Copy of Melissa Zimdars’ Google Doc: False, Misleading, Clickbait-y, and Satirical “News” Sources

This is a snapshot of Zimdars’ Google doc as of November 16, 2016. It is reprinted here under the Creative Commons 4.0 license.

Disclaimer 1: All of the contents in this document reflect the opinion of the author and are for educational purposes only. This resource was split into categories around 8:00pm EST on 11/15/16.

CATEGORY 1: Below is a list of fake, false, or regularly misleading websites that are shared on Facebook and social media. Some of these websites may rely on “outrage” by using distorted headlines and decontextualized or dubious information in order to generate likes, shares, and profits. These websites are categorized with the number 1 next to them.

CATEGORY 2: Some websites on this list may circulate misleading and/or potentially unreliable information, and they are marked with a 2.

CATEGORY 3: Other websites on this list sometimes use clickbait-y headlines and social media descriptions, and they are marked with a 3.

CATEGORY 4: Other sources on this list are purposefully fake with the intent of satire/comedy, which can offer important critical commentary on politics and society, but have the potential to be shared as actual/literal news. I’m including them here, for now, because 1.) they have the potential to perpetuate misinformation based on different audience (mis)interpretations and 2.) to make sure anyone who reads a story by The Onion, for example, understands its purpose. If you think this is unnecessary, please see Literally Unbelievable.

Note: I will be updating the categorizations and adding links gradually through the next couple of days.

Many of the websites on this list continue to offer valuable journalism and/or satirical commentary. For example, a website included on this list wrote an overall thoughtful piece about the list, but the headline suggests that every source on this list is fake, which misrepresents the list. Finally, I do not condone plug-ins that automatically block any of the websites listed below. And as a reminder, not all of the sources listed below should be considered fake.

100PercentFedUp.com (2,3)

EnduringVision.com (1)

PakAlertPress.com

21stCenturyWire.com (2, 3)

FPRNradio.com

PoliticalBlindSpot.com

70news.wordpress.com (1)

The Free Thought Project (3)

PoliticalEars.com

Abcnews.com.co (1)

GeoEngineeringWatch.org

Politicalo (1)

ActivistPost.com (2, 3)

*Website Removed* (temporarily)

PoliticusUSA

Addicting Info (3)

GovtSlaves.info

PrisonPlanet.com

AmericanNews.com (1)

GulagBound.com

PrisonPlanet.tv

AnonNews.co (3)

HangTheBankers.com

Private-eye.co.uk (includes 4)

Associated Media Coverage

HumansAreFree.com

ProjectVeritas

BeforeItsNews.com

Huzlers (4)

*Website Removed* (temporarily)

Being Liberal

IfYouOnlyNews

React 365

BigAmericanNews.com

Indecision Forever (1)

RealFarmacy.com

BigPZone.com

IJR (Independent Journal Review)

RealNewsRightNow.com (1, 4)

Bipartisan Report (3)

InfoWars (1, 2)

RedFlagNews.com

BizPac Review

Infowars.com

Red State (3)

Blue Nation Review (2,3)

IntelliHub.com

Reductress (4)

Breitbart (2, 3)

Inquisitr.com

RileNews.com (1, 4)

Call the Cops (4)

JonesReport.com

Satira Tribune

Cap News  (4)

LewRockwell.com

Sprotspickle.com (4)

ChristWire.org (4)

Liberal America

The Blaze

Chronicle.su

LibertyTalk.fm

The Free Thought Project (3)

CivicTribune.com (1)

LibertyUnyielding

Borowitz Report (4)

ClickHole.com (4)

LibertyVideos.org

The Onion (4)

CoastToCoastAM.com (2)

LMR/LibertyMovementRadio.com

The Other 98% (3)

CollectiveEvolution (3)

MediaMass.net (1)

The Reporterz

ConsciousLifeNews.com (2)

MegynKelly.us (1)

The Stately Harold

ConservativeOutfitters.com (2)

MSNBC.com.co (1)

TheDailySheeple.com

ConspiracyWire (WideAwakeAmerica.com) (2)

MSNBC.website (1)

TheNewsNerd.com

CountdownToZeroTime.com (2)

Naha Daily (4)

TheRunDownLive.com

CounterPsyOps.com

National Report

TheUsPatriot.com

*Website Removed* (temporarily)

NationalReport.net (1)

TruthFrequencyRadio.com

CreamBMP.com (1)

NaturalNews.com

Twitchy.com (3)

DailyBuzzLive.com

NC Scooper

UnconfirmedSources.com

DailyCurrant.com

NCT (New Century Times)

*Website Removed* (temporarily)  

*Website Removed* (temporarily)

News Examiner

USA Supreme

Daily Wire

News-Hound.com (1)

US.Blasting.News

DCClothesLine.com

NewsBiscuit.com (1)

US Uncut (3)

DCGazette.com (1)

Newslo (1, 4)

VeteransToday.com

DerfMagazine.com

NewsMutiny.com (1, 4)

 *Website Removed*

(temporarily)

Disclose.tv

Newswatch 28

WakingUpWisconsin.com

DrudgeReport.com.co (1)

Newswatch 33

Winning Democrats

DuffleBlog.com (4)

NewsWire-24.com

WitScience.org

DuhProgressive.com

NoDisInfo.com

World Net Daily

Embols.com

Now8News

World News Daily Report (4)

Empire Herald

NowTheEndBegins.com

WorldTruth.tv

Empire News (1)

Occupy Democrats (3)

ZeroHedge

EmpireNews.com

Endingthefed.com 

Tips for analyzing news sources:

  • Avoid websites that end in “lo” ex: Newslo (above). These sites take pieces of accurate information and then packaging that information with other false or misleading “facts” (sometimes for the purposes of satire or comedy).
  • Watch out for websites that end in “.com.co” as they are often fake versions of real news sources  
  • Watch out if known/reputable news sites are not also reporting on the story. Sometimes lack of coverage is the result of corporate media bias and other factors, but there should typically be more than one source reporting on a topic or event.
  • Odd domain names generally equal odd and rarely truthful news.
  • Lack of author attribution may, but not always, signify that the news story is suspect and requires verification.
  • Some news organizations are also letting bloggers post under the banner of particular news brands; however, many of these posts do not go through the same editing process (ex: BuzzFeed Community Posts, Kinja blogs,Forbes blogs).
  • Check the “About Us” tab on websites or look up the website on Snopes or Wikipedia for more information about the source.
  • Bad web design and use of ALL CAPS can also be a sign that the source you’re looking at should be verified and/or read in conjunction with other sources.
  • If the story makes you REALLY ANGRY it’s probably a good idea to keep reading about the topic via other sources to make sure the story you read wasn’t purposefully trying to make you angry (with potentially misleading or false information) in order to generate shares and ad revenue.
  • It’s always best to read multiple sources of information to get a variety of viewpoints and media frames. Some sources not yet included in this list (although their practices at times may qualify them for addition), such as The Daily Kos, The Huffington Post, and Fox News, vacillate between providing important, legitimate, problematic, and/or hyperbolic news coverage, requiring readers and viewers to verify and contextualize information with other sources.

Bio: I am an assistant professor of communication & media, and this list started as a resource for my students, who are learning about journalism/social media/media literacy.

Update 1: I’ve received hundreds of emails with suggestions, very few of which are duplicates, so it will take me a while to sift through and verify them. I will add them as appropriate. (EDIT 11/15/2016 @ 3:42 EST: I have a list of sources, suggested by all of you, that will take me a long time to get through)

Update 2: Yes, I am considering further coding/categorizing these sources for clarity and creating a more durable/dynamic database. This is likely just step 1.

Update 3: Some people are asking which news sources I trust, and all I can say is that I read/watch/listen very widely, from mainstream, corporate owned sources (The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Boston Globe, The Wall Street Journal, Forbes) as well as The Atlantic, National Public Radio, and various local and alternative sources with different political perspectives, some of which are included on this list. The problem: Even typically reliable sources, whether mainstream or alternative, corporate or nonprofit, rely on particular media frames to report stories and select stories based on different notions of newsworthiness. The best thing to do in our contemporary media environment is to read/watch/listen widely and often, and to be critical of the sources we share and engage with on social media.

Update 4: A group of AWESOME librarians will be working with this list to provide more detail, examples of the news articles in question, etc. I will post what they make here when it is complete.

Update 5: It should be noted I’m not the first person to call out some of these websites. When I first started compiling this specific large list on Monday, some friends alerted me to many websites doing similar and great work, such as Ed Brayton’s recent post at Patheos (I included many of the websites on his list after checking them myself if I was unfamiliar). I plan on providing more links to outside resources in the near future.

© 2016  by Melissa Zimdars.

The work 'False, Misleading, Clickbait-y, and Satirical “News” Sources'

is made  available  under a  Creative Commons

Attribution 4.0  International  License. To  view  a copy of  this license, visit

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