Tau Mai Te Reo
The Mäori Language in Education Strategy 2013 – 2017
The vision for Tau Mai Te Reo is ‘Kia tau te reo’, a state in which the language thrives and cloaks the land and people. It can be read as the outcome statement sought for the Mäori language.
The cover has been designed to reflect the vision of ‘Kia tau te reo’. The tüï, as depicted on the cover, is linked metaphorically to the plight of Mäori language. The language, like our native birds, has been at risk of being lost. Tau Mai Te Reo is vital in ensuring the Mäori language is valued, appropriately considered, and prioritised in education. The textural image of the tüï wing and feathers resembles a korowai of language that cloaks the land.
The Tau Mai Te Reo icon is an image of a pä harakeke (flax bush). The pä harakeke illustrates the intergenerational transmission of language, the different pathways of language learning and the ara (sections) within the document.
Executive summary 4
Ko te ara hïkoi: What we need to do 30
Ko te ara matua: The strategic context for Mäori language in education
Prioritising investment in Mäori language 31 in education
› The Mäori Potential Approach 31
› Investment framework 32
Journey of Mäori language in education 8
› Using the investment framework 32
The fundamental role of iwi and Mäori 12
Focus areas 34 › Work with and for iwi, communities 35 Education sector accountability 13
and Mäori language providers to and commitment
support the Mäori language in education Conditions of success for Mäori language 14
› Strengthen and grow the Mäori 36 in education
medium sector and networks
Overview of ngä ara 16
› Support the Mäori language 37
› Ko te ara mätauranga 16
in the English medium sector
› Ko te ara hïkoi › Ko te ara tangata 16 16
› Build the evidence base for the Mäori 38
language and mätauranga Mäori › Increase accountability for Mäori 39
language in education
Ko te ara mätauranga:
Overview of focus areas and priority actions 40 What we need to know
Mäori language in education provision 19
Ko te ara tangata: Where we need to be 42 › Mäori medium education 20 › Mäori language in English 21
Measuring investment and outcomes 43 medium education › Regional participation 22
› Better Public Services and Ministry 43
Mäori education targets Investment in Mäori language in education 24
› The ‘Effective provision for te reo Mäori 44
Achievement in Mäori language in education 26
in and through education’ rubric
Education professionals in Mäori language 27 in education
› The evaluative and conceptual framing of the rubric
Iwi and Mäori language in education 28
Research and data on Mäori language 29 in education
Appendix A: Regional participation maps 48
Tau Mai Te Reo has been developed to ensure that there is a connected and cohesive approach to education contributions to support and strengthen the Mäori language. This supports the obligations of the Ministry of Education and education sector agencies1 under Te Rautaki Reo Mäori – the Mäori Language Strategy. It also, contributes to education provision that supports learner identity, language and culture, and Mäori enjoying and achieving education success as Mäori. The Ministry of Education and education sector agencies also have obligations, as Crown agencies, to actively protect the Mäori language as a taonga guaranteed under the Treaty of Waitangi.
The Ministry of Education and education sector agencies play a critical role in supporting Mäori language acquisition and revitalisation in early learning, primary, secondary and tertiary education sectors. Mäori language in education includes both Mäori medium education and ‘Mäori as a subject’ in English medium education settings.
Powerful education connections with iwi, whänau and communities are critical to achieving high quality language and education outcomes for learners of Mäori language. Literature shows specific practices that contribute to improved bilingual outcomes for learners. A minimum of 50 per cent formal Mäori language instruction is needed to achieve bilingual outcomes2, coupled with sustained participation in quality Mäori medium education for at least six years. There is a pressing need for more robust research on effective practice across Mäori language in education.
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The vision for Tau Mai Te Reo is ‘Kia tau te reo – Supporting Mäori language in education: delivering strong, coordinated effort and investment’. Tau Mai Te Reo is vital in ensuring the Mäori language is valued, appropriately considered, and prioritised in education.
Tau Mai Te Reo:
›› creates›the›conditions for learners to enjoy and achieve education and Mäori language outcomes
› supports the coordination›of›effort across Mäori
language in education activity in the Ministry of Education and across education sector agencies
› provides a framework for better›Government› investment in Mäori language in education over the next five years.
Tau Mai Te Reo focuses on the opportunities to strengthen existing investment in Mäori language in education. The investment framework supports a Ministry of Education and education sector agencies focus of effort and investment to strengthen the quality of Mäori language in education provision that will be demonstrated through learner outcomes.
Tau Mai Te Reo provides for a staged approach to ensure that Mäori language in education activity by the Ministry of Education and education sector agencies is deliberate, comprehensive and that information is gathered and reported on appropriately. Line of sight to the learner through the implementation of Tau Mai Te Reo will be fundamental to the success of the strategy.
1 Education sector agencies consist of the Education Review Office, Tertiary Education Commission, New Zealand Qualification Authority, Careers New Zealand,
Te Aho o Te Kura Pounamu (Te Kura) and the New Zealand Teachers Council.
2 May, S., Hill, R., & Tiakiwai, S. (2004). Bilingual/Immersion education indicators of good practice: Final report to the Ministry of Education. Wilf Malcolm institute
of Educational Research Review Office. School of Education, University of Waikato. Wellington: Ministry of Education.
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He waka eke noa A canoe that we are all in with no exception
Mäori language in education is a defining feature of Aotearoa New Zealand’s education system. The education sector needs to create Mäori language opportunities for learners. Every Mäori learner should be able to access high quality Mäori language in education. In addition, for the Mäori language to flourish the language needs to be supported and revitalised both within education and in communities.
High quality Mäori language in education is important because it:
› supports identity, language and culture as
critical, but not exclusive, ingredients for the success of all learners
› provides all Mäori learners the opportunity
they need to realise their unique potential and to succeed as Mäori
› gives expression to the national curriculum
documents for early learning, primary and secondary schooling, which recognise the importance of te reo and tikanga Mäori for Aotearoa New Zealand
› supports community and iwi commitments
to Mäori language intergenerational transmission and language survival.
As an official language, the Mäori language offers cognitive, cultural, educational, economic, social and linguistic benefits for all New Zealanders.
Ko te ara matua:
The strategic context for Mäori language in education
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These benefits support the development and celebration of our national identity, while at the same time protecting the distinctiveness of the indigenous people, increasing family and whänau (and community) cohesion, and contributing to economic opportunities.
The vision for Tau Mai Te Reo is ‘Kia tau te reo – Supporting Mäori language in education: delivering strong, coordinated effort and investment’. Tau Mai Te Reo expresses and encourages a way of working that enacts Government and the education sector responsibilities relating to both the Treaty of Waitangi and Te Rautaki Reo Mäori – the Mäori Language Strategy. Responsibility for the revival of the Mäori language is shared between iwi, Mäori, the Crown and its agents. Mäori language can not be made secure by Mäori efforts alone, nor Crown efforts alone. It depends on the ability of both sides to cooperate, participate and contribute.
Tau Mai Te Reo builds on the Mäori language in education elements of Ka Hikitia – Accelerating Success 2013–2017. Tau Mai Te Reo recognises the importance of iwi and Mäori participation, contribution and partnership to strengthen Mäori language in education consistent with Whakapümautia, Papaköwhaitia, Tau ana – Grasp, Embrace, Realise: Conducting Excellent Education Relationships.
While Tau Mai Te Reo reaffirms educations commitment to the Mäori language and seeks to strengthen the quality and prominence, this has not always been the case. Through the last hundred years, the status and use of Mäori language in education has changed dramatically.
Settlers during the early to mid 1800s became bilingual and the promotion of English among Mäori did not seem necessary. In some cases, church proceedings were conducted in Mäori regardless of the majority of the clergy being Päkehä. By the early 19th century, Mäori language was still the primary means of conversation, although many Mäori had become bilingual3.
The early 1900s saw a shift in the education sector that affected the health of the Mäori language severely. Children who were fluent in Mäori language were being forced to leave their language at the school gate. Accounts of children being punished for speaking the Mäori language in and out of the classroom can be found through New Zealand historical literature.
Although the Education Department, at the time, had no official policies that encouraged or condoned the
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Journey of Mäori language in education
3 Waitangi Tribunal. (1986). Te Reo Mäori Claim (WAI 11). Wellington: The Tribunal.
punishment of children for speaking the Mäori language, the sector continued this practice for many years. Many children who went through this period in the education system went on to encourage their children to speak English to ensure they did not have a similar negative experience.
This generation of parents largely remained bilingual, as they had older generations to converse with in the Mäori language. However, each successive generation saw a larger proportion speaking English as their first language rather than Mäori. Although some children remained bilingual, Mäori language started to become more a second language and fluency was in decline by the mid to late 1900s.
In 1987, the Mäori Language Act declared Mäori language as an official language of New Zealand. Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Mäori (the Mäori Language Commission) has since primarily focused on the support and development of the Mäori language. The Government's Mäori language strategy (2003), Te Rautaki Reo Mäori, charged the Ministry of Education with the implementation and planning of Mäori language in education. This includes
Parents, whänau, iwi and communities play a significant role in Mäori language in education
the establishment of support mechanisms for the teaching of Mäori language from early learning through to tertiary and community contexts. It also includes the support needed to increase the number of speakers of Mäori language through education.
Mäori language in education, bilingual and immersion provision, emerged in its current form in the 1980s. It was led by the establishment of köhanga reo, followed by kura, wharekura and then wänanga. These Mäori language in education pathways were driven by iwi and Mäori who identified an urgent need to revitalise and strengthen Mäori language and to preserve Mäori culture and knowledge. It was also a direct response to the education system’s failure to provide education that delivered for Mäori learners.
The Mäori language in education sector, and in particular Mäori medium provision4, is now an established part of Aotearoa New Zealand’s education system. Importantly, these pathways enable Mäori to access education that learners can relate and connect to and provides a sense of ‘being Mäori’. Better education experiences and outcomes provide greater opportunities for any learner to participate in and contribute to Aotearoa New Zealand.
In 1996, Te Whäriki was the first bicultural curriculum statement developed in New Zealand. It contains curriculum specifically for Mäori medium services in early learning and establishes a bicultural curriculum for all early learning services. Köhanga reo have their own Te Whäriki and Te Korowai documents that guide their curriculum and operations.
Mäori language is acknowledged as an official language and is included in The New Zealand Curriculum within the ‘learning languages’ area, and is taught as a second
language in English medium schools. It is acknowledged that as learners learn Mäori language, they also deepen their knowledge and understandings of Mäori culture. Mäori language is taught in English medium education settings to a diverse group of students, in many different contexts, and by education professionals with a wide range of language and teaching backgrounds.
In 2007, curriculum guidelines were produced to support teaching and learning of Mäori language in schools. Under the Education Act5, all schools must provide Mäori language programmes to learners if parents request it, and state how this will be provided within their school charter.
While most Mäori learners6 are within English medium education settings, Mäori medium education increases the ability of the education system to deliver for and with Mäori learners, their families, whänau and iwi. It provides learners with an important pathway to achieve education success as Mäori and high levels of proficiency in Mäori language.
4 This is provision where at least 51 per cent of the teaching and learning is in the Mäori language.
5 Education Act 1989, section 61 (3) (ii).
6 In 2010, 90 per cent of Mäori learners were in English medium education settings, totalling 153,000 Mäori learners.
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The engagement of parents, whänau, iwi and communities in a learner's journey has a powerful influence on each learner’s education success, particularly in early learning and schooling. Parents, whänau, iwi and communities play a significant role in Mäori language in education, as well as influencing a child’s education pathway, and their learning, development, success and career opportunities. Strategic partnerships with iwi and Mäori can strengthen education provision for Mäori learners. Te Whäriki and Te Marautanga o Aotearoa create frameworks for learning that value the content from and priorities of local community, whänau and iwi aspirations.
Tertiary education has an important role to play in sustaining and revitalising Mäori language and knowledge. Mäori language and knowledge have significant potential to contribute to innovation, productivity and economic growth.
Participation and achievement in Mäori language at higher levels, is a key focus for tertiary education.
Mäori language research in the tertiary sector will help to support development of the knowledge base needed to manage cultural and economic assets and to preserve strong and prospering whänau, hapü and iwi. Initial teacher education, particularly for Mäori medium education professionals, contributes to better outcomes for Mäori language learners by raising the quality of Mäori language teaching and learning.
In 2008, the Ministry of Education launched Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success: The Mäori Education Strategy 2008–2012. The strategy sought a shift in education system performance for and with Mäori learners, their parents, whänau, iwi and communities. It aims to channel Government investment and effort into the areas of the education system where Mäori learners are most vulnerable.
Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success prioritises Mäori language in education as one of its four focus areas for change. Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success affirms the value of Mäori language in education and sets both an expectation and platform that all learners are able to access quality Mäori language education provision.
In 2011, the Ministry of Education also released Whakapümautia, Papaköwhaitia, Tau ana – Grasp, Embrace and Realise: Conducting Excellent Education Relationships. This framework defines, directs and drives mutually productive and rewarding relationships between the Ministry of Education and iwi to fulfil a common goal of educational success for and with Mäori learners.
Whakapümautia, Papaköwhaitia, Tau ana – Grasp, Embrace and Realise: Conducting Excellent Education Relationships provides for good government through the following:
› An acknowledgement that Mäori learners, their families
and whänau have been poorly served by the education system with a commitment to do better.
› A clear statement of the need for excellent relationships with iwi as key contributors to achieving educational success, for and with Mäori learners, their families and whänau.
› A model for excellent relationships between iwi
and the Ministry to give practical effect to successful education outcomes.
› A process for prioritising investment through
collaboration, co-construction, co-production and urgent action.
In 2013, Ka Hikitia – Accelerating Success 2013-2017, the next phase of the Government’s Mäori education strategy was released alongside Tau Mai Te Reo. Ka Hikitia – Accelerating Success calls for greater improvements to