1. User Instructions

                As you find each new lichen, you can make a little collection and write down an abundance rating:

In-App Abundance Ratings

Real World Quantity: 1

1-3 Individuals Observed

Real World Quantity: 2

4-10 Individuals Observed

Real World Quantity: 3

More than 10 individuals were observed but less than half of the trees have the target lichen

Real World Quantity: 4

The lichen could be found on more than half of the tree inspected

It’s not necessary to know the name of the lichen, just to distinguish them.

Next, use the app to see if your collection includes any of the indicator species by searching the index of species by color and form.

Enter the abundance of each indicator lichen that you found. The app will assume a zero rating for any indicator species that you do not enter.

When you finished entering the data, the app will calculate the air-quality of your tree set, and return a rating.

If you have made collections, you may want to build your identification skills by taking some time to identify your specific lichens.

The lichen Land website at Oregon State University provides on-line keys to identify lichens and more information about their biology. To see more visit: http://ocid.nacse.org/lichenland

The book, Macrolichens of the Pacific Northwest, 2007 by Bruce McCune and Linda Geiser published by OSU Press, is the most comprehensive regional guide. The US Forest Service Lichens and Air Quality Database can be found at http://gis.nacse.org/lichenair

The American Bryological and Lichenological Society offers additional internet resources at http://www.abls.org

  1. App Definitions

Table 1: App Definitions

Forest Density

Canopy Cover

Visual Description

Open woodland or park

0-50%

Trees are open-grown and widely spaced

Well lit forest

51-80%

Tree canopies are overlapping but forest floor is well lit, supporting understory forbs,grasses and/or shrubs

Dense forest

80-100%

Trees are closely spaced with little light on the forest floor, which is mostly devoid of vegetation

Table 2: App Definitions (Cont.)

Environment

Definition

Major urban or industrial

Large cities over 100,000 population, and/or sites near major industry

Suburban, small city, town

Population centers under 100,000 without major industry

Agricultural

Rural lands within or surrounded by areas used for farming or grazing

Remote forests and wildlands

Forested areas at least 40 miles from major urban or industrial lands and > 5 miles from smaller towns and cities, used primarily for forestry and/or recreation.

  1. Species List

Table 3: Species List

Common Name in App

Scientific Name in App

N Rating

N Dep at Peak Freq

How to Recognize

witch's hair lichen


Alectoria

oligotroph

2.4

Pale yellow-green pendant, filamentous lichen. A. sarmentosa and A. vancouverensis are distinguishable only by chemical tests. 40-80 cm long.

horsehair lichens

sorediate Bryoria

oligotroph

2.3

Brown pendant, filamentous lichens with powdery white soralia. 15-30 cm long.

lemon lichen

Candelaria

eutroph

6.1

Bright yellow, small foliose lichen. To 1 cm diameter.

antler lichen

Evernia prunastri

eutroph

6.1

Medium sized, yellow-green, foliose lichen (appears fruticose in macroview) branching in 'v's. To 7-13 cm long.

Table 4: Species List (Cont.)

Common Name in App

Scientific Name in App

N Rating

N Dep at Peak Freq

How to Recognize

tube lichens, gray to black inside

Hypogymnia, gray-black interior

oligotroph

2.3

Hollow, puffy, uneven diameter, b& w tube-shapped thallus with partly dark interiors; no rhizines. From 5-15 cm long.

tube lichens, white inside

Hypogymnia, white interior

oligotroph

2.4

Hollow, even diameter b&w tube-shaped thallus, all white inside; no rhizines. From 2-10 cm long.

sinuous hypotrachyna lichen

Hypotrachyna

oligotroph

1.1

Small pale yellow-green foliose lichen with squarrose rhizines and soralia. From 1-4, up to 10, cm wide.

Oregon lung lichen

Lobaria oregana

oligotroph

1.1

Large foliose lichen, grass green (wet) to pale green (dry), rounded patches of fuzzy tomentum below, dimpled like lung tissue, lobulate margins. 5-30 cm broad.

Table 5: Species List (Cont.)

Common Name in App

Scientific Name in App

N Rating

N Dep at Peak Freq

How to Recognize

lung lichen

Lobaria pulmonaria

oligotroph

2.2

Large foliose lichen, grass green (wet) to brown (dry), rounded patches of fuzzy tomentum below, dimpled like lung tissue, with marginal soralia. 5-15 cm broad

camouflage lichen

Melanelixia and Melanohalea

eutroph

6.1

Small, appressed, brownish to olive foliose lichens with cylindrical branched (fuliginosa) or unbranched (subelegantula) isidia breaking down into granular soredia (subaurifera). Less than 10 cm broad.

camouflage lichen

Melanohalea

mesotroph

3.2

Small, appressed, brownish to olive foliose lichens with bulbous greasy, bulbous isidia (exasperatula) or with disc shaped fruiting bodies (subolivacea/multispora). Less than 6 cm broad.

magic flute lichen

Menegazzia

oligotroph

1.1

Perforate thallus, b&w flattened lichen with hollow lobes and a circular thallus, favors alder. 2-6 cm broad.

Table 5: Species List (Cont.)

Common Name in App

Scientific Name in App

N Rating

N Dep at Peak Freq

How to Recognize

pendant beard lichens

pendant Usnea

oligotroph

2.2

Pale green to yellow, filamentous lichen with an elastic central axil. 15 cm to 70 cm long.

rosette lichen

Physcia

eutroph

6.1

Small grey rosette lichens with simple rhizines, with white frosted fruiting bodies (aipolia), or longish marginal rhizines and soralia on the undersurface of margin tips, some of which may look hooded. 0.5 to 2 cm broad.

frosted lichen

Physconia

eutroph

6.1

Small grey rosette on bed of rhizines, frosted upper surface. Mostly < 6 cm broad.

white dotted specklebelly lichen

Pseudocyphellaria anomola

oligotroph

2.3

Large foliose brown lichen with distinct white soralia on ridges and margins, dot-like white pseudocyphellae below. To 20-40 cm broad.

Table 6: Species List (Cont.)

Common Name in App

Scientific Name in App

N Rating

N Dep at Peak Freq

How to Recognize

fruiting specklebelly lichen

Pseudocyphellaria anthraspis

oligotroph

1.4

Large foliose, ridged, brown lichen with fruiting bodies and no soralia, and white dot-like pseudocypellae on lower surface. To 20-40 cm broad.

cartilage lichen

Ramalina dilacerata

eutroph

4.8

Perforated yellow shrubby lichen with disc shaped fruiting bodies. To 3 cm long.

shrubby beard lichens

shrubby Usnea

oligotroph

1.1

Shrubby pale green to yellow lichen with cigar-shaped branches and 1) a yellow, elastic, central axil and often red to purplish spots (U. wirthii) or 2) with papillae, small soralia < half the branch diameter, and usually isidia. 5-15 cm long.

globe ball lichen

Sphaerophorus

oligotroph

1.1

Medium to large variously colored shrubby lichen with globose fruiting bodies, black powdery spores, looks like a miniature tree. To 10 cm diameter.

Table 7: Species List (Cont.)

Common Name in App

Scientific Name in App

N Rating

N Dep at Peak Freq

How to Recognize

tuckermannopsis lichen

Tuckermannopsis

oligotroph

2.4

Medium foliose lichen pale green to brown, sparse rhizines, smooth to warty upper surface, not sorediate. Up to 5-10 cm broad.

old man's beard lichen

Usnea longissima

oligotroph

1.1

Large pendant lichen with long, elastic, central axis and short side branches. To 2 m or more.

other orange lichens

non-fruiting Xanthomendoza and Xanthoria

eutroph

6.1

Small orange colored lichens without disc-shaped fruiting bodies that are minutely leafy (Xm. fallax) or minutely shrubby (X. candelaria), usually < 1 cm diameter.

fruiting orange lichens

fruiting Xanthoria

eutroph

6.1

Small foliose orange colored lichens with disc-shaped orange fruiting bodies. Usually < 1 cm diameter.