Dictionary of Cosmo-Localization 

A crowdsourced A-Z guide to concepts and examples of ‘design global, manufacture/produce local’

GUIDELINES FOR CONTRIBUTORS

The purpose of this project is to develop short summaries, overviews and definitions of concepts and cases that are emerging with respect to Cosmo-Localization / Design Global, Manufacture Local (CL / DGML).

The overall body of work will be turned into a pdf and put on a website so it can be widely shared. The value of such a document is to provide an easy entry point for people so they can develop an understanding of new/complex ideas in a concise form, which enables them to communicate to audiences who are not yet familiar with these terms and ideas. If they want to look at cases they can go straight there. If they want to explore other connections and philosophy, they can go there. An A-Z is not a linear document. A person can enter at any point, and exit at any other point.

Ultimately the dictionary should allow people to cherry pick elements from it to begin to translate the ideas and concepts for various purposes. For example, one might want to develop a document to pitch to policy makers. That person could take elements from this document and render them into a form that communicates to the intended audience.

The content will be published under a creative commons with-attribution license.  

Rules for Participating:      

  1. Anyone can add any number of entries.

  1. All entries should be concepts or cases. Concepts are key ideas, and cases are concrete examples (tangible expressions of concepts). If you want to refer to a journal article or other literature, then either draw out a key idea or case from the article, and then link to the article as a further elaboration of it.  

  1. All entries require a title. An entry title must be formatted as a “Heading 4” (see dropdown menu under ‘Normal Text’ in toolbar, under the document title).

  1. Each entry should be less than 100 words. If it is more than 100 words then it is not appropriate for the purpose of this document. If it requires more than 100 words then break it down into multiple entries. The number of entries are not limited, but the length of the[a] entry is.

  1. The person who writes the entry writes their name at the bottom of the entry, along with any affiliation.
  2. People can add titles they think should be in the dictionary, and let others develop the entry. However, only the person who actually wrote the entry puts their name on the bottom of the entry. If more than two people contribute substantially to an entry, they can list as joint authors.

  1. Each entry should be referenced with at least one link that allows readers to find more in depth information about the entry. The link should be appropriate. Please

  1. There should be 2-5 key words / tags included at the end of the entry that can allow some categorization in future.

  1. Review of entries is encouraged, using the comments[b][c][d] function in google docs, as well as copy/proof editing, but the dramatic rewriting or the deletion of others entries is NOT allowed. The editorial team will review all entries and comments and make these decisions. If you feel strongly that an entry has problems, please do not edit it - instead, leave your reasons in a comment box, elaborated so that we understand your argument. It is likely the original writer will make adjustments given feedback, but if no satisfactory changes are made, then we the editors will review and make the changes once we weigh things up.    

Example:  

Cosmo-localization 

Cosmo-localization describes the process of bringing together our globally distributed knowledge and design commons with the high-to-low tech capacity for localized production. It is based on the ethical premise, drawing from cosmopolitanism, that people and communities should be universally empowered with the heritage of human ingenuity that allow them to more effectively create livelihoods and solve problems in their local environments, and that, reciprocally, local production and innovation should support the wellbeing of our planetary commons.

Tags: production, commons, ethics, localization, design  

Author: Jose Ramos

EDITORS

Jose Ramos and Sharon Ede are acting as lead editors, with the cosmo-localization working group as the larger editorial team. We reserve the right to make changes to the text and entries where we feel it is necessary, to remove entries we do not feel should be part of the dictionary, and to make other changes.

Jose Ramos, Action Foresight

jose@actionforesight.net, www.actionforesight.net 

Sharon Ede, AUDAcities

sharonede.au@gmail.com, www.audacities.co 

Dictionary of Cosmo-Localization

Table of Contents  

Concepts

A

Additive Manufacturing

B

C

Commons

Cosmo Localization

Cosmolocalism

Cosmopolitanism

Circular Economy

Circulation of the Common

Commons Based Peer Production

D

Degrowth

Design Commons

Design Global Manufacture Local (DGML)

DIDO (Data In, Data Out)

Distributed Manufacturing

E

Enoughness

Extractive

F

Fab Lab (Fabrication Laboratory)

Fixit Clinic

Fixit Manifesto

G

Global Design Commons

H

Hack

Hackerspace

I

J

K

L

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)

M

Makerspace

Makestream

Metabolic Commons

Mutualisation

N

O

Open Co-operativism

Open Design

Open Hardware

Open Manufacturing

Open Source

Oxygen Credits System

P

Peer Production Licence

Perma-circularity

PITO (Product In, Trash Out)

Planetary Boundaries

Planned Obsolescence

Q

R

Regenerative

Repair Cafe

Retrofit/Retrofitting[e]

S

    Spatial Justice[f]

T

U 

Universal Science of Organisation (Tektology)

Urban Planetary Boundary

[g][h]

V

W

X

Y

Z

Projects

A

AbilityMade

B

C

D

E

F

Fab City

Farm Hack

G

H

I

J

K

L

Le A’telier Paysans

M

N

O

Open Insulin Project

Open Motors

OpenROV

Open Source Ecology

P

Q

R

S

SoULS

T

U

V

W

Wikihouse

Wikispeed

X

Y

Z

Bibliography

List of Authors


Concepts

A

Additive Manufacturing

ASTM International defines Additive Manufacturing as the “process of joining materials to make objects from 3D model data, usually layer upon layer, as opposed to subtractive manufacturing methodologies. (ASTM F2792-10, June 2010)

This entry from acus.org describes the basic process: “The AM process begins with a 3D model of the object, usually created by computer-aided design (CAD) software or a scan of an existing artifact. Specialized software slices this model into cross-sectional layers, creating a computer file that is sent to the AM machine. The AM machine then creates the object by forming each layer via the selective placement (or forming) of material. Think of an inkjet printer that goes back over and over the page, adding layers of material on top of each other until the original works are 3D objects.” (http://www.acus.org/files/publication_pdfs/403/101711_ACUS_3DPrinting.PDF 

There are four major methods involved in ‘additive fabrication’, one of which is the now well-known 3D Printing.

The methods are:

The french author Yannick Rumpala stresses the potential of these new techniques for a new societal reconfiguration: “The potentialities of this type of technology are also linked to the social bases on which it grows. A large part of its development is indeed favoured by collaborations in networks, which allow individuals, again thanks to the Internet, to exchange and share ideas, and compare experiences. It thus has a strong rhizomatic potential, in the way it can spread (thanks to advances in the digital world), but also in the way it can challenge installed hierarchies and subordinations. The change would be possible not by an impetus from economic or political hierarchies, but diffusely, with a technology enabling new practices which, when generalized, could themselves have systemic effects. Thanks to the techniques developed, capacities seem to be given back to communities, like those that have qualified themselves as “makers”. It is possible to imagine that the scope of these transformations can be global. “ This article also stresses the impediments in implementing such a vision: https://yannickrumpala.wordpress.com/2012/03/01/additive-manufacturing-as-global-redesigning-of-politics/ 

Author: Michel Bauwens

B

C

Commons

There are a number of competing visions of the commons. It is often used in the very broad sense of resources that are openly accessible (open access resources), or that should be considered as such (water, air, forests, etc..) but may actually be privately or publicly owned. A more stringent definition, used in this book, is that commons are 1) shared resources 2) that are maintained by a community or group of stakeholders 3) using their own self-produced regulations. This definition stresses the commonality of input and usage, the fact that it requires an active community, and that it establishes their own rules. This does not prevent commons to be in relation with public authorities (Commons researcher Elinor Ostrom stresses that for commons to survive in a state-based system, they need to be recognized by such); and with markets. The relationship between commons and markets can be extractive, i.e. capitalism is often considered as a system that either encloses (abolishes, privatizes) commons, or that exploits it. But the relationship can also be ‘generative’, if the commoners succeed in creating market forms that strengthen the commons rather than weaken it. There is a controversy about whether commons are necessarily anti-systemic or anti-capitalist, or whether they can be accommodated or even coopted by the dominant system. In this book we take the point of view that commoners can work towards market and state forms that work for their purposes. Commons are a choice of producing, maintaining and distributing resources in a shared and common way, as distinguished both from state and private property. Though certain resources are perhaps easier to commonify (such as knowledge commons perhaps), it remains a human choice in a context of conflicting interests.

Author: Michel Bauwens

Cosmo Localization[i] 

Cosmo localization, also known as Design Global Manufacture Local, describes the process of bringing together our globally distributed knowledge and design commons with the high and low tech capacity for localized production across a range of material goods, (from food to tools to clothes to household and industrial products). It is based on the ethical premise, drawing from cosmopolitanism, that people and communities should be universally empowered with the heritage of human ingenuity that allow them to more effectively create livelihoods and solve problems in their local environments, and that, reciprocally, local production and innovation should support the wellbeing of our planetary commons.

Tags: production, commons, ethics, localization, design, cosmopolitanism  

Author: Jose Ramos [j][k]

Cosmo localization image

Author: James (Gien) Wong

Cosmolocalism

Cosmolocalism is the state or noun form of the process of cosmo localization.  

Example 1: https://www.cosmolocalism.eu/

Example 2: The citizens of the city engaged in cosmo localization to codesign climate change solutions with other cities. The resulting cosmolocalism benefited all the participants.

Author: James (Gien) Wong

Cosmopolitanism

In the simplest terms it describes ‘the view that all human beings have equal moral standing within a single world community’ (Hayden, 2004, p. 70).

Cosmopolitanism as a discourse reaches as far back as ancient Greece. As McGrew explains, the philosopher Diogenes saw himself as a citizen of the world, with the Greek stoic philosophers later developing the idea that every person is both a citizen of a locality by birth, as well as a citizen of a world community (McGrew, 2000, p. 413). The philosopher Immanuel Kant later developed European cosmopolitan thinking in the context of his 1795 essay ‘Project for a Perpetual Peace’. This came to inform a number of neo-Kantian articulations of cosmopolitanism.

As Held argues, at its core cosmopolitanism is based on the idea that, ‘human beings are in a fundamental sense equal, and that they deserve impartial political treatment… [cosmopolitanism] is a moral frame of reference for specifying principles that can be universally shared’ (Held, 2000a, p. 401).

In the context of this book, cosmopolitanism is the result of the potential trans-national identity and consciousness forms, that emerge from working together on global ‘cosmo-local’ projects that bind people from various territorial origins, in common trans-national forms of cooperation, with the same rights to contribute and use of the jointly created knowledge commons used by the projects. Different rules may apply for the local and physical production environment, which in contrast to the non-rival nature of knowledge commons, may be limited and costly, and may thus be subjected to stricter rules of reciprocity.

The P2P Value project, a research project involving at first 300 peer producing communities, confirmed that transnational identification is a real intersubjective process that sometimes is seen as more important than other collective identities such as nation-state or ethnic identifications.

See also the related concept of Cosmopolitan Localism, defined by Gideon Kossof as follows: “"Cosmopolitan Localism is the theory and practice of inter-regional and planet-wide net-working between place-based communities who share knowledge, technology, and re-sources. “ (https://www.academia.edu/38852836/Cosmopolitan_Localism_The_Planetary_Networking_of_Everyday_Life_in_Place)

Ezio Manzini comments that: "What appears is a kind of cosmopolitan localism (Sachs, 1998, Manzini, Vugliano, 2000, Manzini, Jegou, 2003), intended as the result of a particular condition characterised by the balance between being localised (rooted in a place and in the community related to that place), and open to global flows of ideas, information, people, things and money (Appandurai, 1990). This is quite a delicate balance as, at any time, one of the two sides can prevail over the other leading to an anti-historical closure or, on the opposite side, it can lead to a destructive openness of the local social fabric and of its peculiar features. Creative communities, cooperative networks and cosmopolitan localism are, as it has been said, the building blocks for a new vision: the vision of a sustainable society that can be defined as a Multi-local Society. I.e. a network of interconnected communities and places, at the same time, open and localised." (http://www.dis.polimi.it/manzini-papers/06.01.06-Creative-communites-collaborative-networks-distributed-economies.doc)

Authors: Jose Ramos and Michel Bauwens.

References to the excerpts from Ramos may be found here: https://wiki.p2pfoundation.net/Cosmopolitanism

Circular Economy

WRAP defines the circular economy as follows: "A circular economy is an alternative to a traditional linear economy (make, use, dispose) in which we keep resources in use for as long as possible, extract the maximum value from them whilst in use, then recover and regenerate products and materials at the end of each service life." (http://www.wrap.org.uk/content/wrap-and-circular-economy)

Shareable insists that “"Circular Economy is a new business paradigm, inspired by nature, where all energy and resources flows are maintained in closed loops, eliminating the concept of waste while generating economic, social and environmental value," (http://www.shareable.net/blog/a-shareable-explainer-the-circular-economy)

According to the Ellen MacArthur Foundation, one of the main organizations promoting this economic model worldwide: "The Circular Economy is based on three key principles,

  • Preserving and enhancing natural capital by controlling finite stocks and balancing renewable resource flows. That is, using as less raw resources as possible and if totally needed, choosing renewable or better performing ones.
  • Optimizing resource yields by circulating products, components, and materials at the highest utility at all times in both technical and biological cycles. This means designing for remanufacturing, refurbishing, and recycling to keep components and materials circulating in and contributing to the economy.
  • Fostering system effectiveness by revealing and designing out negative externalities. This includes reducing damage to human utility, such as food, mobility, shelter, education, health, and entertainment, and managing externalities, such as land use, air, water, noise pollution, release of toxic substances, and climate change."

(http://www.shareable.net/blog/a-shareable-explainer-the-circular-economy)

Kris De Decker has summarized 3 critiques of the current concept and practice of the circular economy here at https://www.lowtechmagazine.com/2018/11/how-circular-is-the-circular-economy.html. The essential argument is that the circular economy is not effective if we maintain a growth-based economy. Christian Arnsperger, who coined the term perma-circularity, has shown, using the research of  François Grosse,is emphatic that the growth of the material economy should stay under 1% growth. (“The influence of recycling on resource preservation is negligible for any raw material with a greater than 2% per annum increase in world production.”) (https://carnsperger.wordpress.com/2016/06/22/one-engineers-deeper-wisdom-francois-grosse-and-the-rediscovery-of-the-perma-circular-mindset/)

Alexandre Lemille stresses that the role of humans as generative agents is missing from the materialistic definition of CE and proposes ‘Circular Economy 2.0’ which integrates this vision. He writes that: “In "Circular Economy 2.0", the focus is on providing well-being for all humans applying the 'Circular Thinking' of creating positive feedback loops regenerating life on Earth while embedding Humans so they are part of their survival equation.” He proposes the instantiation of a Circular Humanosphere, see https://medium.com/@AlexLemille/the-circular-humansphere-2019-update-bf175af2c9bf 

One of the first projects involving CE principles, called Cradle to Cradle, has been critiqued for its approach based on intellectually protected methodologies. According to Michel Schuurman, “"its monopoly, lack of transparency and (expensive) certification “ have impeded progress. (https://theeconomicrealms.blogspot.co.uk/2012/12/where-next-for-circular-economy.html)

It seems clear that the circular economy needs a knowledge sharing ecosystem to be able to grow and thrive, and that it has to integrate thermodynamic constraints, i.e. it cannot succeed in a growth-based economic system.

Author: Michel Bauwens

Circulation of the Common

The 'Circulation of the Common' is an analytical concept proposed by Nick Dyer-Witheford in a landmark essay of the same title.. It refers to the social reproduction mechanism of Peer Production, in a process analogous with the Circulation of Capital described by Marx: “The cellular form of communism is the common, a good produced to be shared in association. The circuit of the common traces how shared resources generate forms of social cooperation—associations-- that coordinate the conversion of further resources into expanded commons.” (originally at, now dead link: http://www.fims.uwo.ca/people/faculty/dyerwitheford/Commons2006.pdf, archived at https://wiki.p2pfoundation.net/Circulation_of_the_Common)

 

Nick Dyer-Witheford explains that “If the cell form of capitalism is the commodity, the cellular form of a society beyond capital is the common. A commodity is a good produced for sale, a common is a good produced, or conserved, to be shared. The notion of a commodity, a good produced for sale, presupposes private owners between whom this exchange occurs. The notion of the common presupposes collectivities – associations and assemblies – within which sharing is organised. If capitalism presents itself as an immense heap of commodities, ‘commonism’ is a multiplication of commons.” (http://turbulence.org.uk/turbulence-1/commonism/)

For a different take, conceptualized as ‘Circulation of the Commons’ (note the added ‘s’), see the work of Marie Mies, more related to the subsistence and circular economy, as described by Patrick Breshinan here at: https://www.academia.edu/11778318/The_More-than-Human_Commons_From_Commons_to_Commoning 

Author: Michel Bauwens

Commons Based Peer Production

D

Degrowth

Will write up entry, based on key literature on degrowth and specifically the connection made with DGML by Kostakis et al. (2018)

Tags: degrowth, post-growth, sustainability transitions, ecological economics

Author: Rok Kranjc

Design Commons

Design Global Manufacture Local (DGML)

Design Global Production Local describes a productive model based on the convergence of global design commons with desktop manufacturing technologies and simple tools. The mutualization of resources is facilitated by providing shared access to knowledge through modern information and communications technologies. By exploiting design as a global digital commons, scale-based, decentralized, durable and locally-controlled products can be manufactured for the transition to a sustainable economy. The manufacturing process can take place locally by utilizing the available equipment in makerspaces.


Tags: production, commons, sustainability, design
Author: Christina Priavolou

DIDO (Data In, Data Out)

A term used by the Fab City Global Initiative, this refers to the sharing/trading of data/information in lieu of movement of materials, in conjunction with relocalised production.

Tags: production, data, trade, open design

Author: Sharon Ede

Distributed Manufacturing

Distributed manufacturing refers to a model of regional development whereby productive infrastructures are evenly distributed across a given territory. It aims at building resilient and self-reliant regions capable of (self-)producing a substantial amount of the material goods its inhabitants require. Distributed manufacturing contrast mainstream models of regional development, which favours spatial division labour and, as a consequence, concentrate manufacturing facilities in specific areas, making regions dependent from trade to fulfill most of its material needs.

Tags: production, trade, self-reliance, material needs, spatial justice

Author: Luca Calafati

Here a key reference

E

Enoughness

refers to a mindset and approach to consumption that recognises and accepts that a person’s current possessions are suitable for their current needs and that there is no further need to replace or ‘upgrade’ to a newer version of an existing product. Identification of this mindset emerged during research for a global automotive manufacturer between 2009 and 2011 where consumer research posed a question - ‘When would you next consider purchasing or upgrading product X?’. Consistently in places like Sweden the qualitative answers were ‘the phone I have is enough’ or ‘the car I have is enough’. Unlike ‘Saticficing’ (putting up with a gap in fulfilment) Enoughness recognises that all needs have been met through existing material assets.
Author Marcus Barber

Extractive

F

Fab Lab (Fabrication Laboratory)

Fixit Clinic

Refers to a space or place where those believing the Fixit manifesto, can work collectively with others to enact the manifesto. A Fixit Clinic physical space will vary from a space with tools and resources used to Fix specific objects or artefacts, for example, a mechanical clinic. Or a space (virtual or physical) of fixing and  learning, where a ‘master craftsman’ attends and shows ‘apprentice fixers’ how to fix, renew, recycle and repurpose objects. Each Clinic has a primary focus of community, fixing and contributing to the health of the planet.

Author Elissa Farrow

Fixit Manifesto

Refers to a belief system, mantra, philosophy that prioritises fixing, renewing, recycling and repurposing over purchasing and wasting. A Fixit Manifesto is connected strongly to environmental and consumer consciousness. Sugru provides one version of the Fixit Manifesto that focuses on themes of:

  • If its broken fix it
  • If its not broken, improve it
  • And if it doesn't exist, make it
  • Give your stuff a longer life
  • Disposability is a choice
  • Resist needless tends and upgrades
  • Embrace the stuff we already have
  • A fixed thing is a beautiful thing
  • Nurture curiosity
  • Share your ideas

Links: https://sugru.com/manifesto#pm-29862

Author Elissa Farrow

G

Global Design Commons

Green Fab Labs

Ask for author: Marco Zubieta (or tomas diez)

H

Hack

Improvement or problem-solving in relation to an existing product, process or situation by using readily available materials and tools; repurposing a product or system for things they were not designed to do.

Tags: hack, design

Author: Sharon Ede

Hackerspace

See “Makerspace[l][m][n]

I

J

K

L

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life-cycle_assessment 

M

Makerspace

Makerspace: community-led, open space where individuals share resources and meet on a regular basis to collaboratively engage in creative projects, usually utilizing open source software and hardware technologies[o][p][q]. Makerspaces may go by various names like microfactories, hackerspaces, fablabs or media labs and others.

Alternative definition, probably mixing the two would be best :)

'maker spaces are community led productive infrastructures. They enable communities to produce physical objects and, more broadly, engage in creative projects in collaborative environment, pooling software and hardware tools and technologies.

Author: Luca Calafati

Makestream

Makestream: a manufacturing process utilizing DFMAE (design for manufacturing, assembly, and environment) for IPPD (integrated process and product design) in a DGML (design global to make local) cycle.

Tags: manufacturing, product, design  

Author: Jonlo Prim

Metabolic Commons

Life and humanity need matter and energy to live and thrive. Therefore these metabolic or thermodynamic resources should be treated as a commons, not as mere private property that can over-used.

Stephen Collis writes that “taken as a whole, all life, all production and reproduction, begins in the commons—at C: intellectually, genetically, we inherit, we are gifted from past generations, from what already exists.  All that we depend upon—plants, animals, air, water, soil, knowledge—comes from a common fund. We transform that fund through our social metabolism, acquiring what we need to persist and even prosper. This is at M, which here stands for material production and reproduction. Finally—what if the goal of our economy, or our social metabolism, was to return to the commons—the final position C—so that the commons at the end of our social metabolism was just as healthy and full, as a totality, as it was at the beginning of our life process? This is what I’m calling the metabolic commons. It’s the idea that the maintenance, health, and sustainability of the commons should be at the heart of our social metabolism. It’s an idea based upon seeing economy and ecology—how we make our living and where we make our living—as the roots and branches of the same tree. It’s an idea based on the complete inseparability of the “social” and the “natural”—an idea that we are simply part of a single large organism that is the biosphere. There only is an atmosphere we can breath, and soil from which all living things can grow, because in the past living things have gone through their cycles of production and reproduction, life and death. At the most primary, metabolic level, we, the totality of living beings, have built the commons upon which we all depend through our collective existences, throughout the course of history, through long cycles of living, dying, and evolving in metabolic exchange with our environments.” (http://thefutureofoccupy.org/2012/04/the-metabolic-commons-or-from-occupying-to-commoning-through-decolonization/)

Author: Michel Bauwens, via Stephen Collis

Mutualisation

N

O

Open Co-operativism

Co-operartives which create or expand the commons.

Open Design

Open Hardware

Open Manufacturing

Open Manufacturing or "Open Production" or "Design Global, Manufacture Local" is a new model of socioeconomic production in which physical objects are produced in an open, collaborative and distributed manner[1] [2] and based on open design and open source principles.

Open manufacturing combines open production tools and methods (such as 3D printers), value-based movements (such as the maker movement), new institutions and networks for manufacturing and production (such as FabLabs), and open source methods, software and protocols.[3] [4]

Open manufacturing may also include digital modeling and fabrication and computer numeric control (CNC) of the machines used for production through open source software and open source hardware.

The philosophy of open manufacturing is close to the open-source movement, but aims at the development of physical products rather than software.[5] The term is linked to the notion of democratizing technology[6] as embodied in the Maker culture, the DIY ethic, the open source appropriate technology movement, the Fablab-network and other rooms for grassroot innovation such as hackerspaces.

According to scholar Michel Bauwens, Open Manufacturing is "the expansion of peer production to the world of physical production".[1]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_manufacturing[r][s]

Open Source

Open source: a methodology for collaboratively developing anything from software platforms to houses. Open source requires that the technical makeup of a project be shared, changed and improved by anyone who cares to participate, shunning patents and other legal restrictions to harness the combined creativity of the internet connected world.

https://github.com/RE-MODEL/Phase-3-Visualising-user-journeys/blob/master/3.2%20Open-o-Meter.pdf

Oxygen Credits System

An Oxygen Credits System was proposed during the 2004 ‘Committing Universities to Sustainable Development Conference’ in Graz, Austria. As part of the conference paper and supporting presentation ‘Is Sustainability the only Competitive Advantage Swinburne has?’ and unlike a Carbon Credits System (labelled as ‘permission slips for developed nations to keep polluting’) the Oxygen Credits System would be a fee paid by developed nations to the Forest nations, so that they did not have to chop down their trees in order to generate an income, and in so doing, would continue to act as the lungs for the planet

Author Marcus Barber

P

Peak Net Energy: A controversial but well supported concept that is a corollary of the diminishing Energy Return On Investment of remaining fossil reserves and lower EROI of renewables. The increasing energy cost of producing new energy implies that a steep decline in useable energy is approaching. A clear conclusion is that global energy throughput will have to be substantially cut.

1) “What’s really driving the global economic crisis is net energy decline” by Jonathan Rutherford https://link.medium.com/VwtOk1ukD0

2) “Inside the new economic science of capitalism’s slow-burn energy collapse” by Nafeez Ahmed https://link.medium.com/S2LnStDkD0

Wayne Lewis (independent researcher)

Peer Production Licence

Perma-circularity

Author: Michel Bauwens

PITO (Product In, Trash Out)

Planetary Boundaries

Concept developed by Johan Rockström from the Stockholm Resilience Centre and Will Steffen from the Australian National University, which poses a "safe operating space for humanity" beyond which humanity’s impact on Earth eco-systems could be “deleterious or even catastrophic”. The framework delineates a “safe zone” for human activity. Cosmo-local production, with its commitment to a global commons, entails a production paradigm with a commitment to production within planetary boundaries.  

Links: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planetary_boundaries 

Author: Jose Ramos

Planned Obsolescence

Planned Obsolescence is an implemented strategy for designing products with artificially limited lifespan. It introduces superior product replacements, which render the existing products obsolete or not functional after a certain period of time. This policy is particularly noticeable in software companies, which deliberately abandon the support of older technologies in order to coerce users into acquiring new products. In this way, customers are constantly developing needs potentially covered by manufacturing new products, which entails waste of energy and environmental pollution processes.


Tags: production, commons, sustainability, durability, design
Author: Christina Paravolou

Protocol Cooperativism

Author: Michel Bauwens

Q

R

Regenerative

Repair Cafe

Retrofit/retrofitting

Retrofit refers to act of adding a technologies and features to an old system so to prolonge its life and enhance its functionality. Maker spaces, Fixit Clinic and Hacker Space provide environments for retrofitting tools, objects and systems.

Tag: durability, maker sapace, fixit clinic

Author: Luca Calafati

S

T

U

Urban Planetary Boundary (UPB)

Urban Planetary Boundaries (UPB) are a set of biophysical and socio-economic indicators developed by Daniel Hoornweg et al. that apply at the city scale, and are a variant of the Planetary Boundaries (PB) developed by Johan Rockstrom et al. The UPB concept differs from the PB in three respects. First, they apply at a metro rather than a global scale; second, they embed only 7 biophysical indicators instead of 9; and third, they add 7 socio-economic indicators. The resulting 14 indicators were designed to map to the UN SDGs. UPB are relevant to make doughnut economics actionable. Over 70% of climate impacts originate from cities (C40, 2019) so urban metrics are a critical part of a rapid transition that will lead to doughnut economics (Raworth, 2012). As cosmo localization will take place at the community and metro scale, UPB are a key indicator of a rapid commons transition.

Author: James (Gien) Wong.

Universal Science of Organisation (Tektology)  

Broadly recognised today as the first systematic formulation of systems paradigm developed between 1911 and 1917 by Russian polymath Alexander Bogdanov, Tektology not only  preceded General Systems Theory of Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Cybernetics of Norbert Wiener, Operational Research pioneered by Staford Beer, and Information Theory of Claude Shannon and Warren McCulloch, and the Game Theory . Thought as a vernacular and universal science it was also the only model that presented a clear first principle (organizedness of elements in everything), and developed a comprehensive and coherent conceptual framework that is indeed operational and applicable to all phenomena from micro to macro, from physical to psychological and ideational. Tektology is called meta-science of praxis by some and meant to be thought popularly in order to empower ‘the organized classes’ vis a vis organizer classes. So that the contemporary dominant social and power structures (cultural and social structures and institutions, belief systems, science and academic institutions, production, and governance) that are practically designed and put at work by the ruling classes, in a way that benefited these classes can be transformed popularly, from the bottom-up. Forgotten between 1930s and 1960s, and rehabilitated slowly since the 1980s, Tektology is gaining broader recognition and recognition in the 2010s. It is likely that the application Tektology to the broad spectrum of version of approaches and application of ‘systems thinking’ that have been developed independently since the 1940s, can become systematized and form a coherent organized whole, giving high impetus to the scaling up of the cosmo-localist vision.    

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tektology                     

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Projects 

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AbilityMade

AbilityMade is a Sydney, Australia based business that supports production of prosthetics for people with disabilities, based on the principles of open design. They are pioneering innovations among orthotists and their clients, where low cost scanners are able to render requisite design specifications for localized production labs to produce high quality prosthetics.

Links: https://blog.p2pfoundation.net/67940-2/2017/10/02 

Author: Jose Ramos

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Fab City

Initiated out of Fab Lab Barcelona, a Fab City is a city which has committed to the Fab City Global Initiative, a 40 year challenge for cities who sign up to the initiative to relocalise 50% of their production (food, energy and fabrication) by 2054.

Tags: Fab Lab, cities, production

Author: Sharon Ede

Farm Hack

                             

Farm Hack (FH) emerged as a collaborative effort of farmer activists. It was first conceived as a gathering to brainstorm and produce ideas for various tool-related problems on farms. The first FH event was a big success, leading to the hosting of  several more events in the USA and later all over the world and  also the  establishment of a large and decentralised community comprised mostly of farmers. From within the FH community emerged a digital platform that functions as communication, coordination, dissemination and, to some degree, a technology development tool. Primarily the platforms functions as a database of tools that have been built, modified and shared by the community. The tools are released under a creative commons license for everyone to use and modify freely, provided they will release the designs under the same licence.

Links: https://p2pfoundation.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/A-New-Model-of-Production-for-a-New-Economy-FINAL.pdf

Author: Chris Giotitsas

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Hypha

                             

Hypha is a single hair-like filament at the edges of mycelium. Mycelium is the network that connects an ecosystem acting as a cross-kingdom communication, nutrient and energy distribution network.

Hypha is the name of a Decentralized Autonomous Organization/Organism alliance where we’re building state of the art and tools for networks and organisations to collaborate and distribute voice & value at scale.

Hypha is also an alliance of organisations that share a vision to create a regenerative and thriving global society.

Links: https://dao.hypha.earth/#/

https://joinseeds.com/

Author: Rieki Cordon

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Le A’telier Paysans

L'Atelier Paysan literally translates as the "peasant workshop". It emerged in 2009 as a subgroup within an association for the development and promotion  of organic agriculture called ADAbio in Rhone-Alpes (a region in the south east of France). It all began when the founders of this project Joseph, an experienced organic farmer and a member of ADAbio, and Fabrice, a very politically aware carpenter, realised that farmers could genuinely benefit from each other's tool-building experience and creativity. So they standardised, documented and disseminated  three essential pieces of machinery that had been developed by Joseph along with other farmers and were utilised in permanent beds (one of the basic methods for soil management in organic agriculture). This effort was well-received by the farmers in their network so more tool-building knowledge was accumulated over the next three years from farms in the area. Sixteen farmer-build tools were standardised in total. Their designs were then printed in a comprehensive guide-book complete with blueprints and pictures, in order for more farmers to be able to construct them in their own farm.

Link: https://p2pfoundation.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/A-New-Model-of-Production-for-a-New-Economy-FINAL.pdf

Author: Chris Giotitsas

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One Community

One Community is a 501(c)3 non-profit, US-based think tank. One Community is a 100%-volunteer organization whose mission is to help people create a better world by demonstrating a more sustainable and enriching way of living and open source everything needed for replication, consciously creating a better world as our children's children's planet This includes free-shared and “Highest Good” approaches to food, energy, housing, education, for-profit and non-profit economic design, social architecture, fulfilled living, global stewardship practices, and more. Combined, One Community will use these to build One Community as the first of many teacher/demonstration hubs. These hubs will form a global collaborative to provide even more research, blueprints, and necessary support for successively easier, more affordable, and creative duplication everywhere.

https://www.onecommunityglobal.org

Author: James (Gien) Wong

Open Insulin Project

The Open Insulin project in Oakland is attempting to bypass pharmaceuticals by creating their own insulin products. So far they have been successful at prototyping a new method of producing insulin using modified yeast as the agent, and have produced their first test batch. In 1923, Frederick Banting, Charles Best, and James Collip sold the patent for insulin to the University of Toronto for $1 each, because they thought that this discovery was so important, it should be available to everyone. Today it is impossible to get any insulin in the United States without paying exorbitant fees. The cost of insulin tripled from 2002 to 2013 and doubled between 2012 and 2016. in 1996 a vial of Humalog cost $21 -  Today, it is $324, an increase of  1,400%. Those without insurance, pay thousands of dollars per month. By wrapping insulin production in a convoluted and labyrinthine system of process patents, pharmaceuticals have been able to create artificial scarcity.  Diabetes has become the most expensive disease in the United States. The Open Insulin project is attempting to break this monopoly on the drug by doing DIY biohacking.

Link: https://openinsulin.org/

Author: Jose Ramos

Open Motors

Open Motors is a B2B business that sells open source EV platforms, add-on modules and external R&D services, sells or leases complete highly-upgradable EVs, leases batteries / and will soon add a revolutionary new charging system. They have been shipping to customers since 2015 based on an open and modular hardware platform for EVs, called TABBY EVO. Currently, they are finalizing the development of EDIT, the first self-driving vehicle designed & engineered specifically for Mobility as a Service. They are applying advanced modularity and open design approach to an entire vehicle fleet. Fleets can last 10 times more thanks to an easy repairability & hardware/software upgradeability. EDIT is a data-driven project, the result of crunching crucial feedback and data. They are now integrating a revolutionary battery swapping technology and charging station that will allow instant hot-swapping of batteries extending the range of EVs, saving batteries from highly destructive fast-charging, lowering the running costs as well as the costs of new infrastructure and the impact on the grid.

Links: https://www.openmotors.co 

Author: Yuki Liu (edited by Jose Ramos)

OpenROV

Open Source Ecology

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SEEDS: Conscious Currency | Regenerative Society

                             

SEEDS is a financial and governance system for a regenerative and thriving global society. It’s foundation is a currency called “Seeds” that’s a “better-than-free” and regenerative medium of exchange.

The intention is to provide people with more voice and value to transition into co-creating a new society.

It all starts with a decentralized application called the “SEEDS Passport” - check the first link for more.

Links: https://joinseeds.com/

https://dao.hypha.earth/#/


Author: Rieki Cordon

SoULS

Solar Urja Through Localization for Sustainability (SoULS) is a project initiated by the Indian Institute of technology around 2013 / 2014.  The project addresses the need for rural Indian villagers to have light at night, which can help kids study and creates more amenable households. Many rural Indian villagers use kerosene lamps to light their homes. However kerosene is dirty and associated with health problems, nor is it cheap, as many villagers are not even able to afford it consistently. The SOULS project aimed to directly impact the livelihood and well-being of rural villagers by replacing the use of kerosene with solar lamps. The solar lamps were designed based on open hardware, which allowed the project to reduce the cost of the lamps. Importantly, solar lamp repair centers were established to service the villages that receive the lamps. Locals were trained in the repair of the lamps, and a service model was developed whereby they would earn sufficient income from the ongoing servicing. Solar lamps end up being cheaper overall villagers than running kerosene lamps. A number of new jobs are created in repair centers. On top of this project established a cooperative for the production of solar panels, which would drive the supply of new panels to service existing and new regions of the scheme, and which benefited from a dedicated market. The project has demonstrated strong benefits such as increased health, increased educational performance by children in the villages with the lamps, and this is not to mention the reduction in carbon emissions from the phasing out of kerosene.

Link: http://www.soulsiitb.in

Author: Jose Ramos

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Wikihouse

Wikihouse is a project that crowd-sources designs for houses, and makes them freely downloadable. The manufacture of the building components are done locally using CNC machines. The WikiHouse library currently features a house type called “MicroHouse”, CNC-manufactured components, an internal door kit and two tools (a CNC-fabricated mallet and a step-up stool) used for the assembly of the chassis system. A GitHub web-based repository is used for file sharing. WikiHouse was initiated as a spinoff project by Alastair Parvin and Nick Ierodiaconou in 2011. According to Parvin, WikiHouse inaugurated a new model of open-source practice. The WikiHouse foundation was established as a non-profit legal entity in 2014 to support the expansion of the project. Among its primary targets, the maintenance of common infrastructures and open-source licences, fundraising and the coordination of co-operation between contributors (individuals, companies, governments, and organisations) stand out.

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https://jfsdigital.org/articles-and-essays/2018-2/the-emergence-of-open-construction-systems-a-sustainable-paradigm-in-the-construction-sector/

Author: Christina Priavolou

Wikispeed

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Bibliography

(related articles or papers)

Please use the following format, with an embedded link to an open pdf or website if this is available (please avoid links to paywalled sites[t]):

Books

Hirshberg, P., Dougherty, D., & Kadanoff, M. (2016). Maker City: A Practical Guide for Reinventing American Cities. Maker Media, Inc..

Bauwens, M., Kostakis, V., & Pazaitis, A. (2018). Peer to Peer: The Commons Manifesto. London, UK: Westminster University Press. text (soon)

Kostakis, V., & Bauwens, M. (2014). Network Society and Future Scenarios for a Collaborative Economy. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. text

Journal articles

Bauwens, M., & Ramos, J. (2018). Re-imagining the left through an ecology of the commons: towards a post-capitalist commons transition. Global Discourse, 8(2), 325-342. text   

Giotitsas, C., & Ramos, J. (2017). A New Model of Production for a New Economy, Two Cases of Agricultural Communities. New Economics Foundation. text

Kostakis, V., Niaros, V., Dafermos, G., & Bauwens, M. (2015). Design global, manufacture local: Exploring the contours of an emerging productive model. Futures, 73, 126-135. text

Kostakis, V., Niaros, V., & Giotitsas, C. (2015). Production and Governance in Hackerspaces: A Manifestation of Commons-based Peer Production in the Physical Realm?. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 18(5), 555-573. text

Kostakis, V., Latoufis, K., Liarokapis, M., & Bauwens, M. (2018). The Convergence of Digital Commons with Local Manufacturing from a Degrowth Perspective: Two Illustrative Cases. Journal of Cleaner Production. text

Niaros, V., Kostakis, V., & Drechsler, W. (2017). Making (in) the Smart City: The Emergence of Makerspaces. Telematics & Informatics, 34, 1143-1152. Text

Priavolou, C. (2018). The Emergence of Open Construction Systems: A Sustainable Paradigm in the Construction Sector?. Journal of Futures Studies, 23(2), 67-84. text

Ramos, J. (2017). Cosmo-localization and leadership for the future. Journal of Futures Studies, 21(4), 65-83. text 

List of Authors

Please use the following format - two lines only, no long bios

[first name] [last name] [affiliation/s]

[email address] [web site] [LinkedIn] where applicable

Jonlo Prim [affiliation/s]

[email address] [web site] [LinkedIn]

Jose Ramos, Action Foresight

[email address] [web site] [LinkedIn]

Luca Calafati, University of Milano-Bicocca/Foundational Economy Collective

calafatiluca@gmail.com, www.lucacalafati.it

Marcus P Barber, Looking Up Feeling Good Pty Ltd & the Centre for Australian Foresight, Australia www.lufg.com.au, https://www.linkedin.com/in/marcus-barber-52b200/ 

[a]each

[b]this is a comments box :)

[c]Hot tip: you can place your cursor anywhere you want to make a comment, and go to the 'Insert' menu, choose 'Comment'

[d]so hot right now sharon :)

[e]added this one on p. 21. how to link?

[f]a goal of cosmo-localization yet maybe too theorethical here? let me know, happy to write something in case

[g]This is also under 'planetary boundaries' - two separate entries, or combine?

[h]i would combine

[i]There seems to be two words: "cosmo localization" and "cosmolocalism" that mean the same thing. Vasilis, Alex et al. are using the word "cosmolocalism" on their eu sponsored project: https://www.cosmolocalism.eu/  Should we add an entry for "cosmolocalism" as well and equate the two? Vasilis describes his project as the "cosmolocalism"  project. Thoughts?

[j]Tis a great start Jose.

Suggestion: Look at simplifying the language here as much as possible to make it easier to parse/ grok in chunks, and without the need to cross-reference too many additional terms: let's aim for self-contained definitions using common words.

[k]I would also make more explicit the unique value it brings - that is, to tap into the idling resource of many innovators who want to contribute design innovations and match the innovation with under-capacitated communities. Communities don't have the innovation knowledge to build a complete thriving local, regenerative economy. CL capacitates communities and get them unstuck so that they can truly transition.

[l]I'd say a hackerspace is different...

[m]i feel hacker spaces have stronger technological, 'oppositve' and experimental elements than makerspaces. converserly they have less of a 'productive' attitude, in the sense producing new objects...

[n]Thanks Luca, that's a useful distinction to make, tease out the nuances.

[o]i would emphasise production and materiality here. something like 'maker spaces are community led productive infrastructures. They enable a communities to produce physical objects and, more broadly, engage in creative projects, pooling software and hardware tools and technologies.

[p]Thank you, and YES. That is not emphasised enough here, given this is a cosmo-local dictionary.

[q]Thank you, and YES. That is not emphasised enough here, given this is a cosmo-local dictionary.

[r]Can anyone improve upon this?

[s]who is the author?

[t]+jose@actionforesight.net did you want quality web links included in this (those that are not journal articles)?