Cell Division (1.6)
- What are the products of Mitosis, specifically in regards to the nucleus
- Describe the supercoiling of chromosomes
- Describe cytokinesis occurs after mitosis and how it is different in plant and animal cells
- Discuss what occurs during Interphase (including each stage)
- Discuss how cyclins are involved in the control of the cell cycle
- Describe how mutagens, oncogenes and metastasis are involved in the development of primary and secondary tumors
- Application: The correlation between smoking and incidence of cancers.
Covered in Labs:
- Skill: Identification of phases of mitosis in cells viewed with a microscope or in a micrograph.
- Skill: Determination of a mitotic index from a micrograph.
Structure of DNA & RNA (2.6)
- The nucleic acids DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides (describe structure of nucleotides and how they combine to form DNA & RNA)
- Describe how DNA differs from RNA
- Describe the structure and bonding within DNA
- Application: Crick and Watson’s elucidation (explanation) of the structure of DNA using model making.
- Skill: Draw a simple diagrams of the structure of single nucleotides of DNA and RNA, using circles, pentagons and rectangles to represent phosphates, pentoses and bases.
DNA Replication (2.7 & 7.1)
- Describe semi-conservative DNA replication and how it depends on complementary base pairing
- Describe role of Helicase
- Describe role of DNA polymerase
- Describe what is and the role of Nucleosomes
- Describe the replication of DNA including the leading & lagging strands, role of various enzymes, addition of nucleotides to 3’ end of primer
- Explain how DNA structure suggested a mechanism for DNA replication.
- Identify regions of DNA that do not code for proteins and discuss what importance they may have
- Application: Explain Rosalind Franklin’s and Maurice Wilkins’ investigation of DNA structure by X-ray diffraction.
- Application: Use of nucleotides containing deoxyribonucleic acid to stop DNA replication in preparation of samples for base sequencing.
- Application: Tandem repeats are used in DNA profiling.
- Application: Production of human insulin in bacteria as an example of the universality of the genetic code allowing gene transfer between species.
Completed in class activities:
- Skill: Use a table of the genetic code to deduce which codon(s) corresponds to which amino acid.
- Skill: Analysis of Meselson and Stahl’s results to obtain support for theory of semi-conservative replication of DNA.
- Skill: Analysis of results of the Hershey and Chase experiment providing evidence that DNA is the genetic material.
- Skill: Utilization of molecular visualization software to analyse the association between protein and DNA within a nucleosome.
- Application: Use Taq DNA polymerase to produce multiple copies of DNA rapidly by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (this will be completed in a lab during the Biotech Unit)