SCIENCE/KINDERGARTEN                                                                                Page  of

Unit Title

Unit 1:  Weather

Timeframe 

Instructional Days: 10 to start and then ongoing

Unit Summary

In this unit of study, students develop an understanding of patterns and variations in local weather and the use of weather forecasting to prepare for and respond to severe weather. The crosscutting concepts of patterns; cause and effect; interdependence of science, engineering, and technology; and the influence of engineering, technology, and science on society and the natural world are called out as organizing concepts for the disciplinary core ideas. Students are expected to demonstrate grade-appropriate proficiency in asking questions, analyzing and interpreting data, and obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information. Students are also expected to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

Learning Targets

Essential Questions

How can someone predict what the weather will be tomorrow?

How does weather forecasting help us to prepare for dangerous weather?

Enduring Understandings

Students will understand:

  • Weather is the combination of sunlight, wind, snow, or rain and temperature in a particular region at a particular time.
  • People measure these conditions to describe and record the weather and to notice patterns over time
  • People look for patterns in the weather data when they organize and order when making observations about the world.
  • Patterns in the natural world can be observed, used to describe phenomena, and used as evidence.
  • Some kinds of severe weather are more likely than others in a given region.
  • Weather scientists forecast severe weather so that communities can prepare for and respond to these events.
  • Events have causes that generate observable patterns.
  • People encounter questions about the natural world every day.
  • People depend on various technologies in their lives; human life would be very different without technology.
  • Before beginning to design a solution, it is important to clearly understand the problem.
  • Asking questions, making observations, and gathering information are helpful in thinking about problems.
  • A situation that people want to change or create can be approached as a problem to be solved through engineering.

Know

By the end of this unit, students will know:

  • Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute student ideas about causes.
  • Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions.
  • Pushing or pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of its motion and can start or stop it.
  • When objects touch or collide, they push on one another and can change motion.
  • A bigger push or pull makes things speed up or slow down more quickly.
  • Events have causes that generate observable patterns.
  • People encounter questions about the natural world every day.
  • Some kinds of severe weather are more likely than others in a given region.
  • Weather scientists forecast severe weather so that communities can prepare for and respond to these events.
  • People depend on various technologies in their lives; human life would be very different without technology.
  • Before beginning to design a solution, it is important to clearly understand the problem.
  • Asking questions, making observations, and gathering information are helpful in thinking about problems.
  • A situation that people want to change or create can be approached as a problem to be solved through engineering.

Do

By the end of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Develop an understanding of patterns and variations in local weather.
  • Look for patterns and cause-and-effect relationships as they observe and record weather events.
  • Ask scientific questions, analyze and interpret data, and communicate their findings to others.
  • Develop an understanding that patterns in the natural world can be observed and documented.
  •  Use weather patterns as evidence to describe phenomena and make predictions.
  •  Learn that weather is the combination of sunlight, wind, precipitation, and temperature in a particular region at a particular  time.
  • Use weather forecasting to prepare for and respond to severe weather.
  • Ask scientific questions, analyze and interpret data, and communicate their findings to others.
  • Define problems caused by severe weather events.
  •  Learn that weather is the combination of sunlight, wind, precipitation, and temperature in a particular region at a particular time.
  • Learn about types of severe weather that are common to their region.
  • Understand that people depend on technology to help us predict and solve problems, and without it, our lives would be very different

Evidence of Learning

Formative

  • Observe and use patterns in the natural world as evidence and to describe phenomena.
  • Use observations (firsthand or from media) to describe patterns in the natural world in order to answer scientific questions.
  • Use and share observations of local weather conditions to describe patterns over time.  (Assessment of quantitative observations limited to whole numbers and relative measures such as warmer/cooler.) 
  • Examples of qualitative observations could include descriptions of the weather, such as sunny, cloudy, rainy, and warm.
  • Examples of quantitative observations could include numbers of sunny, windy, and rainy days in a month.
  • Examples of patterns could include that it is usually cooler in the morning than in the afternoon.
  • Observe patterns in events generated by cause-and-effect relationships.
  • Read grade-appropriate texts and/or use media to obtain scientific information to describe patterns in the natural world.
  • Ask questions based on observations to find more information about the designed world.
  • Ask questions to obtain information about the purpose of weather forecasting to prepare for and respond to severe weather. (Emphasis is on local forms of severe weather.)
  • Define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool.
  • Ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation people want to change in order to define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool.

Summative/ Benchmark

  • Unit Rubric
  • Student Unit -Portfolio/Science Journal/ Work Sample

Alternative Assessments

  • Teacher made test, quizzes, Performance Assessments
  • Projects

Learning Activities

Summary of Key Learning Events and Instruction w/ Integration of Technology/CRP

  • Students will observe and record daily weather events and analyze the data.
  • Students will record and analyze data over time.
  • Students will reveal recognizable weather patterns that can be used to make predictions.
  • Students will ask specific questions, making observations, and gather information about severe weather conditions.
  • Students will observe and record daily weather events and analyze data.
  • Students will use a variety of media and technology, such as computers, radio, and television, and by reading grade-appropriate texts about weather and weather events.
  • Phenomena: Read the local weather forecast from an online or print resource. Make a list of the words that they use to describe weather (cloudy, sunny, partly cloudy, temperature, and wind). As a class, create symbols that the students can use to record the weather each day. Examples can be found at http://tinyurl.com/hhhg299.

In this ongoing study, students are expected to develop an understanding of patterns and variations in local weather and how they respond to the weather.

  • They look for cause and effect relationships between the day’s weather and the clothing that they wear.  
  • They look for patterns between hazardous weather (very hot/very cold, rain, snow, and thunderstorm) and relate that to how their choices help to keep them comfortable and safe.

With adult support, students use trade books (read-alouds, big books) to learn about and discuss weather. severe weather. Strategies, such as Think-Pair-Share, can be used to encourage students to think about information from books and to use that information to ask and answer questions about key details. With guidance, students use online media resources to view examples of severe weather. They can ask questions in order to understand how severe weather affects people and communities and to determine how communities prepare for and respond to severe weather.

Students learn that we can help people to be safe from hazardous weather (thunderstorms, hurricanes, and nor-Easters,) through engineering.   Students begin by comparing and contrasting hazardous weather events. With the support of the teacher, they ask scientific questions about how each type of weather is hazardous, gather information that will help them understand the types of problems they might face when severe weather conditions exist, and in and around their homes, schools, and communities, and work together to design ways to keep people safe during hazardous weather events.

In this unit’s progression of learning, students first develop an understanding that patterns in the natural world can be observed and documented, and that, like scientists, they can use these patterns as evidence to describe phenomena (weather conditions) and make predictions (what will the weather be like tomorrow?). In order to observe patterns in weather, kindergartners will learn that weather is the combination of sunlight, wind, precipitation, and temperature in a particular region at a particular time (See Appendix B, Weather Chart). By observing and recording daily weather events—such as sunny, cloudy, rainy, and windy— students can analyze both qualitative and quantitative data. Recording and analyzing data over time will reveal recognizable weather patterns that can be used to make predictions.

Examples of weather patterns may include:

  • Snow and colder temperatures generally occur in the winter.
  •  Clouds may bring rain or snow.
  • Rain occurs more often in the spring.
  • Warmer/hotter temperatures occur in the summer.
  • It is generally cooler in the morning and warmer in the afternoon.

At this grade level, it is developmentally appropriate to describe temperature in relative terms; therefore, vocabulary words such as hot, warm, cool, cold, and warmer/cooler can be used to describe temperature. Students may also record temperature in degrees Fahrenheit and relate the number of degrees with descriptors such as hot, warm, cold, cool, and warmer/colder.

Students also learn that weather events have causes that generate observable patterns over time, and that these patterns help weather scientists predict severe weather. Kindergarteners need opportunities to learn about severe weather, especially those types that tend to occur in the local region in which they live. By using a variety of media and technology, such as computers, radio, and television, and by reading grade-appropriate texts about weather and weather events, students can learn about types of severe weather that are common to their region. In addition, they come to understand that people depend on technology to help us predict and solve problems, and without it, our lives would be very different.

In order to apply their learning, students need opportunities to ask questions about weather forecasting and how it can help us prepare for and respond to different types of severe weather. When kindergartners ask questions, make observations, gather weather information, and look for patterns of change in the weather, it prepares them to think about how to best prepare for and respond to local severe weather. As part of this unit of study, students are challenged to investigate how people prepare for and solve problems caused by severe weather. With adult guidance, students should define weather problems by asking questions, making observations, and gathering information about severe weather situations. Some questions students might want to consider include the following:

  • What kinds of severe weather events tend to occur in New Jersey (e.g., thunderstorms, hurricanes, flooding, snow storms)?
  • What do people do in response to these types of severe weather events?
  •  What kinds of tools can people use to solve problems caused by severe weather conditions (e.g., umbrellas, sandbags, salt, gravel, shovels, snow blowers)?
  • What other solutions might people use for problems caused by severe weather (e.g., closing schools and businesses; sending out emergency workers to restore utilities; sending out early warnings; stockpiling food, water, and other supplies; having a portable generator)?
  •  What kinds of problems would we face if we had a lot of rain in a short period of time?
  • What problems might we have if our community experienced flooding?
  • What kinds of problems might occur if strong winds caused damage (e.g., knocked over trees, damaged power lines, damaged homes and businesses)?
  • What kinds of precautions do people take during a hurricane? A tornado? A Nor’easter? Why?

Materials / Equipment / Resources

Core Instructional

Materials and Texts

Mystery Science: Lessons for elementary teachers

K-5 Combined Mystery Science Planning Guide

Equipment

See Mystery Science Activity Prep for each Mystery

See Get Activity Supplies for Mystery

Supplemental Resources

 Kindergarten Resources

Watching Weather: Students will make their own weather station consisting of actual and simplified versions of real weather   equipment. The weather station will consist of a thermometer and a student-made weather vane. They will use that equipment to make observations about the local weather.

Weather Patterns: This lesson is the first in a two-part series on the weather. The study of the weather in these early years is important because it can help students understand that some events in nature have a repeating pattern. It also is important for students to study the earth repeatedly because they take years to acquire the knowledge that they need to complete the picture. The full picture requires the introduction of such concepts as temperature, the water cycle, and other related concepts. In the second activity, What's the Season, students identify the seasonal patterns in temperature and precipitation.

Weather Walks: Students learn about weather by taking walks during various weather conditions over the course of time. Walks take place during sunny, rainy, windy, or snowy conditions. The lesson is divided into four sections with activities assigned to each of the weather conditions being observed. Suggested activities include appropriate investigations to help students observe and describe weather phenomenon through first hand experiences.

Science- Weather: This is a free interactive learning activity designed for individual students and can easily be used as a whole class interactive whiteboard activity. This particular title explores weather in relationship to season and temperature. Students learn to use a thermometer as a tool for recording temperature and identify the four seasons through measurable changes in the thermometer readings.

   About the Weather: This lesson is about using local weather to make observations, measure, collect, and record data to describe

   patterns over time. Students will count types of outdoor clothing worn by classmates and use the data to look for patterns in

   weather over months and seasons.

   Connections Between Practices in NGSS, Common Core Math, and Common Core ELA: The presenter was Sarah Michaels from

   Clark University. In this seminar Dr. Michaels talked about connecting the scientific and engineering practices described in A

   Framework for K–12 Science Education with the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics and English Language Arts.

   Weather and Climate Basics: This is a resource from the National Center for Atmospheric Research and the National Science

   Foundation that explains the basics of weather and climate. This article is designed as background information for the teacher.

   Earth and Sky: Grades K-4: SciGuides are a collection of thematically aligned lesson plans, simulations, and web-based resources

   for teachers to use with their students centered on standards-aligned science concepts. "We all live under the same big sky." Since

   the beginning of time, humans have been intrigued by the objects in our sky and beyond. Take a voyage into space science where

   you will travel through the Internet  to connect your classroom with content and activities designed to teach concepts related to

   these objects and changes in the sky over time.

   NGSS Core Ideas: Earth’s Systems: The presenter was Jill Wertheim from National Geographic Society. The program featured

   strategies for teaching about Earth science concepts that answer questions such as "What regulates weather and climate?" and

   "What causes earthquakes and volcanoes?"

   Dr. Wertheim began the presentation by introducing a framework for thinking about content related to Earth systems. She then

   showed learning progressions for each concept within the Earth's Systems disciplinary core idea and shared resources and

   strategies for addressing student

   preconceptions. Dr. Wertheim also talked about changes in the way NGSS addresses these ideas compared to previous common

   Approaches. Continue the discussion in the community forums.

Standards

Content Statement

Use and share observations of local weather conditions to describe patterns over time. (K-ESS2-1)

Ask questions to obtain information about the purpose of weather forecasting to prepare for, and respond to, severe weather. (K-ESS3-2)

Ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation people want to change to define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool. (K-2-ETS1-1)

21st Century Skills and Themes

Interdisciplinary Connections

Career Ready Practices

9.2 Career Awareness, Exploration, and Preparation  

  • Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of books by a favorite author and express opinions about them). (K-ESS2-1) W.K.7
  • With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. (K-ESS3-2) RI.K.1
  • Ask and answer questions in order to seek help, get information, or clarify something that is not understood. (K-ESS3-2) SL.K.3
  • Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text. (K-2-ETS1-1) RI.2.1
  • With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers. (K-2-ETS1-1) W.2.6
  • Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. (K-2-ETS1-1) W.2.8
  • Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (K-ESS2-1),(K-2-ETS1-1) MP.2
  • Model with mathematics. (K-ESS2-1),(K-ESS3-2),(K-2-ETS1-1) MP.4
  • Use appropriate tools strategically. (K-2-ETS1-1) MP.5
  • Counting and Cardinality (K-ESS3-2) K.CC
  • Know number names and the count sequence. (K-ESS2-1) K.CC.A
  • Describe measurable attributes of objects, such as length or weight. Describe several measurable attributes of a single object. (K-ESS2-1) K.MD.A.1
  •  Classify objects into given categories; count the number of objects in each category and sort the categories by count. (K-ESS2-1) K.MD.B.3
  • Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems using information presented in a bar graph. (K-2-ETS1-1) 2.MD.D.10

  • CRP2. Apply appropriate academic and technical skills.
  • CRP4.Communicate clearly and effectively and with reason.
  • CRP6.Demonstrate creativity and innovation.
  • CRP7.Employ valid and reliable research strategies.
  • CRP8.Utilize critical thinking to make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
  • CRP11. Use technology to enhance productivity.

By the end of 4th grade,

  • 9.2.4.A.4 Explain why knowledge and skills acquired in the elementary grades lay the foundation for future academic and career success.

Technology Standards - 8.1

K-2 Grade

A. Technology Operations and Concepts: Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems and operations.

  • Understand and use technology systems.

8.1.2.A.1 Identify the basic features of a digital device and explain its purpose.

 

  • Select and use applications effectively and productively.

8.1.2.A.2. Create a document using a word processing application.

8.1.2.A.4 Demonstrate developmentally appropriate navigation skills in virtual environments (i.e. games, museums).

B. Creativity and Innovation: Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge and develop innovative products and process using technology.

  • Apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes.
  • Create original works as a means of personal or group expression.

8.1.2.B.1 Illustrate and communicate original ideas and stories using multiple digital tools and resources.

C. Communication and Collaboration: Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance, to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others.

  • Interact, collaborate, and publish with peers, experts, or others by employing a variety of digital environments and media.
  • Communicate information and ideas to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats.
  • Develop cultural understanding and global awareness by engaging with learners of other cultures.
  • Contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems.

8.1.2.C.1 Engage in a variety of developmentally appropriate learning activities with students in other classes, schools, or countries using various media formats such as online collaborative tools, and social media.

D. Digital Citizenship: Students understand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and practice legal and ethical behavior.

  • Advocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible use of information and technology.

8.1.2.D.1 Develop an understanding of ownership of print and nonprint information.

E: Research and Information Fluency: Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information.

  • Plan strategies to guide inquiry.
  • Locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media.
  • Evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on the appropriateness for specific tasks.

8.1.2.E.1 Use digital tools and online resources to explore a problem or issue.

 

 

F: Critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making: Students use critical thinking skills to plan and conduct research, manage projects, solve problems, and make informed decisions using appropriate digital tools and resources.

  • Identify and define authentic problems and significant questions for investigation.
  • Plan and manage activities to develop a solution or complete a project.
  • Collect and analyze data to identify solutions and/or make informed decisions.
  • Use multiple processes and diverse perspectives to explore alternative solutions.

Future Learning

Grade 2 Unit 5: Changes to Earth’s Land 

• Some events happen very quickly; others occur very slowly, over a time period much longer than one can observe. • Wind and water can change the shape of the land.

Grade 3 Unit 1: Weather and Climate

• Scientists record patterns of the weather across different times and areas so that they can make predictions about what kind of weather might happen next. • Climate describes a range of an area's typical weather conditions and the extent to which those conditions vary over years.

• A variety of natural hazards result from natural processes. Humans cannot eliminate natural hazards but can take steps to reduce their impacts.

Grade 4 Unit 1: Weathering and Erosion

• Rainfall helps to shape the land and affects the types of living things found in a region. Water, ice, wind, living organisms, and gravity break rocks, soils, and

   sediments into smaller particles and move them around.

Grade 4 Unit 2: Earth Processes

• A variety of hazards result from natural processes (e.g., earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions). Humans cannot eliminate the hazards but can take steps

   to reduce their impacts.

Modifications/Accommodations

(IEPs, ELLs, 504s, G/T & BASIC SKILLS)

  • Structure lessons around questions that are authentic, relate to students’ interests, social/family background and knowledge of their community.
  • Provide students with multiple choices for how they can represent their understandings (e.g. multisensory techniques-auditory/visual aids; pictures, illustrations, graphs, charts, data tables, multimedia, modeling).
  • Provide opportunities for students to connect with people of similar backgrounds (e.g. conversations via digital tool such as SKYPE, experts from the community helping with a project, journal articles, and biographies).
  • Provide multiple grouping opportunities for students to share their ideas and to encourage work among various backgrounds and cultures (e.g. multiple representation and multimodal experiences).
  • Engage students with a variety of Science and Engineering practices to provide students with multiple entry points and multiple ways to demonstrate their understandings.
  • Use project-based science learning to connect science with observable phenomena.
  • Structure the learning around explaining or solving a social or community-based issue.
  • Provide ELL students with multiple literacy strategies.

Appendix A: NGSS and Foundations for the Unit

Use and share observations of local weather conditions to describe patterns over time. [Clarification Statement: Examples of qualitative observations could include descriptions of the weather (such as sunny, cloudy, rainy, and warm); examples of quantitative observations could include numbers of sunny, windy, and rainy days in a month. Examples of patterns could include that it is usually cooler in the morning than in the afternoon and the number of sunny days versus cloudy days in different months.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment of quantitative observations limited to whole numbers and relative measures such as warmer/cooler.] (K-ESS2-1)

Ask questions to obtain information about the purpose of weather forecasting to prepare for, and respond to, severe weather.* [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on local forms of severe weather.] (K-ESS3-2)

Ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation people want to change to define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool. (K-2-ETS1-1)

The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Disciplinary Core Ideas

Crosscutting Concepts

  Analyzing and Interpreting Data

               to describe patterns in the natural world in  

               order to answer scientific questions.   

              (K-ESS2-1)

  Asking Questions and Defining Problems

               through the development of a new or

            improved object or tool. (K-2-ETS1-1)

   Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating

   Information

             media toobtain scientific information to

            describe patterns in the natural world. 

               (K-ESS3-2)

 

 

  ESS2.D: Weather and Climate

  ESS3.B: Natural Hazards

  ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting an Engineering  

  Problem

              gathering information are helpful in thinking

              about problems. (K-2-ETS1-1)

               important to clearly understand the  

            problem.  (K-2-ETS1-1)

 

  Patterns

               observed, used to describe phenomena,

            and used as evidence. (K-ESS2-1)

  Cause and Effect

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

         Connections to Nature of Science 

Science Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence

  • Scientists look for patterns and order when  making observations about the world.(K-ESS2-1)

   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Connections to Engineering, Technology, and Applications of Science

  Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and

  Technology

  • People encounter questions about the natural world every day. (K-ESS3-2)

   Influence of Engineering, Technology, and

   Science on Society and the Natural World

Unit Title

Unit 2: Pushes and Pulls

Timeframe 

Instructional Days:  15

Unit Summary

What happens if you push or pull an object harder?

During this unit of study, students apply an understanding of the effects of different strengths or different directions of pushes and pulls on the motion of an object to analyze a design solution. The crosscutting concept of cause and effect is called out as the organizing concept for this disciplinary core idea. Students are expected to demonstrate grade-appropriate proficiency in planning and carrying out investigations and analyzing and interpreting data. Students are also expected to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

This unit is based on K-PS2-1, K-PS2-2, and K-2 ETS1-3.

Learning Targets

Essential Questions

Why do scientists like to play soccer?

How can you design a simple way to change the speed or direction of an object using a push or pull from another object?

Enduring Understandings

Students will understand:

  • People use different ways to study the world.
  • Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute student ideas about causes.
  • Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions. • Pushing or pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of its motion and can start or stop it.
  • When objects touch or collide, they push on one another and can change motion.
  • A bigger push or pull makes things speed up or slow down more quickly.
  • Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute student ideas about causes.
  • Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions.
  • Pushing or pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of its motion and can start or stop it.
  • A situation that people want to change or create can be approached as a problem to be solved through engineering. Such problems may have many acceptable solutions.

Know

By the end of this unit, students will know:

  • Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute student ideas about causes.
  • Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions.
  • Pushing or pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of its motion and can start or stop it.
  • When objects touch or collide, they push on one another and can change motion.
  • A bigger push or pull makes things speed up or slow down more quickly.

Do

By the end of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Discover and compare the effects of pushes and pulls on the motion of an object.
  • Learn that pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions.
  • Learn that pushing and pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of its motion and can start or stop it.
  • Learn that when objects touch or collide, the object’s motion can be changed.
  • Learn that the force of the push or pull will make things speed up or slow down more quickly.

Evidence of Learning

Formative

Students who understand the concepts are able to:

• With guidance, design simple tests to gather evidence to support or refute ideas about cause-and-effect relationships.

• Analyze data from tests of an object or tool to determine if it works as intended.

• Analyze data from tests of two objects designed to solve the same problem to compare the strengths and weaknesses of how each

   performs.

• Analyze data to determine whether a design solution works as intended to change the speed or direction of an object with a push

   or a pull.

• Examples of problems requiring a solution could include having a marble or other object move a certain distance, follow a

   particular path, and knock down other objects.

• Examples of solutions could include tools such as a ramp to increase the speed of the object and a structure that would cause an

   object such as a marble or ball to turn. (Assessment does not include friction as a mechanism for change in speed.)

Summative/ Benchmark

  • Unit Rubric
  • Student Unit -Portfolio/Science Journal/ Work Sample

Alternative Assessments

  • Teacher made test, quizzes, Performance Assessments
  • Projects

Learning Activities

Summary of Key Learning Events and Instruction w/ Integration of Technology/CRP

  • Students will push and pull a variety of objects (balls, toy cars, pull toys, cans, tops, and boxes).
  • Students will push and pull objects into one another as well into walls and other stationary objects.
  • Students will record their observations using pictures and words.
  • Students will participate in class discussions on the effects of varying strength or direction of a push or pull on a object.

In this unit of study, students plan and carry out investigations in order to understand the effects of different strengths and different directions of pushes and pulls on the motion of an object. Students will also engage in a portion of the engineering design process to determine whether a design solution works as intended to change the speed or direction of an object.

Scientists often design simple tests in order to gather evidence that can be used to understand cause-and-effect relationships. In this unit’s progression of learning, kindergarteners need adult guidance to collaboratively plan and conduct simple investigations to discover and compare the effects of pushes and pulls on the motion of an object. Students will need opportunities to push and pull a variety of objects, such as balls, toy cars, pull toys, cans, tops, and boxes. Students should push/pull these objects first with varying strengths, and then in a variety of directions. They should also explore the effects of pushing objects into one another, as well as into walls and other stationary objects. Students should record their observations using pictures and words, and should participate in class discussions on the effects of varying the strength or direction of a push or pull on an object.

As students engage in these types of simple force and motion investigations, they will learn that:  

  • Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions.  
  • Pushing or pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of its motion and can start or stop it.  
  • When objects touch or collide, the object’s motion can be changed.  
  • The force of the push or pull will make things speed up or slow down more quickly.

To enhance students’ experiences, teachers can schedule time for students to investigate these force and motion concepts using playground equipment, such as swings, seesaws, and slides. Teachers can also use trade books and multimedia resources to enrich students’ understanding. As students participate in discussions, they should be encouraged to ask questions, share observations, and describe cause-and-effect relationships between forces (pushes and pulls) and the motion of objects.

As students come to understand the force and motion concepts outlined above, they should engage in the engineering design process as follows. • Students are challenged to design a simple way to change the speed or direction of an object using a push or pull from another object.

 • As a class, students determine what the design should be able to do (criteria). For example:

  • An object should move a second object a certain distance;  
  • An object should move a second object so that the second object follows a particular path;  
  • An object should change the direction of the motion of a second object; and/or  An object should knock down other specified objects.

• Students determine the objects that will move/be moved (balls, ramps, blocks, poker chips) and the types of structures (ramps or barriers) and materials  

  (rubber bands, paper tubes, cardboard, foam, wooden blocks) that can be used to meet this challenge.

• Groups of students then develop a simple drawing or diagram and use given materials to build their design. Groups should be given a predetermined amount

   of time to draw and build their designs.

• Groups share their designs with the class, using their drawings or diagrams, and then test their designs.

• Students make and use observations to determine which of the designs worked as intended, based on the criteria determined by the class.

While engaging in this process, students should use evidence from their observations to describe how forces (pushes and pulls) cause changes in the speed or direction of an object.

In this unit of study, students learn that problem situations can be solved through engineering, and that because there is always more than one possible solution to a problem, it is useful to compare and test designs. Students will use what they have learned about the effect of pushes and pulls of varying strength and direction on the motion of an object to determine whether a design solution works as intended. This process is outlined in greater detail in the previous section.

Materials / Equipment / Resources

Core Instructional

Materials and Texts

Mystery Science: Lessons for elementary teachers

K-5 Combined Mystery Science Planning Guide

Equipment

See Mystery Science Activity Prep for each Mystery

See Get Activity Supplies for Mystery

Supplemental Resources

Kindergarten Resources

Push Pull-Changing Direction: Students investigate the interactions between colliding objects using pushes and pulls. Students play a game of kickball and observe how the ball is pushed, pulled, started, stopped, or collided with other objects and how it changed position and speed. As a group, students will then brainstorm about other objects being pushed, pulled or colliding and then choose one of those objects to investigate.

Marble Roll: This is an assessment probe from the book Uncovering Student Ideas in Primary Science Vol. 1 that is used to elicit children's descriptions of motion. The probe is designed to reveal how students describe the path of a moving object as it leaves a winding track.

Roller Coaster: There are two parts to this lesson from the book More Picture Perfect Science Lessons. In the first part learners explore ways to change the speed and direction of a rolling object by building roller coasters out of pipe insulation after reading the book, Roller Coaster by Marla Frazee. In the second part students read I Fall Down by Vicki Cobb and then investigate the idea that gravity affects all objects equally by conducting dropping races with everyday items.

Ramps 2: Ramp Builder: This is a multi-day lesson plan that has students design, build, and test their own ramps. Students are introduced to a variety of materials and explore putting them together. Students engage in an inquiry-based learning experience to reinforce math, science, and technology. They create plans for ramps by evaluating a variety of materials provided to them.

Standards

Content Statement

Plan and conduct an investigation to compare the effects of different strengths or different directions of pushes and pulls on the motion of an object. [Clarification Statement: Examples of pushes or pulls could include a string attached to an object being pulled, a person pushing an object, a person stopping a rolling ball, and two objects colliding and pushing on each other.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to different relative strengths or different directions, but not both at the same time. Assessment does not include non-contact pushes or pulls such as those produced by magnets.] (K-PS2-1)

Analyze data to determine if a design solution works as intended to change the speed or direction of an object with a push or a pull. [Clarification Statement: Examples of problems requiring a solution could include having a marble or other object move a certain distance, follow a particular path, and knock down other objects. Examples of solutions could include tools such as a ramp to increase the speed of the object and a structure that would cause an object such as a marble or ball to turn.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include friction as a mechanism for change in speed.] (K-PS2-2)

Analyze data from tests of two objects designed to solve the same problem to compare the strengths and weaknesses of how each performs. (K-2-ETS1-3)

21st Century Skills and Themes

Interdisciplinary Connections

Career Ready Practices

9.2 Career Awareness, Exploration, and Preparation  

English Language Arts

In order to integrate English Language Arts into this unit, students need the opportunity to participate in shared research that will enhance their understanding of the effect of forces (pushes and pulls) on objects. This could include exploring simple books and other media or digital resources. With prompting and support, students should ask and answer questions about key details in texts in order to seek help, get information, or clarify something that they do not understand. With support from adults, students will also recall information from experiences to answer questions and clarify their thinking. With support and/or collaboration, they can use digital tools to produce and publish simple informative writing or to document their observations of the simple force and motion systems they design and build.

Mathematics

During this unit of study, students will make connections to Mathematics in a number of ways. Kindergartners can use simple nonstandard units to measure the distances that two different objects travel when pushed or pulled or the distances that an object travels when varying the strength of a push or a pull. If using two objects, students can compare them using a measurable attribute, such as weight, to see which object has “more of” or “less of” the attribute, and describe the effect that increased weight has on the distance that an object travels. As students conduct multiple trials with the two objects (or with a single object, varying the strength of the push or pull), they can document the distance traveled in a simple graph. Then they can analyze the data in order to describe the cause-and-effect relationship between forces and motion of objects. As students collect and analyze data, they are learning to reason abstractly and quantitatively and use appropriate tools strategically.

  • CRP2. Apply appropriate academic and technical skills.
  • CRP4.Communicate clearly and effectively and with reason.
  • CRP6.Demonstrate creativity and innovation.
  • CRP7.Employ valid and reliable research strategies.
  • CRP8.Utilize critical thinking to make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.

By the end of 4th grade,

  • 9.2.4.A.4 Explain why knowledge and skills acquired in the elementary grades lay the foundation for future academic and career success.

Technology Standards - 8.1

K-2 Grade

A. Technology Operations and Concepts: Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems and operations.

  • Understand and use technology systems.

8.1.2.A.1 Identify the basic features of a digital device and explain its purpose.

 

  • Select and use applications effectively and productively.

8.1.2.A.2. Create a document using a word processing application.

8.1.2.A.4 Demonstrate developmentally appropriate navigation skills in virtual environments (i.e. games, museums).

B. Creativity and Innovation: Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge and develop innovative products and process using technology.

  • Apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes.
  • Create original works as a means of personal or group expression.

8.1.2.B.1 Illustrate and communicate original ideas and stories using multiple digital tools and resources.

C. Communication and Collaboration: Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance, to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others.

  • Interact, collaborate, and publish with peers, experts, or others by employing a variety of digital environments and media.
  • Communicate information and ideas to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats.
  • Develop cultural understanding and global awareness by engaging with learners of other cultures.
  • Contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems.

8.1.2.C.1 Engage in a variety of developmentally appropriate learning activities with students in other classes, schools, or countries using various media formats such as online collaborative tools, and social media.

D. Digital Citizenship: Students understand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and practice legal and ethical behavior.

  • Advocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible use of information and technology.

8.1.2.D.1 Develop an understanding of ownership of print and nonprint information.

E: Research and Information Fluency: Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information.

  • Plan strategies to guide inquiry.
  • Locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media.
  • Evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on the appropriateness for specific tasks.

8.1.2.E.1 Use digital tools and online resources to explore a problem or issue.

 

 

F: Critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making: Students use critical thinking skills to plan and conduct research, manage projects, solve problems, and make informed decisions using appropriate digital tools and resources.

  • Identify and define authentic problems and significant questions for investigation.
  • Plan and manage activities to develop a solution or complete a project.
  • Collect and analyze data to identify solutions and/or make informed decisions.
  • Use multiple processes and diverse perspectives to explore alternative solutions.

Future Learning

Grade 3 Unit 2: Forces and Motion

Each force acts on one particular object and has both strength and a direction. An object at rest typically has multiple forces acting on it, but they add to give

   zero net force on the object. Forces that do not sum to zero can cause changes in the object’s speed or direction of motion. (Boundary: Qualitative and

   conceptual, but not quantitative addition of forces are used at this level.)  

• The patterns of an object’s motion in various situations can be observed and measured; when that past motion exhibits a regular pattern, future motion can

   be predicted from it. (Boundary: Technical terms, such as magnitude, velocity, momentum, and vector quantity, are not introduced at this level, but the

   concept that some quantities need both size and direction to be described is developed.)

• Each force acts on one particular object and has both strength and direction. An object at rest typically has multiple forces acting on it, but they add to give

   zero net force on the object. Forces that do not sum to zero can cause changes in the object’s speed or direction of motion. (Boundary: Qualitative and

   conceptual, but not quantitative, addition of forces is used at this level.)

• The patterns of an object’s motion in various situations can be observed and measured; when that past motion exhibits a regular pattern, future motion can

   be predicted from it. (Boundary: Technical terms, such as magnitude, velocity, momentum, and vector quantity, are not introduced at this level, but the

   concept that some quantities need both size and direction to be described is developed.)

• Objects in contact exert forces on each other.

• Electric and magnetic forces between a pair of objects do not require that the objects be in contact. The sizes of the forces in each situation depend on the

   properties of the objects and their distances apart and, for forces between two magnets, on their orientation relative to each other.

Grade 4 Unit 5: Transfer of Energy

• Energy can be moved from place to place by moving objects or through sound, light, or electric currents.

Modifications/Accommodations

(IEPs, ELLs, 504s, G/T & BASIC SKILLS)

(Note: Teachers identify the modifications that they will use in the unit. See NGSS Appendix D: All Standards, All Students/Case Studies for vignettes and explanations of the modifications.)

• Structure lessons around questions that are authentic, relate to students’ interests, social/family background and knowledge of their community.

• Provide students with multiple choices for how they can represent their understandings (e.g. multisensory techniques-auditory/visual aids; pictures,

   illustrations, graphs, charts, data tables, multimedia, modeling).

• Provide opportunities for students to connect with people of similar backgrounds (e.g. conversations via digital tool such as SKYPE, experts from the

   community helping with a project, journal articles, and biographies).

 • Provide multiple grouping opportunities for students to share their ideas and to encourage work among various backgrounds and cultures (e.g. multiple

   representation and multimodal experiences).

• Engage students with a variety of Science and Engineering practices to provide students with multiple entry points and multiple ways to demonstrate their

   understandings.

• Use project-based science learning to connect science with observable phenomena. • Structure the learning around explaining or solving a social or

   community-based issue. • Provide ELL students with multiple literacy strategies. • Collaborate with after-school programs or clubs to extend learning

   opportunities. • Restructure lesson using UDL principals (http://www.cast.org/our-work/about-udl.html#.VXmoXcfD_UA).

Appendix A: NGSS and Foundations for the Unit

Plan and conduct an investigation to compare the effects of different strengths or different directions of pushes and pulls on the motion of an object.  [Clarification Statement: Examples of pushes or pulls could include a string attached to an object being pulled, a person pushing an object, a person stopping a rolling ball, and two objects colliding and pushing on each other.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to different relative strengths or different directions, but not both at the same time. Assessment does not include non-contact pushes or pulls such as those produced by magnets.] (K-PS2-1)

Analyze data to determine if a design solution works as intended to change the speed or direction of an object with a push or a pull.  [Clarification Statement: Examples of problems requiring a solution could include having a marble or other object move a certain distance, follow a particular path, and knock down other objects. Examples of solutions could include tools such as a ramp to increase the speed of the object and a structure that would cause an object such as a marble or ball to turn.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include friction as a mechanism for change in speed.] (K-PS2-2)

Ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation people want to change to define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool. (K-2-ETS1-1)

The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education

Science and Engineering Practices

Disciplinary Core Ideas

Crosscutting Concepts

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

         With guidance, plan and conduct an

           investigation in collaboration with peers.

          (K-PS2-1)

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

        Analyze data from tests of an object or tool to

          determine if it works as intended. (K-PS2-2)

Asking Questions and Defining Problems

        Ask questions based on observations to find

          more information about the natural and/or

          designed world(s). (K-2-ETS1-1)

        Define a simple problem that can be solved

         through the development of a new or

         improved object or tool. (K-2-ETS1-1)

Developing and Using Models

        Develop a simple model based on evidence to

          represent a proposed object or tool.

         (K-2-ETS1-2)

 

PS2.A: Forces and Motion

         Pushes and pulls can have different strengths

           and directions. (K-PS2-1), (K-PS2-2)

         Pushing or pulling on an object can change

           the speed or direction of its motion and can

           start or stop it. (K-PS2-1), (K-PS2-2)

PS2.B: Types of Interactions

         When objects touch or collide, they push on

           one another and can change motion.

           (K-PS2-1)

PS3.C: Relationship Between Energy and Forces

         A bigger push or pull makes things speed up

         or slow down more quickly. (secondary to

         K-PS2-1)

ETS1.A: Defining Engineering Problems

         A situation that people want to change or

           create can be approached as a problem to be

           solved through engineering. Such problems

           may have many acceptable solutions.

           (secondary to K-PS2-2)

ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems

         A situation that people want to change or

           create can be approached as a problem to be

           solved through engineering. (K-2-ETS1-1)

         Asking questions, making observations, and

           gathering information are helpful in thinking

           about problems. (K-2-ETS1-1)

         Before beginning to design a solution, it is

           important to clearly understand the problem.

          (K-2-ETS1-1)

Cause and Effect

         Simple tests can be designed to gather

           evidence to support or refute student

           ideas about causes. (K-PS2-1), (K-PS2-2)

Structure and Function

         The shape and stability of structures of

         natural and designed objects are related to

          their function(s). (K-2-ETS1-1)

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Connections to the Nature of Science

Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of  Methods

         Scientists use different ways to study the

           world. (K-PS2-1)

 

Unit Title

Unit 3:  Effects of the Sun

Timeframe 

Instructional Days: 15

Unit Summary

How can we use science to keep a playground cool in the summertime?

During this unit of study, students apply an understanding of the effects of the sun on the Earth’s surface. The crosscutting concepts of cause and effect and structure and function are called out as organizing concepts for this disciplinary core idea. Students are expected to demonstrate grade-appropriate proficiency in developing and using models; planning and carrying out investigations; analyzing and interpreting data; and designing solutions. Students are also expected to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

This unit is based on K-PS3-1, K-PS3-2, K-2-ETS1-1, K-2-ETS1-2, and K-2-ETS1-3

Learning Targets

Essential Questions

How does sunlight affect the playground?

Imagine that we have been asked to design a new playground. How would we keep the sand, soil, rocks, and water found on the playground cool during the summer?

Enduring Understandings

Students will understand:

  • Scientists use different ways to study the world.
  • Events have causes that generate observable patterns.
  • Sunlight warms Earth’s surface.
  • Events have causes that generate observable patterns.
  • The shape and stability of structures of natural and designed objects are related to their function(s).
  • Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models. These representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem’s solutions to other people.
  • Because there is always more than one possible solution to a problem, it is useful to compare and test designs. • Sunlight warms Earth’s surface.

Know

By the end of this unit, students will know:

  • Scientists use different ways to study the world.
  • Events have causes that generate observable patterns.
  • Sunlight warms Earth’s surface.

Do

By the end of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Make observations in order to describe patterns of change.
  • Conduct simple investigations in order to make observations and collect data that can be used to make comparisons.
  • Draw conclusions that the sun has the same warming effect on all the materials found on the surface of the Earth.

Evidence of Learning

Formative

Students who understand the concepts are able to:

        Observe patterns in events generated by cause-and-effect relationships.

        Make observations (firsthand or from media) to collect data that can be used to make comparisons.

        Make observations to determine the effect of sunlight on Earth’s surface. (Assessment of temperature is limited to relative

          measures such as warmer/cooler.)

        Examples of Earth’s surface could include:

  1. Sand
  2. Soil
  3. Rocks
  4. Water

         Observe patterns in events generated by cause-and-effect relationships.

         Describe how the shape and stability of structures are related to their function.

         Use tools and materials provided to design and build a device that solves a specific problem or a solution to a specific

           problem.

         Use tools and materials to design and build a structure (e.g., umbrellas, canopies, tents) that will reduce the warming effect

           of sunlight on an area.

         Develop a simple model based on evidence to represent a proposed object or tool.

         Develop a simple sketch, drawing, or physical model to illustrate how the shape of an object helps it function as needed to

           solve a given problem.

         Analyze data from tests of an object or tool to determine if it works as intended.

         Analyze data from tests of two objects designed to solve the same problem to compare the strengths

Summative/ Benchmark

  • Unit Rubric
  • Student Unit -Portfolio/Science Journal/ Work Sample

Alternative Assessments

  • Teacher made test, quizzes, Performance Assessments
  • Projects

Learning Activities

Summary of Key Learning Events and Instruction w/ Integration of Technology/CRP

  • Students will test a variety of materials that are found naturally on the surface of the Earth, including sand, soil, rocks, and water.
  • Samples of materials can be placed on two separate paper plates or shallow plastic containers; one container can be placed in direct sunlight, and the other can be placed out of direct sunlight.
  • After a period of time, students will compare the relative temperature of each.
  • Student will record their observations, then analyze and compare the data to determine if there is a pattern.
  • Students will brainstorm a list of objects that reduce the warming effects of the sun (e.g., shade trees, umbrellas, large hats, canopies).

In this unit of study, students investigate the effects of the sun on the surface of the Earth. Throughout the unit, students make observations in order to describe patterns of change. With adult support, they design and build a structure that will reduce the warming effect of sunlight, and then conduct tests to determine if the structure works as intended.

Scientists use different ways to study the world. In this unit’s progression of learning, students work like scientists to investigate the warming effect of sunlight on the surface of the Earth. They will conduct simple investigations in order to make observations and collect data that can be used to make comparisons. Students should test a variety of materials that are found naturally on the surface of the Earth, including sand, soil, rocks, and water. Samples of each of these materials can be placed on two separate paper plates or shallow plastic containers; one container can be placed in direct sunlight, and the other can be placed out of direct sunlight. After a period of time, students should compare the relative temperature of each. Students should record their observations, then analyze and compare the data to determine if there is a pattern. They should draw the conclusion that the sun has the same warming effect on all the materials found on the surface of the Earth.

As students come to understand that the sun warms the surface of the Earth, they should engage in the engineering design process as follows:

  • Students are challenged to design and build a structure that will reduce the warming effects of the sun.
  • Students brainstorm a list of objects that reduce the warming effects of the sun (e.g., shade trees, umbrellas, large hats, canopies).
  • As a class, students determine what the design should be able to do (criteria). For example:
  1. The structure must reduce the warming effects of the sun.
  2. The structure should be built using materials provided by the teacher.
  3.  The structure should be easy to carry and fit through the doorway of the classroom.
  • Groups of students then use simple drawings or diagrams to design a structure, and use given tools and materials to build their design.
  • Groups should be given a predetermined amount of time to draw and build their designs.
  • Groups share their designs with the class, using their drawings or diagrams, and then test their designs outside. (Groups can place their

                             structures in a sunny area, then compare the relative temperature of the ground under the structure and the ground in direct sunlight.).

Materials / Equipment / Resources

Core Instructional

Materials and Texts

Mystery Science: Lessons for elementary teachers

K-5 Combined Mystery Science Planning Guide

Equipment

See Mystery Science Activity Prep for each Mystery

See Get Activity Supplies for Mystery

Supplemental Resources

Kindergarten Resources

Casting Shadows Across Literacy and Science:  This lesson introduces shadows by taking students on a shadow walk. Ideally this should be done on a sunny day in the schoolyard or neighborhood, but it can be a simple walk around the classroom.

A Big Star: This reading passage that explains what the sun is and that it provides heat to the Earth. This activity comes with comprehension and critical thinking questions.

The Warmth of the Sun: This lesson helps students broaden their understanding of the sun, particularly its critical role in warming the land, air, and water around us.

The Sun Lesson Plan: This lesson plan is adaptable to several grade band levels. The adjustments are included in the lesson plan along with suggestions for extension activities.

Cooler in the Shadows:  This lesson includes several activities where students observe, explore, and analyze shadows. Students will make inferences about the cause of shadows, The lesson is linked to NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft in its voyage to and around Mercury. This lesson is designed to last 4 or more days. There are four different activities within the lesson. The teacher will need to gather some materials prior to beginning the lesson.

Shadow Smile! - Part 6 | Sid the Science Kid: In this song, Miss Susie teaches the class about shadows and the necessary shade they provide for people and animals in the heat! Learn how shadows are a result of an object getting in the way of the path of the sun and that the shadow it casts over the ground provides shade.

Standards

Content Statement

Make observations to determine the effect of sunlight on Earth’s surface. [Clarification Statement: Examples of Earth’s surface could include sand, soil, rocks, and water.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment of temperature is limited to relative measures such as warmer/cooler.] (K-PS3-1)

Use tools and materials provided to design and build a structure that will reduce the warming effect of sunlight on Earth’s surface.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of structures could include umbrellas, canopies, and tents that minimize the warming effect of the sun.] (K-PS3-2)

Ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation people want to change to define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool. (K-2-ETS1-1)

Develop a simple sketch, drawing, or physical model to illustrate how the shape of an object helps it function as needed to solve a given problem. (K-2-ETS1-2)

21st Century Skills and Themes

Interdisciplinary Connections

Career Ready Practices

9.2 Career Awareness, Exploration, and Preparation  

English Language Arts

Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of books by a favorite author and express opinions about them). (K-PS3-1),(K-PS3-2) W.K.7

Directly compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common, to see which object has “more of”/”less of” the attribute, and describe the difference. (K- PS3-1) K.MD.A.2

Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text. (K-2-ETS1-1) RI.2.1

With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers. (K-2-ETS1-1),(K-2-ETS13) W.2.6

Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. (K-2-ETS1-1),(K-2-ETS1-3) W.2.8

Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings. (K-2-ETS1-2) SL.2.5

Mathematics

Directly compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common, to see which object has “more of”/”less of” the attribute, and describe the difference (K-PS3-2) K.MD.A.2

Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (K-2-ETS1-1),(K-2-ETS1-3) MP.2

Model with mathematics. (K-2-ETS1-1),(K-2-ETS1-3) MP.4

Use appropriate tools strategically. (K-2-ETS1-1),(K-2-ETS1-3) MP.5

Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems using information presented in a bar graph. (K-2-ETS1-1),(K-2-ETS1-3) 2.MD.D.10

  • CRP2. Apply appropriate academic and technical skills.
  • CRP4.Communicate clearly and effectively and with reason.
  • CRP6.Demonstrate creativity and innovation.
  • CRP7.Employ valid and reliable research strategies.
  • CRP8.Utilize critical thinking to make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.

By the end of 4th grade,

  • 9.2.4.A.4 Explain why knowledge and skills acquired in the elementary grades lay the foundation for future academic and career success.

Technology Standards - 8.1

K-2 Grade

A. Technology Operations and Concepts: Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems and operations.

  • Understand and use technology systems.

8.1.2.A.1 Identify the basic features of a digital device and explain its purpose.

 

  • Select and use applications effectively and productively.

8.1.2.A.2. Create a document using a word processing application.

8.1.2.A.4 Demonstrate developmentally appropriate navigation skills in virtual environments (i.e. games, museums).

B. Creativity and Innovation: Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge and develop innovative products and process using technology.

  • Apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes.
  • Create original works as a means of personal or group expression.

8.1.2.B.1 Illustrate and communicate original ideas and stories using multiple digital tools and resources.

C. Communication and Collaboration: Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance, to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others.

  • Interact, collaborate, and publish with peers, experts, or others by employing a variety of digital environments and media.
  • Communicate information and ideas to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats.
  • Develop cultural understanding and global awareness by engaging with learners of other cultures.
  • Contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems.

8.1.2.C.1 Engage in a variety of developmentally appropriate learning activities with students in other classes, schools, or countries using various media formats such as online collaborative tools, and social media.

D. Digital Citizenship: Students understand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and practice legal and ethical behavior.

  • Advocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible use of information and technology.

8.1.2.D.1 Develop an understanding of ownership of print and nonprint information.

E: Research and Information Fluency: Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information.

  • Plan strategies to guide inquiry.
  • Locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media.
  • Evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on the appropriateness for specific tasks.

8.1.2.E.1 Use digital tools and online resources to explore a problem or issue.

 

 

F: Critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making: Students use critical thinking skills to plan and conduct research, manage projects, solve problems, and make informed decisions using appropriate digital tools and resources.

  • Identify and define authentic problems and significant questions for investigation.
  • Plan and manage activities to develop a solution or complete a project.
  • Collect and analyze data to identify solutions and/or make informed decisions.
  • Use multiple processes and diverse perspectives to explore alternative solutions.

Future Learning

Grade 1 Unit 4: Light and Sound

              surface beyond them, where the light cannot reach. Mirrors can be used to redirect a light beam.

Grade 3 Unit 1: Weather and Climate

               next.  

Grade 4 Unit 7: Using Engineering Design with Force and Motion Systems

              considering the desired features of a solution (criteria). Different proposals for solutions can be compared on the basis of how well each one meets  

              the specified criteria for success or how well each takes the constraints into account. (secondary)

Modifications/Accommodations

(IEPs, ELLs, 504s, G/T & BASIC SKILLS)

(Note: Teachers identify the modifications that they will use in the unit. See NGSS Appendix D: All Standards, All Students/Case Studies for vignettes and explanations of the modifications.)

  • Structure lessons around questions that are authentic, relate to students’ interests, social/family background and knowledge of their community.
  • Provide students with multiple choices for how they can represent their understandings (e.g. multisensory techniques-auditory/visual aids; pictures,

               illustrations, graphs, charts, data tables, multimedia, modeling).  

  • Provide opportunities for students to connect with people of similar backgrounds (e.g. conversations via digital tool such as SKYPE, experts from the

              community helping with a project, journal articles, and biographies).

  • Provide multiple grouping opportunities for students to share their ideas and to encourage work among various backgrounds and cultures (e.g. multiple representation and multimodal experiences).
  • Engage students with a variety of Science and Engineering practices to provide students with multiple entry points and multiple ways to demonstrate

               their understandings.

  • Use project-based science learning to connect science with observable phenomena.
  • Structure the learning around explaining or solving a social or community-based issue.
  • Provide ELL students with multiple literacy strategies.
  • Collaborate with after-school programs or clubs to extend learning opportunities.
  • Restructure lesson using UDL principals (http://www.cast.org/our-work/about-udl.html#.VXmoXcfD_UA).

Appendix A: NGSS and Foundations for the Unit

Make observations to determine the effect of sunlight on Earth’s surface. [Clarification Statement: Examples of Earth’s surface could include sand, soil, rocks, and water.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment of temperature is limited to relative measures such as warmer/cooler.] (K-PS3-1)

Use tools and materials provided to design and build a structure that will reduce the warming effect of sunlight on Earth’s surface.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of structures could include umbrellas, canopies, and tents that minimize the warming effect of the sun.] (K-PS3-2)

Ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation people want to change to define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool. (K-2-ETS1-1)

Develop a simple sketch, drawing, or physical model to illustrate how the shape of an object helps it function as needed to solve a given problem. (K-2-ETS1-2)

Analyze data from tests of two objects designed to solve the same problem to compare the strengths and weaknesses of how each performs. (K-2-ETS1-3)

The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document  A Framework for K-12 Science Education

Science and Engineering Practices

Disciplinary Core Ideas

Crosscutting Concepts

    Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

   Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

    Asking Questions and Defining Problems

              through the development of a new or

              improved  object or tool. (K-2-ETS1-1)

   Developing and Using Models

        represent a proposed object or tool.

        (K-2-ETS1-2)

   Analyzing and Interpreting Data

        determine if it works as intended.    

      (K-2-ETS1-3)

 PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer

        (K-PS3-1),(K-PS3-2)

  ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering

  Problems

        create can be approached as a problem to  

        be solved through engineering. (K-2-ETS1-1)

        gathering information are helpful in thinking

        about problems. (K-2-ETS1-1)

        important to clearly understand the  

        problem. (K-2-ETS1-1)

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

        drawings, or physical models. These

        representations are useful in communicating

        ideas for a problem’s solutions to other  

        people.(K-2-ETS1-2)

ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

       one possible solution to a problem, it is    

       useful to compare and test designs.  

       (K-2-ETS1-3)

  Cause and Effect

        observable patterns. (K-PS3-1),(K-PS3-2)

  Structure and Function

        natural and designed objects are related

        to their function(s). (K-2-ETS1-2)

     - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

         Connections to Nature of Science 

Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of Methods

  • Scientists use different ways to study the  world. (K-PS3-1)

Unit Title

Unit 4: Basic Needs of Living Things

Timeframe 

Instructional Days: 20

Unit Summary

                              Where do plants and animals live and why so they live there?

In this unit of study, students develop an understanding of what plants and animals need to survive and the relationship between their needs and where they live. Students compare and contrast what plants and animals need to survive and the relationship between the needs of living things and where they live. The crosscutting concepts of patterns and systems and system models are called out as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas. Students are expected to demonstrate grade-appropriate proficiency in developing and using models, analyzing and interpreting data, and engaging in argument from evidence. Students are also expected to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

This unit is based on K-LS1-1, K-ESS3-1, and K-ESS2-2.

Learning Targets

Essential Questions

What do plants need to live and grow?

What is the relationship between what plants need and where they live?

Enduring Understandings

Students will understand:

  • “Concepts” no in Model Curriculum

Know

By the end of this unit, students will know:

  • Scientists look for patterns and order when making observations about the world.
  • Patterns in the natural and human-designed world can be observed and used as evidence.
  • Plants need water and light to live and grow.

Do

By the end of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Develop an understanding of what plants and animals need to survive
  • Understand the relationship between their needs and where they live
  • Demonstrate grade-appropriate proficiency in developing and using models,analyzing and interpreting data, and engaging in argument from evidence

Evidence of Learning

Formative

Students who understand the concepts are able to:

  • Observe that systems in the natural and designed world have parts that work together.
  • Use a model to represent relationships between the needs of different plants and the places they live in the natural world. (Plants, animals, and their surroundings make up a system.)
  • Examples of relationships could include that grasses need sunlight, so they often grow in meadows.
  • Examples of models include diagrams, drawings, physical replicas, dioramas, dramatizations, or storyboards.
  • Use a model to represent the relationships between the needs of different animals and the places they live in the natural world. (Plants, animals, and their surroundings make up a system.)
  • Examples of relationships could include that deer eat buds and leaves and therefore usually live in forested areas.
  • Examples of models include diagrams, drawings, physical replica, dioramas, dramatizations, and storyboards.

Summative/ Benchmark

  • Unit Rubric
  • Student Unit -Portfolio/Science Journal/ Work Sample

Alternative Assessments

  • Teacher made test, quizzes, Performance Assessments
  • Projects

Learning Activities

Summary of Key Learning Events and Instruction w/ Integration of Technology/CRP

*Compare and contrast what plants and animals need to survive

*Use evidence to learn about the relationship between the needs of living things and where they live

*Use patterns and systems and system models to organize concepts for these core ideas

*Develop and use models,analyze and interpret data and engage in arguments from evidence

Many students come to class with experience caring for living things such as family pets, houseplants, gardens, and even younger siblings. Teachers can begin IS1 with activities that allow students to share these experiences with one another. By the end of Unit 4, they should be able to relate these anecdotes to a few key principles about living organisms.

The DCIs for this unit are developmentally appropriate for kindergarten. Students learn that plants need water and light to live and grow and that animals need food. Animals obtain food from plants or other animals. Students also learn that organisms survive and thrive in places that have the resources they need. Simply knowing these core ideas is not sufficient for meeting the PE; K-LS1-1 requires that students identify patterns in the needs of different organisms. It is not possible to identify a pattern unless students observe and compare multiple observations of living things. The process of integrating multiple observations and looking for patterns constitutes analyzing data in the K–2 grade band.

Students can observe living things directly in the classroom, on the schoolyard, and through media. Media (including books, print articles, and digital resources) expose students to a wide variety of organisms. Classroom pets such as birds, rodents, reptiles, fish, or even ant farms allow students to notice consistent patterns over time (i.e., the fish needs to be fed every day or the rodent spends most of its waking time eating). (Note: With pets, teachers must be mindful of district policies and allergies.) Students can observe plants, insects, and other critters on their schoolyard. They can also grow their own seeds in cups or in an outdoor garden space.

Once students have identified patterns about what plants need to survive, they can test out their idea by taking several identical plants that have already sprouted and deprive them of water, light, both, or neither. Based on their model of what plants need, which do they predict will survive? Students will plan their own investigation of this question in grade two (2-LS2-1).

While all plants and all animals share common features, there are also important differences between types of organisms. Different plants require different amounts of water (such as a fern that requires lots of water versus a cactus that requires very little). Different animals prefer different types of foods. For example, some animals only eat plants while others only eat animals, and others eat both. Students can use their background knowledge and observations from media to match specific animals to the food sources that they eat. Teachers can then ask questions such as, “What will happen if a deer that eats only grass tries to live in a desert where cacti are the main plants?”

Students should begin to group plants and animals together based upon their similar environmental needs (water, sunlight) and the availability of their preferred food sources. For example, students might read a story about the grasslands of Africa where a gazelle eats grass and then a lion eats the gazelle. Students should be able to explain [SEP-6] why each animal lives in that particular spot in Africa. Their answers should identify a specific need that is met by that location (either an environmental condition such as, “the grass lives there because it gets the sunlight and water that it needs,” or a food source such as, “the lion lives there because it eats the gazelles there.”). Once students master the relationships of simple groups of organisms like the African grassland, teachers can focus on living things close to their school. What plants grow well in the weather in their city? What animals will eat those plants, and what animals will eat those animals?

Students will build on their model of the relationship between the needs of organisms and their environmental conditions in grade three when they explore what happens when the environment changes (3-LS4-4) and in grade five when they examine the specific flow of energy and matter (5-LS2-1).

Guiding Questions:

  1. How can you tell if something is alive?
  2. What do animals and plants need to survive?
  3. Where do organisms live and why do they live there?

Example Instructional Sequence

The unit should begin with observable phenomena.  The purpose of presenting phenomena to students is to start them thinking and wondering about what they observe. After students have observed the event, they can work individually, with partners, or in a small group to develop questions about what they saw.  The questions will lead them into investigational opportunities throughout the unit that will help them answer their questions.

The questions students share about this unit will be used to guide them in identifying patterns of what plants and animals need to survive.  For example, a pattern may include the types of food that specific organisms eat or that animals consume food but plants do not. Furthermore, students’ questions and investigations will also guide them in developing models that reflect their understanding of the inter-relationship between an organism and its environment.

  • Prior to starting the unit, display pictures of living and non-living things. Direct students to sort the pictures into two groups: living and non-living. Ask

              students to explain how they decided which pictures represented living things and which represented non-living things.

  • Watch the PBS video “Is It Alive?” Stop after each picture and ask students if it’s alive or not. Ask them to explain how they can tell. (This activity will also provide an opportunity to pre-assess students’ understandings and/or misconceptions. It will also provide an opportunity for students to think about what having life means.)
  • Watch the TeacherTube video “Living or Non-Living?”  (This activity provides similar experiences for students as the PBS video. The difference is that after each picture and question, the narrator provides the answer with reasoning.)

In this unit’s progression of learning, students first learn that scientists look for patterns and order when making observations about the world and those patterns in the natural world can be observed and used as evidence. Students conduct firsthand and media-based observations of a variety living things and use their observations as evidence to support the concepts.

  • Plants do not need to take in food, but do need water and light to live and grow.
  • All animals need food in order to live and grow, that they obtain their food from plants or from other animals, that different kinds of food are needed by different kinds of animals, and that all animals need water.

After determining what plants need to survive, kindergarteners learn that plants are systems, with parts, or structures, that work together, enabling plants to meet their needs in a variety of environments. The vast majority of plants have similar structures, such as roots, stems, and leaves, but the structures may look different depending on the type or variety of plant. Although there are many varieties of plants, their structures function in similar ways, allowing the plants to obtain the water and light they need to survive. In other words, each variety of plant has structures that are well-suited to the environment in which it lives. As students learn about different types of plants and the environments in which they live, they use models, such as diagrams, drawings, physical replicas, or dioramas, to represent the relationships between the needs of plants and the places they live in the natural world. For example, grasses need sunlight, so they often grow in meadows. Cacti, which live in places subject to drought, have thick, wide stems and modified leaves (spines) that keep water within the plant during long periods without rain.

After determining what animals need to survive, kindergarteners learn that animals are systems that have parts, or structures, that work together, enabling animals to meet their needs in a variety of environments. Many animals have similar structures, such as mouths or mouthparts, eyes, legs, wings, or fins, but the structures may look different, depending on the type or species of animal. Although there are many types of animals, their structures function in similar ways, allowing them to obtain the water and food they need to survive. In other words, each type of animal has structures that are well-suited to the environment in which they live. As students learn about different types of animals and the environments in which they live, they use models, such as diagrams, drawings, physical replicas, or dioramas, to represent the relationships between the needs of animals and the places they live in the natural world. For example, deer eat buds and leaves; therefore, they usually live in forested areas; pelicans eat fish, therefore they live near the shorelines of oceans or seas.

The final portion of the learning progression focuses on the understanding that plants and animals are system with parts, or structures, that work together. Students use what they have learned about plants and animals to make further observations to determine ways in which plants and animals change their environment to meet their needs. For example:

  • Tree roots can break rocks and concrete in order to continue to grow, plants will expand their root systems in search of water that might be found deeper in the earth, and plants can be found growing around and through man-made structures in search of light.
  • A squirrel digs in the ground to hide food, and birds collect small twigs to build nests in trees. Students need opportunities to make observations, and then, with adult guidance, to use their observations as evidence to support a claim for how an animal can change its environment to meet its needs.

Students need opportunities make observations; then, with adult guidance, they can use their observations as evidence to support a claim about how living things can change its environment to meet its needs.

Materials / Equipment / Resources

Core Instructional

Materials and Texts

Mystery Science: Lessons for elementary teachers

K-5 Combined Mystery Science Planning Guide

Equipment

See Mystery Science Activity Prep for each Mystery

See Get Activity Supplies for Mystery

Supplemental Resources

Kindergarten Resources

Sample of Open Education Resources

Read-Aloud Lesson: Where Do Polar Bears Live? Students identify and recall characteristics that allow polar bears to survive in the extremely cold Arctic environment.

"Good Night" & Where Do Polar Bears Live? This is a Paired Text activity that uses the “Where Do Polar Bears Live” read aloud and the non-fiction text “Good Night” which addresses hibernation.

The Needs of Living Things This lesson plan has one level for Grades K-2 and another level for Grades 3-5. Students will learn about what plants and animals need to survive and how habitats support those needs. They will also learn about how organisms can change their environment.

Living Things and Their Needs:  This is an excellent resource that provides a Teacher Guide, videos, reading resources, and student activity sheets. The objective of the lessons is for students to learn about living organisms and what they need to survive. These lessons can easily be taught as an interdisciplinary set of learning experiences.

How do living things Interact: This unit plan is about unit plan about living things and environmental interactions

5E Science Lesson Plan: This Prezi presentation describes lesson ideas that support students’ understanding of living organisms. Lessons also provide an opportunity for students to identify patterns that help them determine similarities and differences between plants and animals.

Curious George: Paper Towel Plans:  This video from Curious George shows students helping bean seeds sprout outside of soil by meeting their essential needs for moisture, temperature, air, and light. The children place the beans and a wet paper towel inside a zippered plastic bag and leave them undisturbed in a warm, well-lighted place. After two weeks, the students return and observe that the beans have sprouted and, like apple seeds, will one day grow to be fully developed plants.

From Seed to Fruit | Everyday Learning: Seed to Fruit takes children through the different stages of growth in the life of a cherry tomato plant. Planting a seed in a cup and watching it grow over time is a wonderful way to introduce the life cycle to young children. This resource is part of the KET Everyday Science for Preschoolers collection. This video is available in both English and Spanish audio, along with corresponding closed captions.

Think Garden: The Importance of Water: This video from KET's Think Garden collection explores why plants need water to survive, and how they tell us they're thirsty. Learn about the signs plants give when they've had too much or too little water and the part water plays in the process of photosynthesis. See a quick, easy-to-understand animation explaining the water cycle and transpiration process. Also find out how to improve water quality with rain gardens and how to conserve water with rain barrels. This video is available in both English and Spanish audio, along with corresponding closed captions.

Think Garden: Plant Structure: This video from KET’s Think Garden collection examines plant structure by taking a closer look at the root and shoots systems. Learn about roots, stems, leaves, flowers, seeds, and fruit through engaging illustrations and animations.

Standards

Content Statement

Use observations to describe patterns of what plants and animals (including humans) need to survive. [Clarification Statement: Examples of patterns could include that animals need to take in food but plants do not; the different kinds of food needed by different types of animals; the requirement of plants to have light; and, that all living things need water.] (K-LS1-1)

Use a model to represent the relationship between the needs of different plants and animals (including humans) and the places they live. [Clarification Statement: Examples of relationships could include that deer eat buds and leaves, therefore, they usually live in forested areas; and, grasses need sunlight so they often grow in meadows. Plants, animals, and their surroundings make up a system.] (K-ESS3-1)

Construct an argument supported by evidence for how plants and animals (including humans) can change the environment to meet their needs. [Clarification Statement: Examples of plants and animals changing their environment could include a squirrel digs in the ground to hide its food and tree roots can break concrete.] (K-ESS2-2)

21st Century Skills and Themes

Interdisciplinary Connections

Career Ready Practices

9.2 Career Awareness, Exploration, and Preparation  

English Language Arts

After students observe plants and animals in a variety of settings (e.g., ant farms, fish in an aquarium, plants growing, insects in a jar), the teacher asks them to share their thoughts about what the plants and animals need using expressions like, “I think…” and “I agree with….” To help summarize patterns in the needs of plants and animals, teachers can list all of the “needs” the class has discussed on the board using words and pictures/symbols (e.g., sun, water, food). Students, individually or with a partner, draw a picture of a plant on one half of a piece of paper, and an animal on the other half. Then they draw and/or write the needs of the plant and of the animal next to each picture. Students can verbally complete the sentence frame, “Plants are different from animals because _________.” This concept is important because scientists distinguish plants from animals based on what they need: animals need to consume food while plants do not, although plants do need nutrients. Students can represent this idea with a Venn diagram.

ELA/Literacy Standards: W.K.2, 8; SL.K.1, 4, 5; L.K.5c

Mathematics

Kindergarten students use attributes to sort objects (K.MD.3). For example, a large portion of IS1 involves sorting plants and animals based on patterns in their needs. Students can sort organisms based on whether they are a plant or an animal, whether they live on water or land, and whether an animal eats only plants, only animals, or both.

With adult support, kindergarteners use simple measurements to describe various attributes of plants and animals. Kindergarteners can use simple, nonstandard units to measure the height of plants or the amount of water given to plants. For example, they might use Unifix cubes to measure height or count the number of scoops of water given to a plant on a daily or weekly basis. Students should work in groups to measure and record their data. They also measurements to describe various attributes of animals. Kindergarteners can use simple, nonstandard units to measure such attributes as height, length, or weight. They can also count numbers of appendages or other body parts. They might use Unifix cubes to measure height or length and wooden blocks to measure weight. Students should work in groups to measure and record their data.

With adult guidance and questioning, students can then learn to analyze their data. As students use data to compare the amount of growth that occurs in plants that get varying amounts of water or sunlight, they are given the opportunity to reason abstractly and quantitatively. For example, students can measure and compare the height of a sunflower grown in the shade compared to the height of a sunflower grown in the sun, or they can count and compare the number of leaves on bean plants that receive different amounts of water daily. These investigations will give students evidence to support claims about the needs of plants. Students should also have opportunities to solve one-step addition/subtraction word problems based on their collected data.

  • CRP2. Apply appropriate academic and technical skills.
  • CRP4.Communicate clearly and effectively and with reason.
  • CRP6.Demonstrate creativity and innovation.
  • CRP7.Employ valid and reliable research strategies.
  • CRP8.Utilize critical thinking to make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.

By the end of 4th grade,

  • 9.2.4.A.4 Explain why knowledge and skills acquired in the elementary grades lay the foundation for future academic and career success.

Technology Standards - 8.1

K-2 Grade

A. Technology Operations and Concepts: Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems and operations.

  • Understand and use technology systems.

8.1.2.A.1 Identify the basic features of a digital device and explain its purpose.

 

  • Select and use applications effectively and productively.

8.1.2.A.2. Create a document using a word processing application.

8.1.2.A.4 Demonstrate developmentally appropriate navigation skills in virtual environments (i.e. games, museums).

B. Creativity and Innovation: Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge and develop innovative products and process using technology.

  • Apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes.
  • Create original works as a means of personal or group expression.

8.1.2.B.1 Illustrate and communicate original ideas and stories using multiple digital tools and resources.

C. Communication and Collaboration: Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance, to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others.

  • Interact, collaborate, and publish with peers, experts, or others by employing a variety of digital environments and media.
  • Communicate information and ideas to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats.
  • Develop cultural understanding and global awareness by engaging with learners of other cultures.
  • Contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems.

8.1.2.C.1 Engage in a variety of developmentally appropriate learning activities with students in other classes, schools, or countries using various media formats such as online collaborative tools, and social media.

D. Digital Citizenship: Students understand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and practice legal and ethical behavior.

  • Advocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible use of information and technology.

8.1.2.D.1 Develop an understanding of ownership of print and nonprint information.

E: Research and Information Fluency: Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information.

  • Plan strategies to guide inquiry.
  • Locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media.
  • Evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on the appropriateness for specific tasks.

8.1.2.E.1 Use digital tools and online resources to explore a problem or issue.

 

 

F: Critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making: Students use critical thinking skills to plan and conduct research, manage projects, solve problems, and make informed decisions using appropriate digital tools and resources.

  • Identify and define authentic problems and significant questions for investigation.
  • Plan and manage activities to develop a solution or complete a project.
  • Collect and analyze data to identify solutions and/or make informed decisions.
  • Use multiple processes and diverse perspectives to explore alternative solutions.

Future Learning

Students will build on their model of the relationship between the needs of organisms and their environmental conditions in grade three when they explore what happens when the environment changes (3-LS4-4) and in grade five when they examine the specific flow of energy and matter (5-LS2-1).

Modifications/Accommodations

(IEPs, ELLs, 504s, G/T & BASIC SKILLS)

(Note: Teachers identify the modifications that they will use in the unit. See NGSS Appendix D: All Standards, All Students/Case Studies for vignettes and explanations of the modifications.)

  • Structure lessons around questions that are authentic, relate to students’ interests, social/family background and knowledge of their community.
  • Provide students with multiple choices for how they can represent their understandings (e.g. multisensory techniques-auditory/visual aids; pictures, illustrations, graphs, charts, data tables, multimedia, modeling).
  • Provide opportunities for students to connect with people of similar backgrounds (e.g. conversations via digital tool such as SKYPE, experts from the community helping with a project, journal articles, and biographies).
  • Provide multiple grouping opportunities for students to share their ideas and to encourage work among various backgrounds and cultures (e.g. multiple representation and multimodal experiences).
  • Engage students with a variety of Science and Engineering practices to provide students with multiple entry points and multiple ways to demonstrate their understandings.
  • Use project-based science learning to connect science with observable phenomena.
  • Structure the learning around explaining or solving a social or community-based issue.
  • Provide ELL students with multiple literacy strategies.
  • Collaborate with after-school programs or clubs to extend learning opportunities.
  • Restructure lesson using UDL principals (http://www.cast.org/our-work/about-udl.html#.VXmoXcfD_UA

Appendix A: NGSS and Foundations for the Unit

Use observations to describe patterns of what plants and animals (including humans) need to survive. [Clarification Statement: Examples of patterns could include that animals need to take in food but plants do not; the different kinds of food needed by different types of animals; the requirement of plants to have light; and, that all living things need water.] (K-LS1-1)

Use a model to represent the relationship between the needs of different plants and animals (including humans) and the places they live. [Clarification Statement: Examples of relationships could include that deer eat buds and leaves, therefore, they usually live in forested areas; and, grasses need sunlight so they often grow in meadows. Plants, animals, and their surroundings make up a system.] (K-ESS3-1)

Construct an argument supported by evidence for how plants and animals (including humans) can change the environment to meet their needs. [Clarification Statement: Examples of plants and animals changing their environment could include a squirrel digs in the ground to hide its food and tree roots can break concrete.] (K-ESS2-2)

The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Disciplinary Core Ideas

Crosscutting Concepts

   Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

         to collect data that can be used to make

        comparisons. (K-PS3-1)

   Analyzing and Interpreting Data

        describe patterns in the natural world in order

        to answer scientific questions. (K-LS1-1)

   Developing and Using Models

        natural world. (K-ESS3-1)

   Engaging in Argument from Evidence

       support a claim. (K-ESS2-2)

  LS1.C: Organization for Matter and Energy Flow

  in Organisms

        other animals. Plants need water and light

       to  live and grow. (K-LS1-1)

  ESS3.A: Natural Resources

        from the land, and they live in places that

       have the things they need. Humans use

       natural resources for everything they do. 

       (K-ESS3-1)

  ESS2.E: Biogeology

       environment. (K-ESS2-2)

Patterns

Systems and System Models

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

         Connections to Nature of Science

Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence

  • Scientists look for patterns and order

       when making observations about the

       world. (K-LS1-1)

Unit Title

Unit 5: Basic Needs of Humans

Timeframe 

Instructional Days: 15

Unit Summary

              How do people impact the environment as they gather and use what they need to live and grow?

In this unit of study, students develop an understanding of what humans need to survive and the relationship between their needs and where they live. The crosscutting concept of cause and effect is called out as the organizing concept for the disciplinary core ideas. Students demonstrate grade-appropriate proficiency in asking questions and defining problems, and in obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information. Students are also expected to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

This unit is based on K-ESS3-3 and K-2 ETS1-1.

Learning Targets

Essential Questions

How can humans reduce their impact on the land, water, air, and other living things in the local environment?

Enduring Understandings

Students will understand:

  • Events have causes that generate observable patterns.
  • Things that people do to live comfortably can affect the world around them.
  • People can make choices that reduce their impacts on the land, water, air, and other living things.
  • Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models. These representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem’s solutions to other people.
  • A situation that people want to change or create can be approached as a problem to be solved through engineering.
  • Asking questions, making observations, and gathering information are helpful in thinking about problems.
  • Before beginning to design a solution, it is important to clearly understand the problem.

Know

By the end of this unit, students will know:

  • Events have causes that generate observable patterns.
  • Things that people do to live comfortably can affect the world around them.
  • People can make choices that reduce their impacts on the land, water, air, and other living things.
  • Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models. These representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem’s solutions to other people.
  • A situation that people want to change or create can be approached as a problem to be solved through engineering.
  • Asking questions, making observations, and gathering information are helpful in thinking about problems.
  • Before beginning to design a solution, it is important to clearly understand the problem.

Do

By the end of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Students will be able to develop an understanding of what humans need to survive and the relationship between their needs and where they live.
  • Students will be able to use the cross cutting concept of cause and effect as the organizing concept for the disciplinary core ideas.
  • Students will be able to demonstrate grade-appropriate proficiency in asking questions and defining problems, and in obtaining, evaluating and communicating information.
  • Students will be able to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

Evidence of Learning

Formative

Students who understand the concepts are able to:

   Observe patterns in events generated due to cause-and-effect relationships.

   Communicate solutions with others in oral and/or written forms using models and/or drawings that provide detail about

     scientific ideas.

   Communicate solutions that will reduce the impact of humans on the land, water, air, and/or other living things in the local

     environment.

   Ask questions based on observations to find more information about the natural and/or designed world.

   Define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool.

•   Ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation that people want to change in order to define

     a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool.

Summative/ Benchmark

  • Unit Rubric
  • Student Unit -Portfolio/Science Journal/ Work Sample

Alternative Assessments

  • Teacher made test, quizzes, Performance Assessments
  • Projects

Learning Activities

Summary of Key Learning Events and Instruction w/ Integration of Technology/CRP

  • Observe their families in their day-to-day lives.
  • Make lists of daily observations for discussion of what we eat,what we throw away,when and how to use water,how we warm or cool our homes.
  • List  types of appliances and gadgets that are used,what resources are used to make the clothes they wear,how we travel from place to place,and how we communicate with others.
  • Hold class discussions about the cause and effect by asking questions and defining problems to obtain,evaluate and communicate information.
  • Students can share their observations and then discuss the concept of a comfortable lifestyle by defining the needs of others.

In this unit of study, students will develop an understanding of the impact that humans have on the land, water, air, and other living things in the

local environment and engage in a portion of the engineering design process in order to communicate solutions that can reduce these impacts.

To help students recognize the impact that humans have on the living and nonliving components of the local environment, they need opportunities to observe and think about the things that people do to live comfortably. Over a period of a few days, students can observe their families in their day-to-day lives, paying attention to what they eat, what they throw away, when and how they use water, how they warm or cool their home, what types of appliances and gadgets they use, how they maintain their home and yard, what resources are used to make the clothes they wear, how they travel from place to place, and how they communicate with others. During whole-group discussions, students can share their observations and then discuss the concept of comfortable lifestyle. This list could include:

•         Plants and animals for food

•         Trees, rocks, sand, and other materials for building homes and schools

•         Local reserves of water for drinking, washing clothes, showering, washing dishes, watering lawns, and cooking

•         Gas and oil for cars and buses

•         Electricity to power the appliances in their homes

•         Land for homes, schools, parks, parking lots, and landfills

Then the class can discuss how obtaining and using these types of resources affects the local environment. To help with these discussions, teachers can use books, multimedia resources, field trips, or even invite guest speakers to the classroom. As students participate in discussions, they should be encouraged to ask questions, share observations, and describe cause-and-effect relationships between human use of resources and human impact on the environment.

As students come to understand that things people do to live comfortably can affect the world around them, they are ready to engage in the engineering design process. The process should include the following steps:

  1. As a class or in groups, students participate in shared research to find examples of ways that people solve some of the problems created by humans’  use of resources from the environment. For example, people in the community might choose to:

o   Recycle plastic, glass, paper, and other materials in order to reduce the amount of trash in landfills;

o   Plant trees in areas where trees have been cut down for lumber to renew regional habitats for local wildlife; or

o   Set up rainwater collection systems so that rainwater can be used to maintain landscaping instead of using water from local reserves.

        2)   Groups of students then develop a simple sketch, drawing, diagram, or physical model to illustrate how the solution reduces the impact of humans on

               land, water, air and/or other living things in the local environment.

       3)   Groups need the opportunity to communicate their solutions with the class in oral and/or written form, using their sketches, drawings, diagrams, or

             models to help explain how the solution reduces the human impact on the environment.

While engaging in this process, students should learn that even though humans affect the environment in many ways, people can make choices that reduce their impacts on the land, water, air, and other living things in the environment.

Materials / Equipment / Resources

Core Instructional

Materials and Texts

Mystery Science: Lessons for elementary teachers

K-5 Combined Mystery Science Planning Guide

Equipment

See Mystery Science Activity Prep for each Mystery

See Get Activity Supplies for Mystery

Supplemental Resources

Kindergarten Resources

Sample of Open Education Resources

Humans on Earth:  This is a 3.5 minute narrated video explaining the use of natural resources to supply the needs of humans, and solutions for preserving them.

The Clean Water Book: Choices for Resource Water Protection: This book is available from the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection

Recycling Manual for New Jersey Schools: This manual will guide school personnel through a step-by-step process of setting up a recycling program in the school. It provides all the necessary tools for designing and implementing a viable and comprehensive program in private, public and parochial institutions.

Speakers Program:  The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) fields requests for public speakers, classroom presentations and exhibitors regarding the various environmental topics, programs and services that are administered by the agency.

Practice the 5 R’s – Poster

The USGS Water Science School:  Welcome to the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Water Science School. We offer information on many aspects of water, along with pictures, data, maps, and an interactive center where you can give opinions and test your water knowledge.

Standards

Content Statement

Communicate solutions that will reduce the impact of humans on the land, water, air, and/or other living things in the local environment.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of human impact on the land could include cutting trees to produce paper and using resources to produce bottles. Examples of solutions could include reusing paper and recycling cans and bottles.] (K-ESS3-3)

Ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation people want to change to define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool. (K-2 ETS1-1)

21st Century Skills and Themes

Interdisciplinary Connections

Career Ready Practices

9.2 Career Awareness, Exploration, and Preparation  

English Language Arts

Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic. (K-ESS3-3) W.K.2

Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text. (K-2-ETS1-1) RI.2.1

With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers. (K-2-ETS1-1) W.2.6

Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. (K-2-ETS1-1) W.2.8

Mathematics

Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (K-2-ETS1-1) MP.2

Model with mathematics. (K-2-ETS1-1) MP.4

Use appropriate tools strategically. (K-2-ETS1-1) MP.5

Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems using information presented in a bar graph. (K-2-ETS1-1) 2.MD.D.10

  • CRP2. Apply appropriate academic and technical skills.
  • CRP4.Communicate clearly and effectively and with reason.
  • CRP6.Demonstrate creativity and innovation.
  • CRP7.Employ valid and reliable research strategies.
  • CRP8.Utilize critical thinking to make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.

By the end of 4th grade,

  • 9.2.4.A.4 Explain why knowledge and skills acquired in the elementary grades lay the foundation for future academic and career success.

Technology Standards - 8.1

K-2 Grade

A. Technology Operations and Concepts: Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems and operations.

  • Understand and use technology systems.

8.1.2.A.1 Identify the basic features of a digital device and explain its purpose.

 

  • Select and use applications effectively and productively.

8.1.2.A.2. Create a document using a word processing application.

8.1.2.A.4 Demonstrate developmentally appropriate navigation skills in virtual environments (i.e. games, museums).

B. Creativity and Innovation: Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge and develop innovative products and process using technology.

  • Apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes.
  • Create original works as a means of personal or group expression.

8.1.2.B.1 Illustrate and communicate original ideas and stories using multiple digital tools and resources.

C. Communication and Collaboration: Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance, to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others.

  • Interact, collaborate, and publish with peers, experts, or others by employing a variety of digital environments and media.
  • Communicate information and ideas to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats.
  • Develop cultural understanding and global awareness by engaging with learners of other cultures.
  • Contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems.

8.1.2.C.1 Engage in a variety of developmentally appropriate learning activities with students in other classes, schools, or countries using various media formats such as online collaborative tools, and social media.

D. Digital Citizenship: Students understand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and practice legal and ethical behavior.

  • Advocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible use of information and technology.

8.1.2.D.1 Develop an understanding of ownership of print and nonprint information.

E: Research and Information Fluency: Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information.

  • Plan strategies to guide inquiry.
  • Locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media.
  • Evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on the appropriateness for specific tasks.

8.1.2.E.1 Use digital tools and online resources to explore a problem or issue.

 

 

F: Critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making: Students use critical thinking skills to plan and conduct research, manage projects, solve problems, and make informed decisions using appropriate digital tools and resources.

  • Identify and define authentic problems and significant questions for investigation.
  • Plan and manage activities to develop a solution or complete a project.
  • Collect and analyze data to identify solutions and/or make informed decisions.
  • Use multiple processes and diverse perspectives to explore alternative solutions.

Future Learning

Grade 4 Unit 5: Transfer of Energy

Grade 5 Unit 4: Water on Earth

  • Human activities in agriculture, industry, and everyday life have had major effects on the land, vegetation, streams, ocean, air, and even outer space. But individuals and communities are doing things to help protect Earth’s resources and environments

Modifications/Accommodations

(IEPs, ELLs, 504s, G/T & BASIC SKILLS)

(Note: Teachers identify the modifications that they will use in the unit. See NGSS Appendix D: All Standards, All Students/Case Studies for vignettes and explanations of the modifications.)

  • Structure lessons around questions that are authentic, relate to students’ interests, social/family background and knowledge of their community.
  • Provide students with multiple choices for how they can represent their understandings (e.g. multisensory techniques-auditory/visual aids; pictures, illustrations, graphs, charts, data tables, multimedia, modeling).
  • Provide opportunities for students to connect with people of similar backgrounds (e.g. conversations via digital tool such as SKYPE, experts from the community helping with a project, journal articles, and biographies).
  •  Provide multiple grouping opportunities for students to share their ideas and to encourage work among various backgrounds and cultures (e.g. multiple representation and multimodal experiences).
  • Engage students with a variety of Science and Engineering practices to provide students with multiple entry points and multiple ways to demonstrate their understandings.
  • Use project-based science learning to connect science with observable phenomena.
  • Structure the learning around explaining or solving a social or community-based issue.
  • Provide ELL students with multiple literacy strategies.
  • Collaborate with after-school programs or clubs to extend learning opportunities.
  • Restructure lesson using UDL principals (http://www.cast.org/our-work/about-udl.html#.VXmoXcfD_UA).

Appendix A: NGSS and Foundations for the Unit

Communicate solutions that will reduce the impact of humans on the land, water, air, and/or other living things in the local environment.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of human impact on the land could include cutting trees to produce paper and using resources to produce bottles. Examples of solutions could include reusing paper and recycling cans and bottles.] (K-ESS3-3)

Ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation people want to change to define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool. (K-2 ETS1-1)

The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education

Science and Engineering Practices

Disciplinary Core Ideas

Crosscutting Concepts

   Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

   Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating

   Information

       and/or written forms using models and/or

       drawings that provide detail about scientific

       ideas. (K-ESS3-3)

   Asking Questions and Defining Problems

     more information about the natural and/or

     designed world(s). (K-2-ETS1-1)

     through the development of a new or

     improved object or tool. (K-2-ETS1-1)

  ESS3.C: Human Impacts on Earth Systems

  ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

  • Designs can be conveyed through sketches,

       drawings, or physical models. These

       representations are useful in communicating

       ideas for a problem’s solutions to other

       people.(secondary) (K-ESS3-3)

  ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering

  Problems

  • A situation that people want to change or

        create can be approached as a problem to  

       be solved through engineering. (K-2-ETS1-1)

  • Asking questions, making observations, and

        gathering information are helpful in thinking

        about problems. (K-2-ETS1-1)

       important to clearly understand the  

     problem. (K-2-ETS1-1)

  Cause and Effect

        observable patterns. (K-ESS3-3)

  Structure and Function

        natural and designed objects are related

       to  their function(s). (K-2-ETS1-2)