Anti-racist resources for Archaeology and Heritage

This is a slightly random, but, I hope, growing list of resources for how we can understand and teach critically the links between archaeology, heritage and racist and far-right ideologies.

Please add whatever resources you consider useful (ideally with hyper-links and open access, if possible). If not immediately apparent from the title then please include a short summary of what a resource is about. Feel free to add new sub-sections.

Credit to Jonathan Hsy and Julie Orlemanski Jonathan Hsy and Julie Orlemanski for their crowd-sourced bibliography on Race and Medieval Studies, which prompted me to start something related for archaeology.

Thanks to all of you who have already contributed!

E. Niklasson, Ryan McNutt, Emma Brownlee, Michael Hoover, Katherine Seeber, Lesley Howse, Colleen Morgan, Ryan Hay, Doris Gutsmiedl, Dacia Viejo-Rose

Susanne Hakenbeck, 10/08/19

Decolonial theory

Atalay, S. 2006. Indigenous archaeology as decolonializing practice. American Indian Quarterly 30: 280-310.

Atalay, S, Clauss, LR, McGuire, RH, Welch, JR. 2014. Transforming Archaeology. In Atalay, S, Clauss, LR, McGuire, RH., Welch, JR (Editors) Transforming Archaeology Activist Practices and Prospects, (pp. 7-28). London: Routledge.

Baird, Melissa F. 2014. Heritage, Human Rights, and Social Justice. Heritage & Society 7(2): 139-155

Hamilakis, Yannis. 2018. "Decolonial archaeology as social justice."  Antiquity 92 (362):518-20. doi: 10.15184/aqy.2018.17.

Bruchac, M. M. (2014) Decolonization in Archaeological Theory. In Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology. Claire Smith, ed., chapter 258, pp. 2069-2077. New York, NY: Springer Science and Business Media

Bruchac, Margaret M., Hart, Siobhan M., and Wobst, Hans Martin. Indigenous Archaeologies : a Reader on Decolonization . Walnut Creek, Calif: Left Coast Press, 2010. Print.

Daswani, G. (2019) On the Whiteness of Anthropology. Everyday Orientalism blog.

Lyons, Natasha. Where the Wind Blows Us: Practicing Critical Community Archaeology in the Canadian North. University of Arizona Press, 2013.

Colwell, Chip. “Collaborative Archaeologies and Descendant Communities.” Annual Review of Anthropology 45.1 (2016): 113–127. Web.

Castañeda, Quetzil E., and Matthews, Christopher N. Ethnographic Archaeologies : Reflections on Stakeholders and Archaeological Practices . Lanham, MD: AtlaMira Press, 2008. Print.

Oland, Maxine, Hart, Siobhan M., and Frink, Liam. Decolonizing Indigenous Histories Exploring Prehistoric, Colonial Transitions in Archaeology . Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2012. Print.

Fowles, Severin M. An Archaeology of Doings : Secularism and the Study of Pueblo Religion . 1st ed. Santa Fe: School for Advanced Research Press, 2013. Print.

Koch, J.K. 2019. Kolonialismus (in) der archäologischen Fachsprache. Archaeologik

Smith, C., and H.M. Wobst (2005). Indigenous Archaeologies: Decolonizing Theory. London and New York: Routledge.

Archaeology and the Far Right

Gustafsson A and Karlsson H (2011) A spectre is haunting Swedish archaeology – The spectre of politics. Archaeology, cultural heritage and the present political situation in Sweden. Current Swedish Archaeology 19: 11–36.

Weil, K. 2018. The Alt-Right Is Taking Over Renaissance Fairs

Kim, D. 2019. White Supremacists Have Weaponized an Imaginary Viking Past. It's Time to Reclaim the Real History

Poulis, Konstantinos (2017), Golden Dawn and the Classics, Political Critique, pp. 1-10.  (Magazine article)

von Schnurbein, S. (2016). Norse revival transformations of Germanic neopaganism. Leiden: Brill.

Hale, A. 2019. The Pagan and Occult Fascist Connection and How to Fix It

Neo-Nazis at the National Trust: How far-right groups are trying to 'take back' ancient sites. Telegraph, 10/08/2019

Niklasson, E., & Hølleland, H. (2018) The Scandinavian far-right and the new politicisation of heritage. Journal of Social Archaeology, 18(2), 121–148. 

Shackel, Paul A. 2001. “Public Memory and the Search for Power in American Historical Archaeology.” American Anthropologist 103 (3): 655–70.

Archaeology as an accessory to racism

Anderson, K. and Perrin, C. (2007). ʻ‘The Miserablest People in the World’: Race, Humanism and the Australian Aborigineʼ. The Australian Journal of Anthropology, 18/1: 18-39.

Arnold, B. (2006). ʻ'Arierdämmerung': Race and Archaeology in Nazi Germanyʼ. World Archaeology, 38/1: 8-31.

Ballard, C. (2006). ʻStrange alliance: Pygmies in the colonial imaginaryʼ. World Archaeology, 38/1: 133-51.

Bernbeck, R. (2018). ʻAn Emerging Archaeology of the Nazi Eraʼ. Annual Review of Anthropology, 47/1: 361-76.

Challis, D. (2010). ʻ‘The Ablest Race’: The Ancient Greeks in Victorian Racial Theory. In Classics and Imperialism in the British Empireʼ, in M. Bradley (ed.), Classics and Imperialism in the British Empire. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 95-121.

Challis, D. (2016). Skull Triangles: Flinders Petrie, Race Theory and Biometrics. Bulletin of the History of Archaeology, 26(1)

Challis, Debbie. 2013. The archaeology of race: the eugenic ideas of Francis Galton and Flinders Petrie. London: Bloomsbury.

Curtoni, R. P. and Politis, G. G. (2006). ʻRace and racism in South American archaeologyʼ. World Archaeology, 38/1: 93-108.

Gosden, C. 2006. Race and racism in archaeology: Introduction. World Archaeology 38 (1): 1–7.

McNiven, I. J. and Russell, L. (2005). Appropriated pasts: indigenous peoples and the colonial culture of archaeology. Lanham, Md.: AltaMira Press.

Porr, M. and Matthews, J.M. 2017. Post-colonialism, human origins and the paradox of modernity. Antiquity 91:1058-1068.

Siapkas, J. (2016). ʻSkulls from the Past: Archaeological Negotiations of Scientific Racism ʼ. Bulletin of the History of Archaeology, 26/1: 1-9.

Shepherd, N. (2003). ʻ‘When the hand that holds the trowel is black . . .’ʼ. Journal of Social Archaeology, 3/3: 334–52

Stocking, G. 1968. Race, Culture and Evolution: Essays in the History of Anthropology. New York: The Free Press.

Archaeologies of Race and Racialisation

Brandon, Jamie C. 2013. “Reversing the Narrative of Hillbilly History: A Case Study Using Archaeology at Van Winkle’s Mill in the Arkansas Ozarks.” Historical Archaeology 47 (3): 36–51.

Franklin, M. (2001). A Black feminist-inspired archaeology? Journal of Social Archaeology, 1(1), 108–125.

Matthews, Christopher N., and Allison Manfra McGovern. 2015. The Archaeology of Race in the Northeast. University Press of Florida.

Matthews, Christopher. “Lonely Islands: Culture, Community, and Poverty in Archaeological Perspective.” Historical Archaeology 45.3 (2011): 41–54. Web.

Mullins, P. R. (2010). ʻRace and Classʼ, in J. Lydon and U. Z. Rizvi (eds.), Handbook of Postcolonial Archaeology. London: Routledge.

Orser, Jr, Charles 2013. Race and Practice in Archaeological Interpretation. University of Pennsylvania Press, Inc

Orser, Jr, Charles 2007. Archaeology of race and racialization in historic America. Gainesville: University of Florida Press.

Orser, Charles E., and Pedro P. A. Funari. "Archaeology and Slave Resistance and Rebellion." World Archaeology 33, no. 1 (2001): 61-72.

Singleton, Theresa A. “I, Too, Am America” : Archaeological Studies of African-American Life . Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999. Print.

Singleton, Theresa A. “I, Too, Am America” : Archaeological Studies of African-American Life . Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999. Print.[a]

Schumann, Rebecca. 2017. “Race and Agency in the Williamsburg Area’s Free African American Population from 1723 to 1830.” Historical Archaeology 51 (1): 100–113.

White, William A. 2017. “Writ on the Landscape: Racialization, Whiteness, and River Street.” Historical Archaeology 51 (1): 131–48.

Anthropology and racism

Geller, P.L. (2015) Hybrid lives, violent deaths. In Z. Crossland and R. Joyce (eds) Disturbing Bodies, pp. 137-156. Santa Fe: School for Advanced Research Press

Gould, S. J. (1996). The Mismeasure of Man. New York and London: W.W. Norton.

Kühnast, Antje (2012) "The Utilization of Truganini's Human Remains in Colonial Tasmania," History of Anthropology Newsletter: Vol. 39 : Iss. 1 , Article 3.

Etzemüller, T. (2015). Auf der Suche nach dem Nordischen Menschen: Die deutsche Rassenanthropologie in der modernen Welt. Bielefeld: transcript Verlag.

Wolff Mitchell, P. and Michael, J. S. (2019). ʻBias, Brains, and Skulls. Tracing the Legacy of Scientific Racism in the Nineteenth-Century Works of Samuel George Morton and Friedrich Tiedemannʼ, in J. A. Thomas and C. Jackson (eds.), Embodied Difference: Divergent Bodies in Public Discourse. London: Lexington Books, 77-98.

Archaeology, race and genetics

El-Haj, N. A. (2007). The Genetic Reinscription of Race. Annual Review of Anthropology, 36(1), 283–300.

Panofsky, Aaron, and Catherine Bliss. 2017. "Ambiguity and scientific authority: population classification in genomic science."  American Sociological Review 82 (1):59-87. doi: 10.1177/0003122416685812.

Hakenbeck, S. E. (2019). ʻGenetics, archaeology and the far right: an unholy Trinityʼ. World Archaeology: 1-11.

Panofsky, A. and Donovan, J. (2017). When Genetics Challenges a Racist’s Identity: Genetic Ancestry Testing Among White Nationalists. SocArXiv.

Saini, A. (2019). Superior: the return of race science. Boston: Beacon Press.

TallBear, Kimberly. Native American DNA : Tribal Belonging and the False Promise of Genetic Science. Place of publication not identified: University of Minnesota Press, 2013. Print.

Terrell, J. 2018. "Plug and Play" Genetics, Racial Migrations and Human History. Scientific American.

Terrell, J. 2018. Ancestry Tests Pose a Threat to Our Social Fabric. Sapiens.

Terrell, J. E. (2019). ʻShow-and-tell genetics: diagnosis and treatmentʼ. The SAA Archaeological Record, 19/1: 33-38.

Wagner, J. K., Yu, J. , Ifekwunigwe, J. O., Harrell, T. M., Bamshad, M. J. and Royal, C. D. (2017), Anthropologists' views on race, ancestry, and genetics. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 162: 318-327.

Vella-Gregory, I. 2019. Genetics, Archaeology and the Present. Jebel Moya Blogpost

Heritage, Ownership and Representation

Hall, Stuart. “Whose Heritage? Un-settling ‘The Heritage’, Re-imagining the Post-nation”, in Third Text 49, Winter 1999-2000.

Peterson, D., K. Gavua, and C. Rasool. 2015. The Politics of Heritage in Africa. New York: CUP

Critical history of archaeology


Galaty, Michael L., and Charles Watkinson. 2004. Archaeology under Dictatorship. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

Kohl, P. L. and Fawcett, C. (eds.) (1995), Nationalism, Politics, and the Practice of Archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Díaz-Andreu, M. and Champion, T. (eds.) (1996), Nationalism and Archaeology in Europe. London: UCL Press.

Anthony, D. W. (1995). ʻNazi and eco-feminist prehistories: ideology and empiricism in Indo-European archaeologyʼ, in P. L. Kohl and C. Fawcett (eds.), Nationalism, Politics and the Practice of Archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 82-96.

González-Ruibal, A.. 2010. Colonialism and European archaeology, Handbook of Postcolonial Archaeology. London: Routledge.

Lyons, Natasha. Where the Wind Blows Us: Practicing Critical Community Archaeology in the Canadian North. University of Arizona Press, 2013. 

Trigger, B.G. 1984. Alternative archaeologies: nationalist, colonialist, imperialist. Man 19: 355-370.

Roche, H. and Kyriakos, N. D. (2017). Brill’s Companion to the Classics, Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

Geary, P. J. (2002). The Myth of Nations. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.

Heng, G. (2018). The Invention of Race in the European Middle Ages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9781108381710

Podcast: Ep. 52 – Geraldine Heng, The Invention of Race in the European Middle Ages

Fowler, Don D. "Uses of the Past: Archaeology in the Service of the State." American Antiquity 52, no. 2 (1987): 229-48. doi:10.2307/281778.

Effros, Bonnie, and Guolong Lai, eds. Unmasking Ideology in Imperial and Colonial Archaeology: Vocabulary, Symbols, and Legacy. Los Angeles: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press at UCLA, 2018. doi:10.2307/j.ctvdjrrt0.

United Kingdom

Champion, T. (1996). ʻThree nations or one? Britain and the national use of the pastʼ, in M. Díaz-Andreu and T. Champion (eds.), Nationalism and Archaeology in Europe London: UCL Press, 119-45.

Hingley, R. 2000. Roman Officers and English Gentlemen: The Imperial Origins of Roman Archaeology. London: Routledge.


Chapoutot, J. (2016). Greeks, Romans, Germans: how the Nazis usurped Europe's classical past. Oakland, California: University of California Press.

Halle, Uta. 2003. Die Externsteine sind bis auf weiteres germanisch! Steinhagen: Verlag für Regionalgeschichte.

Steuer, H. (ed.) 2001. Eine hervorragend nationale Wissenschaft. (Ergänzungsbände zum Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde 34). Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter.

  • A number of in-depth chapters on the history of archaeology in Germany

Beck, D., D. Geuenich, H. Steuer, D. Hakelberg (eds.)  2004. Zur Geschichte der Gleichung "germanisch-deutsch. (Ergänzungsbände zum Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde 29). Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter.

  • Critical history of ‘Germanic’ ideology in German history and archaeology

Bollmus, R. (1970). Das Amt Rosenberg und seine Gegner. Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlagsanstalt.

Kater, M. H. (1974). Das "Ahnenerbe" der SS 1935-1945. Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlagsanstalt.

Arnold, B. (1997/1998). ʻThe power of the past: nationalism and archaeology in 20th century Germanyʼ. Archaeologia Polona, 35-36: 237-53.

Arnold, B. (2006). ʻ'Arierdämmerung': Race and Archaeology in Nazi Germanyʼ. World Archaeology, 38/1: 8-31.

Arnold, B. (1990). ʻThe past as propaganda: totalitarian archaeology in Nazi Germanyʼ. Antiquity, 64: 468-78.

Veit, U. (1989). ʻEthnic concepts in German prehistory: a case study on the relationship between cultural identity and archaeological objectivityʼ, in S. J. Shennan (ed.), Archaeological Approaches to Cultural Identity. One World Archaeology 10. London: Unwin Hyman, 35-56.

Wiwjorra, I. (1996). ʻGerman archaeology and its relation to nationalism and racismʼ, in M. Díaz-Andreu and T. Champion (eds.), Archaeology and Nationalism. London: UCL Press, 164-87.

Marchand, S. 1996. Down from Olympus: Archaeology and Philhellenism in Germany, 1750-1970, Princeton: Princeton University Press. Chapters 2-4.

Focke-Museum, Bremen (ed.), 2013. Graben für Germanien – Archäologie unterm Hakenkreuz, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.

Düker, R. 2018. Deutsche Kolonien in Afrika: Hundert Glasperlen für einen Kopf. Zeit Online, 7/3/2018


Díaz-Andreu, M. 1996. Islamic Archaeology and the Origin of the Spanish Nation. In M. Díaz-Andreu and T. Champion, Archaeology and Nationalism in Europe: 68-89, London: UCL Press.

Díaz-Andreu M. (2014) Spain: Nationalism and Archaeology. In: Smith C. (eds) Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology. Springer, New York, NY

Alonso, F.G., (2008). Relations between Spanish Archaeologists and Nazi Germany (1939–1945): A preliminary examination of the influence of Das Ahnenerbe in Spain. Bulletin of the History of Archaeology. 18(1), pp.4–24.


Dietler, M. (1994). “Our Ancestors the Gauls”: Archaeology, Ethnic Nationalism, and the Manipulation of Celtic Identity in Modern Europe. American Anthropologist, 96(3), 584–605.

Effros, B. (2012). Uncovering the Germanic Past: Merovingian Archaeology In France, 1830-1914. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chap. 1 and 8.


Fröhlich, T. (2008). The study of the Lombards and the Ostrogoths at the German Archaeological Institute of Rome, 1937-1943. In N. de Haan, M. Eickhoff and M. Schwegman (eds) Archaeology and National Identity in Italy and Europe 1800-1950 (Fragmenta 2), pp. 183-213. Turnhout: Brepols.

González-Ruibal, A. 2010. Fascist colonialism: the archaeology of Italian outposts in western Ethiopia (1936-1941). International Journal of Historical Archaeology 14(4): 547-574

Arthurs, Joshua. Excavating Modernity: The Roman Past in Fascist Italy. Ithaca; London: Cornell University Press, 2012.

Nelis, Jan. "Constructing Fascist Identity: Benito Mussolini and the Myth of "Romanità"." The Classical World 100, no. 4 (2007): 391-415.

Munzi, M. 2001. L'epica del ritorno. Archeologia e politica nella Tripolitania italiana


Svanberg, F. (2003). Death rituals in south-east Scandinavia AD 800-1000: decolonizing the Viking Age. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.


Matthews, Christopher. “Gilded Ages and Gilded Archaeologies of American Exceptionalism.” International Journal of Historical Archaeology16.4 (2012): 717–744. Web.


Tahan, Lina G. "Challenging Colonialism and Nationalism in Lebanese Archaeological Museums." Near Eastern Archaeology 73, no. 2/3 (2010): 195-97.


Abu El-Haj, Nadia. Facts on the Ground : Archaeological Practice and Territorial Self-fashioning in Israeli Society. Chicago: U of Chicago, 2001.

South Africa

Rassool, C. (2019) The Politics of Nonracialism in South Africa. Public Culture 31:2, pages 343-371.

Rassool, C. (2000). THE RISE OF HERITAGE AND THE RECONSTITUTION OF HISTORY IN SOUTH AFRICA. Kronos, (26), 1-21. Retrieved from 

Shepherd, N. 2002. The politics of archaeology in Africa. Annual Review of Anthropology 31: 189-209.

Shepherd, N. 2003. ‘When the hand that holds the trowel is black.’: Disciplinary practices of self-representation and the issue of ‘native’ labour in archaeology. Journal of Social Archaeology 3: 334-352.

Witz, L., G.Minkley and C.Rassool. 2017. Unsettled History: The Making of South African Public Pasts. Ann Arbor:  University of Michigan Press.


Note: There is a mix of history and anthropology here, which is very much reflective of the Sudan.

Ahmed, A.G.M. 1982. The state of anthropology in the Sudan. Ethnos 47: 64-80.

Collins, R.O. 1999. Slavery in the Sudan in history. Slavery & Abolition: A Journal of Slave and Post-Slave Studies 20: 69-95.

Derry, D. 1914. Some physical characteristics of a prehistoric Sudanese race. Proceedings of the XVII International Congress of Medicine London (1913). Anatomy and Embryology 1: 99-106. (Note: offered here as an example of racial discourse).

Hamad, B. 1995. Sudan Notes and Records and Sudanese Nationalism, 1918–1956. History in Africa 22: 239-270.

James, W. 1977. The Funj mystique: Approaches to a problem of Sudan history, in Jain, R.K. (ed.) Text and Context: The Social Anthropology of Tradition: 95-133. Philadelphia: ISHI.

Johnson, D.H. 2007. Political intelligence, colonial ethnography, and analytical anthropology in the Sudan, in Tilley, H. & Gordon, R.J. (ed.) Ordering Africa: Anthropology, European Imperialism and the Politics of Knowledge: 309-335. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Progressive and community archaeology

Fennell, Christopher. 2017. Broken chains and subverted plans: ethnicity, race, and commodities.

Barnes, Jodi A. The Materiality of Freedom : Archaeologies of Postemancipation Life . Columbia, S.C: University of South Carolina Press, 2011. Print.

González-Ruibal, A., González, P. A. and Criado-Boado, F. (2018) “Against reactionary populism: towards a new public archaeology,” Antiquity, Cambridge University Press, 92(362), pp. 507–515.

Hicks, D. (2019). Lande: The Calais 'Jungle' and Beyond: Bristol University Press.

Identity and historical myth

El-Haj, N. A. (1998). Translating Truths: Nationalism, the Practice of Archaeology, and the Remaking of Past and Present in contemporary Jerusalem. American Ethnologist, 25(2), 166–188.

Friedman, J. (1992). The Past in the Future: History and the Politics of Identity. American Anthropologist, 94(4), 837–859.

McNutt, Ryan K. (2017) ‘What’s left of the flag’: the Confederate and Jacobite ‘lost cause’ myths, and the construction of mythic identities Journal of Conflict Archaeology, 12:3,

Gardner, A. and Harrison, R., 2017. Brexit, Archaeology and Heritage: Reflections and Agendas. Papers from the Institute of Archaeology, 27(1), p.Art. 24. DOI:

Richardson, L.-J. and Booth, T., 2017. Response to ‘Brexit, Archaeology and Heritage: Reflections and Agendas’. Papers from the Institute of Archaeology, 27(1), p.Art. 25. DOI:

Brophy, K. (2018). ʻThe Brexit hypothesis and prehistoryʼ. Antiquity, 92/366: 1650-58.

Bonacchi, C., Altaweel, M. and Krzyzanska, M., 2018. The heritage of Brexit: roles of the past in the construction of political identities through social media. Journal of Social Archaeology, 18(2), pp.174-192.

Gardner, A., 2017. Brexit, boundaries and imperial identities: A comparative view. Journal of Social Archaeology, 17(1), pp.3-26.

Popa, C. (2019). The Responsibility of European Archaeologists. European Journal of Archaeology, 22(2), 255-268. doi:10.1017/eaa.2019.13


Koch, Ariel. "The New Crusaders: Contemporary Extreme Right Symbolism and Rhetoric." Perspectives on Terrorism 11, no. 5 (2017): 13-24.

Cento Bull, A. ʻNeo-fascismʼ, in R. J. B. Bosworth (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Fascism  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Medieval memes. The far right’s new fascination with the Middle Ages. Economist, 2/1/2017.

Flags and Other Symbols Used By Far-Right Groups in Charlottesville

Baumgärtner, M. and Holscher, M. 2017. Neonazis unter Nordmännern. Spiegel Online, 11/8/2017.

Bonvalot, M. 2018. Neonazis in Wolfspelzen: Wie Rechtsextreme ein Wikinger-Festival in Polen unterwandern. Vice, 20/8/2018.

Banghard, Karl (2016). Nazis im Wolfspelz. Germanen und der rechte Rand. Hrsg. v. Archäologisches Freilichtmuseum Oerlinghausen (Wuppertal: de Noantri 2016).

See also: Nazis im Wolfspelz. Webblog of the Archäologisches Freilichtmuseum Oerlinghausen 

Booklet and webblog about neofacism and nazis at open air museums events.

K. Banghard/J. Raabe, Die Germanen als geschichtspolitisches Konstrukt der extremen Rechten. In: H.-P. Killguss/M. Langebach (Hrsg.), "Opa war in Ordnung!". Erinnerungspolitik der extremen Rechten, Beiträge und Materialien der Info- und Bildungsstelle gegen Rechtsextremismus 8 (Köln 2016) 131–143.

[a]Dr. Singleton is one of the few female African American archaeologists working on the African Diaspora, in case anyone is aiming to decolonialize their syllabus.