Group Project Proposal (Science)

SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SINGAPORE

INVESTIGATIVE SKILLS IN SCIENCE

Names:

Tan Chuan Jie (22)

Yeo Jia Hao Calvin (24)

Class: S2-04

Group Reference: H

A.    Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:

[    ] Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research

e.g. Investigation of the anti-bacteria effect of chrysanthemum

[    ] Measure a value: Experimental research (I)

e.g. Determination of the mass of Jupiter using planetary photography

[  ] Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)

e.g. Investigation of the effect of temperature on the growth of crystals

[    ] Construct a model: Theoretical sciences and applied mathematics

e.g. Modeling of the cooling curve of naphthalene

[    ] Observational and exploratory research

e.g. Investigation of the soil quality in School of Science and Technology, Singapore

1. Type & Category

Type of research: 3(Write down one number from 1 to 6)

Category: 8(Write down one number from 7 to 20)

Sub-category: d (Write down the sub-heading alphabet)

Application of project relevant to SST Community, Society or the World:

Gelatin is gaining in popularity in the food and beverage industry for making meat loaves and meatballs. The protein is used to bond fibres of meat together to make it look like a whole freshly uncut piece of meat. Therefore we are going to investigate what is the optimum amount of gelatin for the bonding of meat.

C.    Write down your research title:

Investigation of the binding properties of gelatin to fish meat

D.   (a) Aim / question being addressed

A student wanted to find out what how much gelatin should be added to minced fish meat so that the binding between the meat is the highest.

(b) Independent variable

The independent variable is the amount of gelatin used in each fish ball

(c) Dependent variable

The dependent variable is the height at which each fish ball bounces back up.

(d) Controlled variables

(a)  The amount of minced fish meat used in each fish ball

(b)  The type of minced fish meat used in each fish ball

(c)  The surface each fish ball bounces on

(d)  The time each fish ball is in the refrigerator

(e)  The height the fish ball is dropped from

(f)  The temperature of the surrounding air

(e) Hypotheses

The hypothesis is the more gelatin added, the bouncier the fish ball will get until a certain point at which the more gelatin is added, the bounciness of the fish ball will remain the same.

E.    Method – Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)

(a) Equipment list:

-       Cling wrap

-       Minced fish meat 700 grams

-       Gelatine 600 grams

-       Weighing machine

-       Refrigerator (-10 degree celcius to room temperature)

-       Ruler (30 cm)

-       Camera with slow-motion function

-       Beaker 250 ml (2)

* ‘A’ is the control set-up. It is going to prove that gelatin affects the bounciness of each fish ball. No gelatin, completely no bounce of the fishball.

 A B C D E F G H I J Fish meat (g) 20* 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 Gelatin (g) 0* 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

(b) Diagrams

(c) Procedures: Detail all procedures and experimental design to be used for data collection

1. Weigh the 3 grams of gelatin and 20 grams of fish meat as shown in figure 1.1

2. Pour the gelatin onto the fish meat on a cling wrap as shown in figure 1.2

3. To mix the gelatin and the fish meat, fold the cling wrap together and start squeezing the cling wrap and its contents for 1 minute as shown in figure 1.2

4. After mixing the contents, mould the cling wrap into a sphere as shown in figure 1.3

5. Repeat steps 1 to 4 for the different proportions in the table shown above.

6. Put the fish balls into the refrigerator for 1 day.

7. Take the fish balls out of the refrigerator

8. Setup the apparatus as shown in figure 1.4

9. To ensure that height of the bounce of the fishball is precise in slow motion make sure that you are using a camera with 60 frames per second and higher.

10. Record using the camera and drop the fish ball one by one thrice from 30 cm

11. Import the footages into iMovie and set the speed of the footages to 50%

12. Observe how high the fish balls bounced, average the rebound height of each fishball type (e.g. A, B, C) and record the results

(d) Risk, Assessment and Management: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.

 Risk Assessment Management According to experts, there is a risk of the gelatin getting contaminated with certain animal diseases. However no such cases were reported. Low Let everyone in the lab wear masks and warn everyone in the lab to not try to ingest gelatin The wooden structure may scratch someone if they touch the edges. Low Use gloves and be careful when using the dropper If gelatin is accidentally ingested, it can cause upset stomach, bloating, constipation and lack of appetite. Medium Let everyone in the lab wear masks and warn everyone in the lab to not try to ingest gelatin As the experiments involve raw meat, bacteria may spread and potentially cause diseases High Wash hands with antibacterial soap after the experiment As the experiment involves glassware, there is a risk of breakage and cutting of the hands. High Wear gloves when carrying out the experiment. In case of breakage, the cut to the hands will be minimized.

Table 3: Risk Assessment and Management table

(e) Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyze the data/results that answer research questions or hypotheses

1.    Observe how high the fish ball rebounds in slow motion through the recorded footages.

2.    Plot a graph of the average height the fish ball rebounds to how much gelatin is added into each fish ball.

3.    From the graph, we can find out the relationship between the amount of gelatin added to each fish ball to the bonding strength of gelatin.

F. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major sources (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order for each type of source.

(a) Books

Kamozawa, A., & Talbot, H. A. (2010). Ideas in food: great recipes and why they work. New York: Clarkson Potter. pages 11, 238-239, 278-288

(b) Journals

Kieliszek, M., & Misiewicz, A. (2013). Microbial transglutaminase and its application in the food industry. A review. , 59(3), . Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3971462/

Tseng, T.-F., Liu, D.-C., & Chen, M.-T. (2002). Evaluation of Transglutaminase from pig plasma on the quality of milk curd. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 15(1), 106–110. doi:10.5713/ajas.2002.106

(c) Websites

Bonné, J. (2005, February 11). Noodles, reinvented. Retrieved January 14, 2017, from Science, http://www.nbcnews.com/id/6915287/#.WHn9wLZ9634

Cooking Issues. (n.d.). Retrieved January 13, 2017, from http://www.cookingissues.com/transglutaminase-aka-meat-glue/

Danny. (2013, August 15). Transglutaminase (meat glue). Retrieved January 14, 2017, from http://www.molecularrecipes.com/hydrocolloid-guide/transglutaminase-meat-glue/

Myth: “Glue” is used to hold some meat together. (2017). Retrieved January 14, 2017, from http://www.meatmythcrushers.com/myths/myth-glue-is-used-to-hold-some-meat-together.php