CRITERION A: Analyzing  (knowledge, understanding, and interpretation)

Analyzing  involves demonstrating an understanding of the creator’s choices, the relationships between the various components of a text and between texts, and making inferences about how an audience responds to a text , as well as the creator’s purpose for producing text. Students should be able to use the text to support their personal responses and ideas.

Essential Questions: How much knowledge and understanding does the candidate demonstrate?  To what extent does the candidate make use of knowledge and understanding of the work?  How well are ideas supported by references to the text?To what extent does the analysis show an understanding of the texts, their type and purpose, and their possible contexts (for example, cultural, temporal, relation to audience)?

CRITERION B: Analysis and evaluation of author’s choice (author’s technique/style/craft)

Analyzing a text includes evaluating the author’s choices or the author’s craft, providing an insight  into how language, structure, technique, style of text(s) create meaning.

Essential Questions: To what extent does the candidate analyse and evaluate how the choices of language, technique and style, and/or broader authorial choices shape meaning in relation to the chosen topic? To what extent does the analysis show an awareness of how stylistic features of the texts, such as language, structure, tone, technique and style, are used to construct meaning?

CRITERION C: Organization (focus, organization, integration, development, transitions, referencing)

Students should understand and be able to organize their ideas and opinions using a range of appropriate conventions for different forms and purposes of communication. Students should also recognize the importance of maintaining academic honesty by respecting intellectual property rights and referencing all sources accurately.

 Essential Questions: How well organized, focused and developed is the presentation of ideas in the writing? How well are examples integrated into the writing and cited correctly?

CRITERION D: LANGUAGE  (preciseness, vocabulary, varied sentence construction, register, terminology, grammar)

Students have opportunities to develop, organize and express themselves and communicate thoughts, ideas and information. They are required to use accurate and varied language that is appropriate to the context and intention. This objective applies to, and must include, written, oral and visual text, as appropriate.

Essential Questions:  How clear, varied and accurate is the language? How appropriate is the choice of register and style? (“Register” refers, in this context, to the candidate’s use of elements such as vocabulary, tone, sentence structure and terminology appropriate to the analysis).

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Rubric for Standards Based Grading

CRITERION A: Analyzing  

CRITERION B: Analysis and evaluation of author’s choice

CRITERION C: Organization

CRITERION D: LANGUAGE

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96%-100%

There is a PERCEPTIVE & INSIGHTFUL  knowledge and understanding of the works and a PERSUASIVE INTERPRETATION  of their implications with a detailed justification. Writing gives a  DETAILED JUSTIFICATION of opinions and ideas with a range of examples, and thorough explanations using accurate terminology.  Student is able to  effectively synthesize information to make meaningful connections.

The writing demonstrates a CONSISTENTLY and CONVINCING analysis and EVALUATION  of

textual features and the author’s broader choices in relation to the chosen topic. When students produce their own imaginative texts, students makes perceptive stylistic choices in terms of linguistic, literary and visual devices, demonstrating good awareness of impact on an audience

The writing is EFFECTIVELY organized and cohesive. The line of inquiry is well developed.

Supporting examples are well integrated into the structure of the sentences and paragraphs.

Language is VERY CLEAR, EFFECTIVELY, carefully chosen and PRECISE, with a high degree of ACCURACY in grammar, vocabulary and sentence construction; register and style are effective and appropriate to the task

6

90%-95%

There is a VERY GOOD  KNOWLEDGE  and understanding of the works and a SUSTAINED  interpretation of their implications. Overall, the writing gives a  DETAILED JUSTIFICATION of opinions and ideas with a range of examples, and thorough explanations using accurate terminology.  Student is able to synthesize information to make meaningful connections.

The writing demonstrates an appropriate and AT TIME INSIGHTFUL analysis and evaluation of textual features and the author’s broader choices in relation to the chosen topic. When the student produces his/her own imaginative texts, student overall makes perceptive stylistic choices in terms of linguistic, literary and visual devices, demonstrating good awareness of impact on an audience

The writing is WELL ORGANIZED and MOSTLY  COHESIVE. The line of inquiry is adequately developed. Supporting examples are mostly well integrated into the structure of the sentences and paragraphs.

Language is CLEAR and CAREFULLY  chosen, with a GOOD  degree of ACCURACY in grammar,

vocabulary and sentence construction; register and style are consistently appropriate to

the task.

5

80%-89%

There is an ADEQUATE to GOOD  knowledge and understanding of the works and an interpretation of their implications in relation to the question answered.The writing SUFFICIENTLY JUSTIFIED opinions and ideas with examples and explanations, using mostly accurate terminology. At times, student  is able to synthesize information to make meaningful connections.

The writing demonstrates a GENERALLY  appropriate analysis and evaluation of textual features and the author’s broader choices in relation to the chosen topic.

When the student  produces his/her  own imaginative texts, student  makes thoughtful stylistic choices in terms of linguistic, literary and visual devices, demonstrating good awareness of impact on an audience

The writing is ADEQUATELY  organized in a generally cohesive manner. There is some development of the line of inquiry. Supporting examples are sometimes integrated into the structure of the sentences and paragraphs.

Language is clear and carefully chosen with an ADEQUATE  degree of accuracy in grammar,

vocabulary and sentence construction despite SOME  LAPSES; register and style are mostly

appropriate to the task.

3-4

70%-79%

There is SOME  knowledge and understanding of the works.  There is a SUPERFICIAL OR LIMITED  attempt to interpret the work. The candidate JUSTIFIES opinions and ideas with SOME examples and explanations, though this may not be consistent using some terminology.  Student is still developing the ability to synthesize information into meaning connections.

The writing demonstrates SOME appropriate analysis of textual features and the author’s

broader choices in relation to the chosen topic, but is reliant on description. When the student produces his/her own imaginative text, student makes some stylistic choices in terms of linguistic, literary and visual devices, demonstrating adequate awareness of impact on an audience

SOME organization is apparent. There is little development of a line of inquiry.

Supporting examples are rarely integrated into the structure of the sentences and paragraphs.

Language is SOMETIMES  clear and carefully chosen; grammar, vocabulary and sentence construction are FAIRLY  accurate, although ERRORS  and inconsistencies are apparent; the register and style are to some extent appropriate.

1-2

59%-69%

There is LITTLE knowledge and understanding of the works. The candidate. RARELY JUSTIFIES opinions and ideas with examples or explanations, using ses little or no terminology.

The writing is descriptive and/or demonstrates LITTLE  relevant analysis of textual features and/or the author’s broader choices in relation to the chosen topic. When the student produces his/her own imaginative text, student makes minimal  stylistic choices in terms of linguistic, literary ,and visual devices, demonstrating limited awareness of impact on an audience

LITTLE  organization is present. No discernible line of inquiry is apparent in the writing. Supporting examples are not integrated into the structure of the sentences and paragraphs.

Language is RARELY  clear and appropriate; there are many errors in grammar, vocabulary and sentence construction and little sense of register and style.

0          50%

The work does not reach a standard described by the descriptors below.

The work does not reach a standard described by the descriptors below.

The work does not reach a standard described by the descriptors below.

The work does not reach a standard described by the descriptors below.

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Class of 2021 IB Assessments

New Subject Guide

SL External Assessments 70%

Paper 1: Guided textual analysis (1 hour 15 minutes)-analyze one passage

The paper consists of two non-literary passages, from two different text types, each accompanied by a question. Students choose one passage and write an analysis of it. (20 marks)  35%

Paper 2: Comparative essay (1 hour 45 minutes)

The paper consists of four general questions. In response to one question, students write a comparative essay based on two works studied in the course. (30 marks) 35%

HL External Assessments 80%

Paper 1: Guided textual analysis (2 hours 15 minutes)-analyze two passages

The paper consists of two non-literary passages, from two different text types, each accompanied by a question. Students write an analysis of each of the passages. (40 marks)  35%

Paper 2: Comparative essay (1 hour 45 minutes)

The paper consists of four general questions. In response to one question, students write a comparative essay based on two works studied in the course. (30 marks) 25%

HL Essay

Students submit an essay on one non-literary text or a collection of non-literary texts by the same author, or a literary text or work studied during the course.  The essay must be 1,200 - 1,500 words in length. (20 marks) 20%

Internal Assessments 30%

This component consists of an individual oral which is internally assessed by the teacher and externally moderated by the IB at the end of the course.

Individual Oral (15 minutes)

Supported by an extract from one non-literary text and one from a literary work, students will offer a prepared response of 10 minutes, followed by 5 minutes of questions by the teacher, to the following prompt:

Examine the ways in which the global issue of your choice is presented through the content and form of two of the texts that you have studied. (40 marks) 30%

Internal Assessments 20%

This component consists of an individual oral which is internally assessed by the teacher and externally moderated by the IB at the end of the course.

Individual Oral (15 minutes)

Supported by an extract from one non-literary text and one from a literary work, students will offer a prepared response of 10 minutes, followed by 5 minutes of questions by the teacher, to the following prompt:

Examine the ways in which the global issue of your choice is presented through the content and form of two of the texts that you have studied. (40 marks) 20%

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Class of 2020 IB Assessments

Old Subject Guide

SL External Assessments 70%

Assessment component Weighting

External assessment (3 hours)

Paper 1: Textual analysis (1 hour 30 minutes) 25%

The paper consists of two unseen texts.

Students write an analysis of one of these texts. (20 marks)

Paper 2: Essay (1 hour 30 minutes) 25%

In response to one of six questions students write an essay based on both the literary

texts studied in part 3. The questions are the same at HL but the assessment criteria are

different. (25 marks)

Written task 20%

Students produce at least three written tasks based on material studied in the course.

Students submit one written task for external assessment. (20 marks)

This task must be 800–1,000 words in length plus a rationale of 200–300 words.

HL External Assessments 80%

Assessment component Weighting

External assessment (4 hours) 70%

Paper 1: Comparative textual analysis (2 hours)

The paper consists of two pairs of unseen texts.

Students write a comparative analysis of one pair of texts. (20 marks)

25%

Paper 2: Essay (2 hours) 25%

In response to one of six questions students write an essay based on at least two of the

literary texts studied in part 3. The questions are the same at SL but the assessment

criteria are different. (25 marks)

Written tasks 20%

Students produce at least four written tasks based on material studied in the course.

Students submit two of these tasks for external assessment. (20 marks for each task)

One of the tasks submitted must be a critical response to one of the prescribed

questions for the HL additional study.

Each task must be 800–1,000 words in length; task 1 should be accompanied by a

rationale of 200–300 words, while task 2 should be accompanied by a short outline.

Internal Assessments  30%

This component is internally assessed by the teacher and externally moderated by the IB

at the end of the course.

Individual oral commentary 15%

Students comment on an extract from a literary text studied in part 4 of the course.

(30 marks)

Students are given two guiding questions.

Further oral activity 15%

Students complete at least two further oral activities, one based on part 1 and one based

on part 2 of the course.

The mark of one further oral activity is submitted for final assessment. (30 marks)

Internal Assessments 30%

Internal assessment

This component is internally assessed by the teacher and externally moderated by the IB

at the end of the course.

Individual oral commentary 15%

Students comment on an extract from a literary text studied in part 4 of the course.

(30 marks)

Students are given two guiding questions.

Further oral activity 15%

Students complete at least two further oral activities, one based on part 1 and one

based on part 2 of the course.

The mark of one further oral activity is submitted for final assessment. (30 marks)

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Rubrics for Internal & External Assessments

Class of 2021 (11th grade)

Paper One: Guided textual analysis of non-literary texts

Paper Two: Comparative essay on literary texts

Oral Commentary

HL Essay

Class of 2020 (12th Grade)

Paper One: Comparative analysis

Paper Two: Comparative essay on literary texts

Oral Commentary

Written Task 1

Written Task 2

Further Oral Activity


Areas of Exploration

Students in Language and Literature will explore literary and non-literary texts through three areas of exploration. These explorations are meant to overlap and be integrated into units.

Readers, Writers, & Texts

  1. Why and how do we study language and literature?
  2. How are we affected by texts in various ways?
  3. In what ways is meaning constructed, negotiated, expressed, and interpreted?
  4. How does language use vary amongst text types and amongst literary forms?
  5. How does structure or style of a text affect meaning?
  6. How do texts offer insights and challenges?

Time and Space

  1. How important is cultural or historical context to the production and reception of a text?
  2. How do we approach texts from different time periods and cultures to our own?
  3. To what extent do texts offer insights into another culture?
  4. How does the meaning and impact of a text change over time?
  5. How do texts reflect, represent, or form a part of cultural practices?
  6. How does language represent social distinctions and identities?

Intertextuality

  1. How do texts adhere to & deviate from conventions associated with literary forms or text types?
  2. How do conventions and systems of reference evolve over time?
  3. In what ways can diverse texts share points of similarity?
  4. How valid is the notion of a classic text?
  5. How can texts offer multiple perspectives of a single issue, topic, or theme?
  6. In what ways can comparison and interpretation be transformative?

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Global Issues & Seven Central Concepts

Global Issues

Students will explore literature through global issues, synthesizing literary and non-literary texts

Seven Central Concepts

8


Learner Portfolio

9

Resources for Analysis

CRITERION A: ANALYZING &

CRITERION B: AUTHOR’S CHOICES


Types of Intertextuality

Intertextuality is the shaping of one text by another or relationship between texts to create meaning.


Textual Analysis

Words/Phrases for writing about a text.

The purpose: to argue, entertain, inform, persuade, explain...

The tone: joyful, happy, melancholy, solemn, serious, lighthearted, satirical, ironic, good-humored, formal, informal, impersonal, emotional, detached, poignant....

The text is aimed at/is directed at/ targets/ is taken from...

The author describes/ depicts/ portrays/ illustrates/ suggests/ argues/draws a parallel between....

This image suggests that/implies that/conveys/captures/symbolizes/represents/alludes to...

 

Purpose Why did the author write this text? And why did the author write this text in a certain way? What is the occasion for the text e.g. some specific incident or event? What is the intent of the piece: TO INFORM, TO NARRATE, TO PERSUADE, TO DESCRIBE?

Consider the following:

   – what the author said and the diction used

   – what the author did not say

   – how the author said it and the alternative ways it could have been said

   -what the intended effect is e.g. to reflect, to call to action

Audience – Who is the target audience? How does the text’s language and rhetoric suit the audience? Are there groups excluded from the intended audience?  Is there more than one intended audience?

Nature of the Medium: What are the characteristics that define the text? Consider the differences in the variety of texts such as newspaper articles, magazine ads, editorials, blogs, etc. What modes of writing are included: expository, narrative, descriptive, argumentative? Does the author adhere to the conventions of the genre or stray from them? What is the impact of the medium and how the message is received?

Disposition: How does the author present his or her disposition or inherent mindset on the topic(s)? Is there an inherent bias in the author? Does the bias distort the truth in some way? What influences may have impacted the delivery of the message such as historically, politically, socially, or economically? Is there a clear tone? What tone shifts are seen through the text?

Appeals

Does the rhetorical piece use Logos, Ethos or Pathos? How does the author use strong, connotative language that incites a reaction making an emotional appeal (pathos)? How does the author use a logical appeal (logos) through facts, statistics, examples, organizational strategies, etc? How does the author create an ethical appeal (ethos)through his or her experience and credibility in order to gain the trust of the audience?

Style

How is the piece ordered e.g. compare/contrast, cause/effect, problem/solution, analogies, narrative, description, etc?  What rhetorical tropes and schemes are used such as extended metaphor, hyperbole, anecdotes,  examples, antithesis, anaphora, litotes,  analogy, symbolism, irony, paradox, rhetorical questions, etc?


Analyzing Images as Text

·          Viewer: As the viewer, what are the thoughts and emotions the images created? What are positive and negative feelings? How does the creator achieve these reactions in the viewer? How does the creator associate connotative meanings in with the images?

·          Media: What media (painting, sculpture, website, graph, etc.) is used to present the images? How does the media type influence the viewer’s interpretation of the message? How would the message change if the media changed? Is there other media associated with this visual that the viewer is encouraged to see? How does the creator persuade the viewing that other media?

·          Characterization: How are people portrayed in the images? How is culture portrayed through the characters? Do the characters represent different races, genders or ethnicity? Why or why not?

·          Light/Color: What colors are used in the images? What colors do your eyes see first? Does this use of color have symbolic meaning? As the viewer, how do you know this? What mood or tone does the color scheme express to the viewer?

·          Culture and Atmosphere: What emotions does the visual image induce? Are these the emotions that it intends to evoke? What cultural values does the visual appeal to? What does this tell the viewer about humanity, society, culture?

·          Organization: What do your eyes notice first? Why? How is the building, landscape, setting structured? What is the significance of displaying the image this way? Where are the images located in the visual: foreground, background, left, center, right, etc.?

·          Theme: What is the message the creator is trying to send? Are they successful? How would the message change if the visual was different? What are the details in the visual that constructs an argument for the viewer? What argumentative purpose does the visual image convey?

·          Creator/Tone: Why was the visual created? What is the creator’s attitude toward the image (tone)? Does knowing the creator affect the viewer’s interpretation of the message?

 Adapted from http://postdc.weebly.com/paper-1---comparative-commentary.html


Appeals

When you read a text that is persuasive in nature, consider HOW the author is appealing to his audience.

 Definitions

Which rhetorical strategy is being used to persuade you?

  1. "As a doctor, I am qualified to tell you that this course of treatment will likely generate the best results." _______
  2. "There’s no price that can be placed on peace of mind. Our advanced security systems will protect the well-being of your family so that you can sleep soundly at night." ______
  3. "The data is perfectly clear: this investment has consistently turned a profit year-over-year, even in spite of market declines in other areas."

Persuasive Techniques

The first 18 examples are taken from the following source:  Media Literacy Project at medialiteracyproject.org

1. Association. This persuasion technique tries to link a product, service, or idea with something already liked or desired by the target audience, such as fun, pleasure, beauty, security, intimacy, success, wealth, etc. The media message doesn’t make explicit claims that you’ll get these things; the association is implied. Association can be a very powerful technique. A good ad can create a strong emotional response and then associate that feeling with a brand (family = Coke, victory = Nike). This process is known as emotional transfer. Several of the persuasion techniques below, like Beautiful people, warm & fuzzy, Symbols and Nostalgia, are specific types of association.

2. Bandwagon. Many ads show lots of people using the product, implying that "everyone is doing it" (or at least, "all the cool people are doing it"). No one likes to be left out or left behind, and these ads urge us to "jump on the bandwagon.” Politicians use the same technique when they say, "The American people want..." How do they know?

3. Fear. This is the opposite of the Association technique. It uses something disliked or feared by the intended audience (like bad breath, failure, high taxes or terrorism) to promote a "solution.” Ads use fear to sell us products that claim to prevent or fix the problem. Politicians and advocacy groups stoke our fears to get elected or to gain support.

4. Humor. Many ads use humor because it grabs our attention and it’s a powerful persuasion technique. When we laugh, we feel good. Advertisers make us laugh and then show us their product or logo because they’re trying to connect that good feeling to their product. They hope that when we see their product in a store, we’ll subtly re-experience that good feeling and select their product. Advocacy messages (and news) rarely use humor because it can undermine their credibility; an exception is political satire.

5. Plain folks. (A type of Testimonial – the opposite of Celebrities.) This technique works because we may believe a "regular person" more than an intellectual or a highly-paid celebrity. It’s often used to sell everyday products like laundry detergent because we can more easily see ourselves using the product, too. The plain folks technique strengthens the down-home, "authentic" image of products like pickup trucks and politicians. Unfortunately, most of the "plain folks" in ads are actually paid actors carefully selected because they look like "regular people.”

6. Testimonials. Media messages often show people testifying about the value or quality of a product, or endorsing an idea. They can be experts, celebrities, or plain folks. We tend to believe them because they appear to be a neutral third party (a pop star, for example, not the lipstick maker, or a community member instead of the politician running for office.) This technique works best when it seems like the person “testifying” is doing so because they genuinely like the product or agree with the idea. Some testimonials may be less effective when we recognize that the person is getting paid to endorse the product.

7. Intensity. The language of ads is full of intensifiers, including superlatives (greatest, best, most, fastest,

lowest prices), comparatives (more, better than, improved, increased, fewer calories), hyperbole (amazing,

incredible, forever), exaggeration, and many other ways to hype the product.

8. Euphemism. While the Glittering generalities and Name-calling techniques arouse audiences with vivid, emotionally suggestive words, Euphemism tries to pacify audiences in order to make an unpleasant reality more palatable. Bland or abstract terms are used instead of clearer, more graphic words. Thus, we hear about corporate "downsizing" instead of "layoffs," or "intensive interrogation techniques" instead of "torture.”

9. Glittering generalities. This is the use of so-called "virtue words" such as civilization, democracy, freedom, patriotism, motherhood, fatherhood, science, health, beauty, and love. Persuaders use these words in the hope that we will approve and accept their statements without examining the evidence. They hope that few people will ask whether it’s appropriate to invoke these concepts, while even fewer will ask what these concepts really mean.

14

Persuasive Techniques

10. Name-calling. This technique links a person or idea to a negative symbol (liar, creep, gossip, etc.). It’s the opposite of Glittering generalities. Persuaders use Name-calling to make us reject the person or the idea on the basis of the negative symbol, instead of looking at the available evidence. A subtler version of this technique is to use adjectives with negative connotations (extreme, passive, lazy, pushy, etc.) Ask yourself: Leaving out the name-calling, what are the merits of the idea itself?

11. Rhetorical questions. These are questions designed to get us to agree with the speaker. They are set up so that the “correct” answer is obvious. ("Do you want to get out of debt?" "Do you want quick relief from headache pain?" and "Should we leave our nation vulnerable to terrorist attacks?" are all rhetorical questions.) Rhetorical questions are used to build trust and alignment before the sales pitch.

12. Slippery slope. This technique combines Extrapolation and Fear. Instead of predicting a positive future, it warns against a negative outcome. It argues against an idea by claiming it’s just the first step down a “slippery slope” toward something the target audience opposes. ("If we let them ban smoking in restaurants because it’s unhealthy, eventually they’ll ban fast food, too." This argument ignores the merits of banning smoking in restaurants.) The Slippery slope technique is commonly used in political debate, because it’s easy to claim that a small step will lead to a result most people won’t like, even though small steps can lead in many directions.

13.Ad hominem. Latin for "against the man," the ad hominem technique responds to an argument by attacking the opponent instead of addressing the argument itself. It’s also called "attacking the messenger.” It works on the belief that if there’s something wrong or objectionable about the messenger, the message must also be wrong.

14. Analogy. An analogy compares one situation with another. A good analogy, where the situations are reasonably similar, can aid decision-making. A weak analogy may not be persuasive, unless it uses emotionally-charged images that obscure the illogical or unfair comparison.

15. Cause vs. Correlation. While understanding true causes and true effects is important, persuaders can fool us by intentionally confusing correlation with cause. For example: Babies drink milk. Babies cry. Therefore, drinking milk makes babies cry.

16. Group dynamics. We are greatly influenced by what other people think and do. We can get carried away by the potent atmosphere of live audiences, rallies, or other gatherings.

17 Scapegoating. Extremely powerful and very common in political speech, Scapegoating blames a problem on one person, group, race, religion, etc. Some people, for example, claim that undocumented (“illegal”) immigrants are the main cause of unemployment in the United States, even though unemployment is a complex problem with many causes. Scapegoating is a particularly dangerous form of the Simple solution Technique.

18. Straw man. This technique builds up an illogical or deliberately damaged idea and presents it as something that one’s opponent supports or represents. Knocking down the "straw man" is easier than confronting the opponent directly.

19. Card Stacking: Only the good aspects of the product are emphasized; negative aspects appear in fine print

20. Stereotyping: Broad generalizations are made of people based on their gender, ethnicity, race, political, socia

l

21. Begging the Question or Circular Reasoning: The argument goes around and around, with evidence making the same claim without really providing logical reasoning

22 Non Sequitur: (logic) a conclusion that does not follow from the premises, there is a disconnect between two statements

23. Either/Or Fallacy: a statement that identifies two alternatives and falsely suggests that if one is rejected, the other must be accepted--EITHER this OR that

24. False Analogy: Making a misleading comparison between logically unconnected ideas

25. Red Herring: Red herring is a kind of fallacy that is an irrelevant topic introduced in an argument to divert the attention of listeners or readers from the original issue.

15

Literary Analysis on Prose

Structure

How does the author’s structure help enhance the theme/argument or conflicts?

organization of narrative: nonlinear vs. linear, chapters vs. vignettes

structural devices: recurring images or cyclical points

flashforwards, flashbacks, foreshadowing

order of details: nonlinear vs linear

selection of detail to develop the message or story: use of ethos, pathos, logos (appeals to build an argument), deductive vs. inductive reasoning, anecdotes, analogies, facts, descriptions,statistics, dialogue, etc.

2)Word Choice

How does the author’s diction  or word choice contribute to the meaning?

connotative vs. denotative, concrete vs. abstract

colloquial vs. formal, impressionistic vs.  detailed, realistic vs. idealized, crude vs. sophisticated, exaggerated vs understated, imaginative vs. prosaic , descriptive vs. plain, vivid vs. obscure, loaded language vs. understated language, paradoxical vs. literal, journalistic vs. narrative, humorous vs. serious

3)Elements of Literature

How do literary elements help develop or enhance meaning?

literary devices: irony (dramatic, situational, verbal)

 symbolism, motifs, satire, allegory, parody

characterization: dynamic vs static, round vs flat, indirect vs. direct, internal vs. external conflicts

rhetorical questions

types of imagery: visual, gustatory, olfactory, organic, tactile, kinesthetic

figurative language: metaphor, simile, allusion, personification, hyperbole

4)Point of View

How does the author’s point of view affect the way the story or argument is told? What is gained by this perspective thematically?

different points of view: first person, third person limited vs. third person omniscient, second person

different styles of narration: stream of consciousness vs. objective, conventional dialogue, one narrator vs. multiple narrators, reliable vs. unreliable narrator, biased vs. unbiased narrator

5)Tone

How does the author convey his attitude in the work through his language? Are there significant tone shifts, and how do they contribute to the main ideas?

negative tones: melancholy, caustic, irate, satiric, critical, indignant, bitter, condescending, judgmental

positive tones: reverent, light hearted, optimistic, hopeful, loving, jovial

neutral tones:reminiscent wistful, apathetic, speculative, meditative, objective, reflective

6)Time and Place

How does the author’s depiction of the setting influence the themes and conflicts? How is the setting significant in understanding the text?

geographical: climate, terrain

historical: politics, time period, events, wars, etc.

social: beliefs, custom, values, gender roles/expectations, class structure, etc.

atmosphere of the setting: mood developed by the author e.g. gloomy, ominous, foreboding, magical, etc.

16


Literary Analysis on Poetry

Style Analysis

How does the author’s language shape the development of theme? The theme is a universal statement about human nature. This is like life because….

1)Structure

 How are the stanzas arranged? Is there a purposeful design to how the stanzas and breaks are arranged? How does the structure contribute to the meaning? structural devices: recurring images or cyclical points

stanza, rhyme, fixed rhyme,

genre (narrative, lyric, dramatic, epic), form (sonnet, limerick, etc.), repetition, anaphora, punctuation, enjambment, caesura, polysyndeton vs asyndeton

2)Word Choice

How does the author’s diction contribute to the meaning?

euphony vs. cacophony

connotative vs. denotative

concrete vs. abstract

colloquial vs. formal

impressionistic vs.  detailed

realistic vs. idealized

crude vs. sophisticated

exaggerated vs understated

imaginative vs. prosaic

descriptive vs. plain, vivid vs. obscure

loaded language vs. understated language

sound devices: alliteration, onomatopoeia, consonance, assonance, cacophony, euphony

types of imagery: visual, gustatory, olfactory, organic, tactile, kinesthetic

3)Elements of Literature

How do literary elements help develop or enhance meaning? What tropes (figurative language) and sound devices are use to enhance the meaning?

tropes: simile, metaphor, personification, allusion, hyperbole, litotes, apostrophe, symbolism, motif, synecdoche, metonymy, irony

4) POINT OF VIEW

5)Tone

How does the author convey his attitude in the work through his language? Are there significant tone shifts, and how do they contribute to the main ideas?

negative tones: melancholy, caustic, irate, satiric, critical, indignant, bitter, condescending, judgmental

positive tones: reverent, light hearted, optimistic, hopeful, loving

neutral tones:reminiscent wistful, apathetic, speculative, meditative, objective

5)Time and Place

How does the setting influence the themes? How is the setting significant to understanding the main ideas?

geographical: climate, terrain

historical: politics, time period, events, wars, etc.

social: beliefs, custom, values, gender roles/expectations, class structure, etc.

atmosphere of the setting: mood developed by the author e.g. gloomy, ominous, foreboding, magical, etc.


17

Literary Analysis on Drama

  1. Structure

Guiding Questions

How does the plot structure impact characterization, conflict, and themes?

How does the playwright develop momentum in developing the complication?

In the end of the tragedy, was the catharsis satisfying after the catastrophe?

What form and structure does the playwright use?

Terms

Dramatic forms (comedy, tragedy, tragicomedy, farce),  stage directions,  stagecraft (props, music, sound, constructing scenery, lighting, designing costumes, makeup, sound, etc.), proxemics, fourth wall , proscenium arch, apron, blocking, stichomythia, subplot, acts, scenes, dramatic force, plot structure (exposition, dramatic incitement, rising action, complication, climax, crisis, falling action, denouement, catastrophe, catharsis.

2)Word Choice

How does the author’s diction  or word choice contribute to the meaning?

connotative vs. denotative

concrete vs. abstract

colloquial vs. formal

impressionistic vs.  detailed

realistic vs. idealized

crude vs. sophisticated

exaggerated vs understated

imaginative vs. prosaic

descriptive vs. plain, vivid vs. obscure

loaded language vs. understated language

paradoxical vs. literal

journalistic vs. narrative

humorous vs. serious

types of imagery: visual, gustatory, olfactory, organic, tactile, kinesthetic

3)Elements of Literature

How do literary elements help develop or enhance meaning?

literary devices: irony (dramatic, situational, verbal)

 symbolism, motifs, satire, allegory, parody

characterization: dynamic vs static, round vs flat, indirect vs. direct, internal vs. external conflicts

rhetorical questions

figurative language: metaphor, simile, allusion, personification, hyperbole

Characterization

4)Point of View

Guiding Questions:

5)Tone

How does the author convey his attitude in the work through his language? Are there significant tone shifts, and how do they contribute to the main ideas?

6))Time and Place

How does the author’s depiction of the setting influence the themes and conflicts? How is the setting significant in understanding the text?

18


Resources for Organization

 Criterion C: Organization


Detailed Paragraph Graphic Organizer

Sentence 1:   Topic Sentence – introduces the main idea that will be discussed in the paragraph.

Sentence 2:  “Point” – First point to support your topic  (Point #1)

Sentence 5:  “Point” – Second point to support your topic  (Point #2)

Sentence 8:  “Point” – Third point to support your topic  (Point #3)

Sentence 3:  “Proof” – Quotation containing evidence from the text to show Point #1

Sentence 6:  “Proof” – Quotation containing evidence from the text to show Point #2

Sentence 9:  “Proof” – Quotation containing evidence from the text to show Point #3

Sentence 4:  “Support” – a statement of analysis or interpretation that shows the link

between Sentence 2 and Sentence 3. This sentence shows your insight into the text.

Sentence 7:  “Support” – a statement of analysis or interpretation that shows the link between Sentence 5 and Sentence 6.  This sentence shows your insight into the text.

Sentence 10:  “Support” – a statement of analysis or interpretation that shows the link

between Sentence 8 and Sentence 9.  This sentence shows your insight into the text.

Sentence 11:  Concluding Sentence--Wraps up the paragraph and leaves on an insight


Example of 11 Sentence Paragraph for Modeling

How do contradictions, oppositions, or juxtapositions progress the plot of the play?

When writing your detailed paragraph, please include at least 11 sentences to fully develop your point. Use the following model as a guide.

TS=topic sentence

PT=point

PR=proof

SU=support

CS=concluding sentence

TS: Shakespeare uses metaphorical  and ironic language in order to express that things are not what  they seem. PT: When Claudius and Gertrude confront Hamlet about his grief, he implies that they really have no understanding to the depths of his despair.  PR: He tells his mother, “Seem, madam! nay it is; I know not ‘seems’” (1.2.78). SU: In this passage, he is responding to Gertrude’s request for him to not continuing mourning his father’s death. Through this statement, Hamlet suggests that his mother has no idea of the suffering he experiences by playing on the word “seems.”    PT: Shakespeare then includes a series of litotes  or understatements in order to emphasize his grief. PR: When he says that “Nor customary suits of solemn black” or “Nor windy suspiration of forced breath,” he  implies that this is just his appearance of grief--it is not truly how he feels. SU: By starting each line with “Nor” or No,” he shows the contrast between reality and his feelings by negating his emotions. PT: His metaphorical language  also reinforces this theme. PR: Hamlet says that “nor the fruitful river in the eye”  can “denote” his true feelings. SU: Shakespeare uses this metaphor of a river to show the tears that he has over his father’s death. With this comparison, he reinforces the idea that there are different shapes to grieving, and the river in the eye, or the unending tears are only part of his grief. CS: Hamlet concludes by stating that man has many “actions” that he might play in his outward appearance of grief, but he implies that it is only the individual on the inside who can truly see to the extent of one’s suffering.


Development of Thesis Statement

Determine THEME (WHAT) + TECHNIQUE (HOW/WHY)= DEVELOP THESIS

Theme of Karen Russell, Swamplandia (2011)

Technique

ONE WORK: Writing your thesis

In (Name of Work), (Full Name of Author) (uses, employs, relies, utilizes), (device/strategy/technique), and (device/strategy/technique) to (show, reveal, emphasize, argue, reinforce, insist, point out) that (effect/purpose/theme).

Possible Thesis Statements:

“The Machinist, Teaching His Daughter to Play the Piano” by BH Fairchild

Theme

Technique

Thesis

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS STRUCTURE

TWO WORKS: Writing the thesis statement

In (Name of Work), (Full Name of Author) (uses, employs, utilizes), (device/strategy/technique), and (device/strategy/technique) to (show, reveal, emphasize, argue, insist, point out) that (effect/purpose/theme), while in (Name of Work), (Full Name of Author) (uses, employs, utilizes), (device/strategy/technique), and (device/strategy/technique) to (show, reveal, emphasize, argue, insist, point out) that (effect/purpose/theme).

OR

In (Name of Work) and (Name of Work), both (Full Name of First Author) and (Full Name of Second Author) (use, employ, utilize, rely on) (device/strategy/technique) to (show, reveal, emphasize, argue, insist, point out) that (effect/purpose/theme)

ORGANIZING A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

EXAMPLE OF OUTLINE

In what ways and with what effects have at least two playwrights you have studied used dramatic irony? Recommend 6 to 8 paragraphs (based on 2 or 3 points to compare)  2 HOURS    BLOCK METHOD

  1. Thesis:  
  1. In both Hamlet and the Importance of Being Earnest, William Shakespeare and Oscar Wilde  use dramatic irony to intensify the conflict and evoke an emotional response from the audience. While Shakespeare incites sympathy, grief, and dread to show how deceitful actions can lead to destruction, Wilde evokes laughter in order to satirize the hypocritical and superficial social constructs of Victorian society.
  1. Outline: Block Method --One text, then another
  1. Hamlet
  1. Dramatic irony to intensify the conflict
  1. As soon as the ghost appears and speaks to Hamlet about avenging his death, Hamlet has a clear goal for the play.
  1. Dramatic irony to evoke sympathy
  1. Audience gains sympathy for Hamlet when we are privied to his “To Be or Not To Be” soliloquy where he contemplates his own uncertainty about how to proceed: accept the situation, kill himself, or kill Claudius.
  1. Dramatic irony to incite grief and dread to reveal the theme that deceit and dishonesty can lead to destruction
  1. During the catastrophe, the audience is aware of Claudius and Laertes’ plans to kill Hamlet, as the queen dies from drinking the cup, the audience has a sense of dread and grief as she dies before Hamlet’s eyes.
  1. Importance of Being Earnest: 
  1. Dramatic irony to intensify the conflict
  1. With the dramatic arrival of Algernon posing as Earnest, the audience sees how Jack’s city life is now merging with his country life. It only gets more intense when Jack shows up pronouncing his brother’s death.
  1. Dramatic irony to evoke laughter and ridiculousness, exaggerated behaviors
  1. Comedy of manners between Gwendolen and Cecily create a humorous scene of conflict when the audience knows the truth of Jack and Algernon’s real identities
  1. Dramatic irony to satirize, provide social commentary, exposing superficiality and hypocrisy
  1. Women are obsessed with name Ernest because of the pun Earnest, exposes the superficial nature of appearances during Victorian era

ANOTHER OUTLINE

In what ways and with what effects have at least two playwrights you have studied used dramatic irony? Recommend 6 to 8 paragraphs (based on 2 or 3 points to compare)     POINT-BY-POINT METHOD --MORE SOPHISTICATED ORGANIZATION

  1. Thesis:  
  1. In both Hamlet and the Importance of Being Earnest, William Shakespeare and Oscar Wilde  use dramatic irony to intensify the conflict and evoke an emotional response from the audience. While Shakespeare incites sympathy, grief, and dread to show how deceitful actions can lead to destruction, Wilde evokes laughter in order to satirize the hypocritical and superficial social constructs of Victorian society.
  1. Outline: Point by Point method; one text at a time
  2. Point One: Dramatic irony intensifies the conflict
  1. Hamlet: Dramatic irony to intensify the conflict
  1. Dramatic incitement: As soon as the ghost appears and speaks to Hamlet about avenging his death, Hamlet has a clear goal for the play.
  1. Importance of Being Earnest: Dramatic irony to intensify the conflict
  1. Dramatic incitement:With the dramatic arrival of Algernon posing as Earnest, the audience sees how Jack’s city life is now merging with his country life. It only gets more intense when Jack shows up pronouncing his brother’s death.
  1. Point Two: Dramatic irony to evoke an  emotional response
  1. Hamlet: Dramatic irony to evoke sympathy
  1. Audience gains sympathy for Hamlet when we are privied to his To Be or Not To Be soliloquy where he contemplates his own uncertainty about how to proceed: accept the situation, kill himself, or kill Claudius.
  1. Importance of Being Earnest:  Dramatic irony to evoke laughter
  1. Comedy of manners between Gwendolen and Cecily create a humorous scene of conflict when the audience knows the truth of Jack and Algernon’s real identities
  1. Point Three: Dramatic irony  contributes to the development of the theme, universal insights
  1. Hamlet: Dramatic irony  to reinforce theme that inaction and deceit can lead to destruction
  1. During the catastrophe, the audience is aware of Claudius and Laertes’ plans to kill Hamlet, as the queen dies from drinking the cup, the audience has a sense of dread and grief as she dies before Hamlet’s eyes. The deceit of the king and Laertes and lack of communication among the characters lead to tragic events.
  1. Importance of Being Earnest: dramatic irony to reinforce the theme of hypocrisy and superficiality
  1. Women are obsessed with name Ernest because of the pun Earnest, exposes the superficial nature of appearances during Victorian era. They say they love the person, yet it is a superficial nature based on appearances and Gwendolen says, “In matters of utmost importance, style, not sincerity, is the vital thing.”


CITING EVIDENCE

Sentence Starters to Cite Text Evidence

The author employs (technique) in order to establish _____.

The _____tone of the passage is created through the use of _____

In the text, the author described _____.

The author states/says/implies _____

The author explains_____

The author describes _____

According to the author _____

The author explicitly states _____

Sentence Starts to Elaborate on Text Evidence

For example,

For instance, _____

This situation is similar to ...

The evidence suggests that _____

The fact that ______(rephrase your evidence) illustrates that _____(give your reason) because ______(your analysis).

The fact that _____ proves that _____

This (piece of evidence) shows_____

This example illustrates _____

This point is significant because_____

The main point of the passage is to _____

The speaker’s attitude towards _____ is best described as one of _____

In this passage, the author emphasizes._____

The author juxtaposes _____ to _____ in order to _____.

The fact that _______(rephrase your evidence) illustrates that _____ (rephrase your claim) because (your analysis).


Analyzing Poetry

  1. Choose poem or prose to annotate and analyze for theme
  2. Once you determine the theme, determine what techniques (SWEPTT) help develop the theme.
  3. Develop your outline based on what is significant
  1. Structure
  2. Word Choice
  3. Elements of literature
  4. Point of view/persona
  5. Tone
  6. Time and place =
  7. THEME: Be sure you LINK the technique to the THEME, the universal insight

Example

“Equality”  by Maya Angelou

You declare you see me dimly through a glass which will not shine, though I stand before you boldly,

trim in rank and marking time.

You do own to hear me faintly

as a whisper out of range,

while my drums beat out the message

and the rhythms never change.

Equality, and I will be free.

Equality, and I will be free.

You announce my ways are wanton,

that I fly from man to man,

but if I'm just a shadow to you,

could you ever understand ?

We have lived a painful history,

we know the shameful past,

but I keep on marching forward,

and you keep on coming last.

Equality, and I will be free.

Equality, and I will be free.

Take the blinders from your vision,

take the padding from your ears,

and confess you've heard me crying,

and admit you've seen my tears.

Hear the tempo so compelling,

hear the blood throb in my veins.

Yes, my drums are beating nightly,

and the rhythms never change.

Equality, and I will be free.

Equality, and I will be free. 

POSSIBLE OUTLINE POETRY ANALYSIS

 “EQUALITY”: 8 paragraphs

  1. Introduction
  1. Thesis: In “Equality” by Maya Angelou, the poet relies on alternating rhyme and repetition, sensory and metaphorical language, a resilient persona, and an indignant tone to reinforce her message that people will continue to fight for equality despite people’s ignorance.
  1. Body Paragraph 1: Structure (rhyme/repetition)
  1. The rhythm of drum mirrors the poet’s view of minorities speaking out with a continuous voice for equality. Their message stays the same as they keep fighting for equal rights. The repetition reinforces the hope despite the indignation the speaker feels.  
  1. Body Paragraph 2: Word Choice (sensory language)
  1. Sensory language reinforces the frustration of the speaker, especially with  tactile, auditory, and kinesthetic imagery. Tactile objects show the ignorance of people, providing a tangible impression . The kinesthetic imagery underscores the need for change through movement. The auditory imagery emphasizes the rhythm and sounds of the voices for equality
  1. Body Paragraph 3: Elements of Literature (metaphorical language)
  1. The extended metaphor shows the ongoing message of equality and the need to be heard.
  2. Rhythms created by the drums symbolize to the voice fighting for equality.
  1. Body Paragraph 4: Persona: Resilient Persona/Point of View
  1. Poet uses second person pronouns to show emotional distance and first person pronouns to show the resiliency of the speaker and hope for the future
  1. Body Paragraph 6: Tone
  1. Tone overall is indignant as she reveals the ignorance of the “You”
  1. Conclusion
  1. Reinforce theme: People will continue to fight for equality despite people’s ignorance.
  1. “Blinders” and “padding” need to be removed in order for people to see more clearly the person who stands before them.
  2. Once people are open-minded and recognize others fully, equality will be attained, and people will find freedom in their lives.

Integrating Quotations

INTEGRATING QUOTATIONS INTO YOUR COMMENTARY

QUOTATIONS:  When you introduce your quotations, you should do so in a variety of ways.  The following methods are acceptable (pay careful attention to the punctuation marks):

  1. Introductory Phrase Format:

According to Scout, “Atticus said the Ewells had been the disgrace of Maycomb for three generations.  None of them had done an honest day’s work in his recollection” ( 30).

  1. “Run-in” Format:

Although no one in Maycomb had seen Boo for years, “the neighborhood thought that when Mr. Radley went under Boo would come out,” but instead, Boo’s older brother, Nathan Radley moved back to town to carry out their father’s restrictions on Boo (12).

Note:  The citation is placed at the end of the paragraph even though the quotation ended earlier.

  1. Colon/Introductory Clause Format

Atticus tries to explain Mr. Cunningham’s involvement with the mob to Scout: “Mr. Cunningham’s basically a good man …  he just has blind spots along with the rest of us” (157).

d) Block quote (excerpt from http://research.wou.edu/mla-blockquote)

The block quote is used for direct quotations that are longer than four lines of prose, or longer than three lines of poetry. A block quote is always used when quoting dialogue between characters, as in a play. The block format is a freestanding quote that does not include quotation marks. Introduce the block quote with a colon (unless the context of your quote requires different punctuation) and start it on a new line. Indent the entire quote 1-inch from the left margin and double-space it (even if the rest of your paper is not double-spaced). Include the page number at the end of your block quote outside of the ending period. Also include the author's last name, date of publication, and page number(s)/paragraph number.

If you quote a single paragraph (or just part of one), do not indent the first line of the block quote more than the rest:

EXAMPLE

It is not until near the end of The Hound of the Baskervilles that the hound itself is actually seen:

A hound it was, an enormous coal-black hound, but not such a hound as mortal eyes have ever seen. Fire burst from its open mouth, its eyes glowed with a smouldering glare, its muzzle and hackles and dewlap were outlined in flickering flame. Never in the delirious dream of a disordered brain could anything more savage, more appalling, more hellish be conceived than that dark form and savage face which broke upon us out of the wall of fog. (Doyle 82)

If you quote two or more paragraphs, indent the first line of each paragraph an additional ¼ inch. However, if the first sentence quoted does not begin a paragraph in the source, do not indent it the additional amount, only indent the subsequent paragraphs. Here is an example where the first sentence is the beginning of a paragraph:

EXAMPLE

In the aftermath of the hound sighting, Sherlock Holmes keeps his cool:

     Sir Henry lay insensible where he had fallen. We tore away his collar, and Holmes breathed a prayer of gratitude when we saw that there was no sign of a wound and that the rescue had been in time. Already our friend's eyelids shivered and he made a feeble effort to move. Lestrade thrust his brandy-flask between the baronet's teeth, and two frightened eyes were looking up at us.

     "My God!" he whispered. "What was it? What, in heaven's name, was it?"

     "It's dead, whatever it is," said Holmes. (Doyle 82)


MLA


Transition Word List

Addition

moreover

furthermore

additionally

further

also

first, second, etc.

indeed

as a matter of fact

In fact

also

In addition to

Besides

To Give Examples

in fact

for example

for instance

specifically

to illustrate

equally important

especially

notably

for one thing

such as

In particular

including

To Show as a Result

as a result

consequently

hence

thus

therefore

accordingly

To Compare

similarly

 in the same way

 in a like manner

equally

likewise

 by the same token

To Contrast

however

on the contrary

regardless

even though

despite

in contrast

To Conclude

all in all

in summary

in brief

on the whole

in conclusion

in short

To Indicate Time

afterward

in the meantime

meanwhile

subsequently

presently

after a while

Emphasis

 even more

 above all

indeed

more importantly

besides

Concession

nevertheless

 even though

 on the other hand

 regardless (of this)

in spite of (this)

 granted (this)

Summarize or to Conclude

in summary

all in all

in short

altogether

on the whole

given these points

 

Helpful Resources: Criterion D: Language

20


Punctuation Checklist

21

22

Active Verb List

asserts

argues

acknowledges

stresses

claims

believes

contends

suggests

conveys

adds

illustrates

produces

establishes

presents

offers

refutes

indicate

creates

clarifies

reveal

demonstrates

conveys

provides

portrays

proves

illuminates

discredits

points out

alludes to

clarifies

explains

exposes

expounds

highlights

implies

connotes

establishes

exemplifies

signifies

substantiates

demonstrates

remarks

speculates

discovers

compels

instigates

presents

provokes

achieves

enhances

expands

constructs

attempts

develops

produces

defends

convey

evoke

juxtaposes

underscores

displays

emphasizes

attests

analyzes

compares

contrasts

critiques

defines

describes

discusses

evaluates

illustrates

explains

interprets

justifies

lists

outlines

proves

reviews

states

summarizes

synthesizes

traces

accommodates

achieves

acquires

adapts

affects

affirms

alters

benefits

compliments

condemns

contemplates

contradicts

distinguishes

embodies

eliminates

encounters

justifies

motivates

obtain

oppose

ponder

reflects

reinforces

resolves

restores

utilizes

unifies

revolutionizes

transforms

sustains

verifies

undermines

transmits

simulates

stimulates

23


Words for Describing Mood

POSITIVE MOOD WORDS

NEGATIVE MOOD WORDS

amused

awed

bouncy

calm

cheerful

chipper

confident

contemplative

content

determined

dignified

dreamy

ecstatic

empowered

energetic

enlightened

enthralled

excited

exhilarated

flirty

giddy

grateful

harmonious

hopeful

hyper

idyllic

joyous

 

jubilant

liberating

light-hearted

loving

mellow

nostalgic

optimistic

passionate

peaceful

playful

pleased

refreshed

rejuvenated

relaxed

relieved

satiated

satisfied

sentimental

silly

surprised

sympathetic

thankful

thoughtful

touched

trustful

vivacious

warm

welcoming

aggravated

annoyed

anxious

apathetic

apprehensive

barren

brooding

cold

confining

confused

cranky

crushed

cynical

depressed

desolate

disappointed

discontented

distressed

drained

dreary

embarrassed

enraged

envious

exhausted

fatalistic

foreboding

frustrated

futile

gloomy

grumpy

haunting

heartbroken

hopeless

hostile

indifferent

infuriated

 

insidious

intimidated

irate

irritated

jealous

lethargic

lonely

melancholic

merciless

moody

morose

nauseated

nervous

nightmarish

numb

overwhelmed

painful

pensive

pessimistic

predatory

rejected

restless

scared

serious

sick

somber

stressed

suspenseful

tense

terrifying

threatening

uncomfortable

vengeful

violent

worried

 

25


Words for Describing Tone

POSITIVE TONE WORDS

NEUTRAL

(+, -,  or neutral)

NEGATIVE TONE WORDS

admiring

adoring

affectionate

appreciative

approving

bemused

benevolent

blithe

calm

casual

celebratory

cheerful

comforting

comic

compassionate

complimentary

conciliatory

confident

contented

delightful

earnest

ebullient

ecstatic

effusive

elated

empathetic

encouraging

euphoric

excited

exhilarated

expectant

facetious

fervent

flippant

forthright

friendly

funny

gleeful

gushy

happy

 

 

hilarious

hopeful

humorous

interested

introspective

jovial

joyful

laudatory

light

lively

mirthful

modest

nostalgic

optimistic

passionate

placid

playful

poignant

proud

reassuring

reflective

relaxed

respectful

reverent

romantic

sanguine

scholarly

self-assured sentimental

serene

silly

sprightly

straightforward

sympathetic

tender

tranquil

whimsical

wistful

worshipful

zealous

 

commanding

direct

impartial

indirect

meditative

objective

questioning

speculative

unambiguous

unconcerned

understated

 

abhorring

ambiguous

ambivalent

angry

annoyed

antagonistic

apathetic

apprehensive

belligerent

bewildered

biting

bitter

blunt

cold

condescending

confused

contemptuous

curt

cynical

demanding

depressed

derogatory

desolate

despairing

desperate

detached

diabolic

disappointed

disrespectful

doubtful

embarrassed

enraged

evasive

fatalistic

fearful

forceful

foreboding

frantic

frightened

frustrated

furious

gloomy

grave

greedy

grim

harsh

haughty

hopeless

hostile

impatient

incredulous

indifferent

indignant

inflammatory

insecure

insolent

irreverent

lethargic

melancholy

mischievous

miserable

mocking

mournful

nervous

outraged

paranoid

patronizing

pedantic

pensive

pessimistic

pretentious

psychotic

resigned

reticent

sarcastic

sardonic

scornful

self-deprecating

selfish

serious

severe

sinister

skeptical

solemn

somber

stern

stressful

suspicious

tense

threatening

tragic

uncertain

uneasy

unfriendly

unsympathetic

upset

Class of 2020 IOC: Individual Oral Commentary Class of 2020

Internal assessment details—SL and HL

Individual oral commentary

Weighting: 15%

Students are required to engage in a critical examination of a particular extract drawn from a work that has been studied in part 4 of the language A: language and literature course. The individual oral commentary allows students to analyse the relationship between formal elements and meaning in a particular literary text.

The nature and emphasis of the commentary requires students to undertake a literary analysis of the extract chosen. In all cases, the student should aim to explore significant aspects of the extract, showing knowledge and understanding of the extract and its use and effects of literary features. A recording of the individual oral commentary is sent to the IB for external moderation. The maximum mark

for the commentary is 30.

Choice of extract

The teacher is entirely responsible for the choice of extract. Students must not be allowed to choose the extract itself nor the work from which it is taken.

 For a group of students, SL or HL, texts must be taken from all the works studied in part 4. Students must not know in advance on which text they will be asked to comment.

The text for commentary should not exceed 40 lines. It must be rich in detail to allow for a thorough examination that can be assessed using the criteria.In the case of poetry, teachers should choose a single complete poem or a substantial extract from a long poem. The poem chosen should be of comparable difficulty to those selected from works of other genres.

Requirements

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Class of 2020 IOC Format:

Individual Oral Commentary Format for Poetry Class of 2020

1.  Setting

2.  Summary

3. Analysis

4. Links

5. Final Thoughts

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Class of 2020 IOC Format

Individual Oral Commentary Format for Prose Class of 2020

1. Context

2. Setting

3. Summary

4. Analysis

5. Links

6. Final Thoughts

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Class of 2021 IOC:

Individual Oral Commentary Class of 2021

Duration: 15 minutes (10 minutes: student individual oral; 5 minutes: teacher questions)

Weighting: 30% for SL, 20% for HL

The nature of the task

The individual oral addresses the following prompt:

Examine the ways in which the global issue of your choice is presented through the content and form of one of the works and one of the texts that you have studied.

Explanation of the task

Selection of text, work and extracts

Excerpt from the Language and Literature Subject Guide (first examinations 2021)

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Class of 2021 FOA Outline

Individual Oral Commentary Class of 2021

EXAMPLE OUTLINE

  1. Introduction
  1. Global Issue: Politics, power, and justice
  2. Line of Inquiry: What rights and responsibilities factor in war? What hierarchies of power contribute to resolving conflict?
  1. Thesis statement:Both the picture and the song lyrics explore the image of war and the propaganda that goes into shaping public perception.
  1. Mini-thesis:  In Bob Dylan’s song, “Master of War,” the speaker uses an accusatory tone, anaphora, allusion, and metaphorical language to criticize the romanticized version of war in realities of destruction.
  2. Mini-thesis: In the photograph of Nagasaki, the black and white image and the perspective convey a majestic image of war that is not the reality of the destruction and shows a clear purpose of grandeur to manipulate popular opinion.
  1. First text: “Masters of War” by Bob Dylan
  1. Accusatory tone
  1. “Come you masters of war”  masters --hierarchy of power
  1. Anaphora
  1. You that build the death planes
  2. You that build all the bombs
  1. Allusion to show betrayal
  1. Like Judas of old          Judas, allusion of betrayal
  2. You lie and deceive
  1. Betrayal the speaker feels against his superiors
  1. Metaphorical language
  1. Reckless experiment
  1. You play with my world    
  2. Like it's your little toy    
  3. You put a gun in my hand
  4. And you hide from my eyes
  1. Deception
  1. I can see through your masks  masks --deceit, metaphor
  1. Second text: This picture is referred to as Mushroom Cloud Over Nagasaki by Lieutenant Charles Levy in 1945.  This is a picture right after Fat Man on Nagasaki was dropped in WWII.
  1. Thesis statement:  In the photograph, the photographer shows a stark contrast with black and white contours with a limited perspective in order to convey the power of victory in an image.
  2. Perspective
  1. longer perspective, zoomed out --in order to show the impact, full scale of mushroom cloud
  2. Limited perspective
  1. Not showing destruction below
  2. Presents an image power that may be limited in perspective such as the song references
  1. Similar to “masters of war” in the song
  1. Purpose
  1. used as an image of victory in newspapers in favor of bomb
  1. Contrast
  1. Sharp contrast, beautiful image of the cloud hiding the destruction below
  2. Censored the other pictures
  1. Conclusion
  1. Both the picture and the song lyrics explore the image of war and the propaganda that goes into shaping public perception.

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