Group Project Proposal (Science)

SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SINGAPORE

INVESTIGATIVE SKILLS IN SCIENCE

Names: Chloe Wong, Khrisha Mayilsamy

Class: S2-04

Group Reference: A / B / C / D / E / F / G / H  / J /  K  / L /  M  

A.    Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:

[              ] Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research

e.g. Investigation of the anti-bacteria effect of chrysanthemum

[             ] Measure a value: Experimental research (I)

e.g. Determination of the mass of Jupiter using planetary photography

[    ] Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)

e.g. Investigation of the effect of temperature on the growth of crystals

[        ] Construct a model: Theoretical sciences and applied mathematics

e.g. Modeling of the cooling curve of naphthalene

[             ] Observational and exploratory research

e.g. Investigation of the soil quality in School of Science and Technology, Singapore  

  1. Type & Category

Type of research: ________3________  (Write down one number from 1 to 6)

Category  –  ____________8_________ (Write down one number from 7 to 20)

Sub-category –  ________(c)__________ (Write down the sub-heading alphabet)

(Refer to http://sst2016-iss.blogspot.sg/p/l2-types-of-research-categories.html)

Application of project relevant to SST Community, Society or the World:

 

Patients who are affected by diseases like diarrhea naturally need more energy and calories than people who are healthy since their body is fighting against the disease (Kalman,1987). The body needs to maintain higher energy levels than usual. This is tough as the body needs to fight against the diseases on top of providing energy for a person’s daily activities (Klein, 2014). When the body is fighting against the disease, people usually lose their appetite. This is due to the body focusing more on fighting against the disease than using energy to digest food consumed. This results in people who are sick refusing to eat food. However, if the patient affected by the disease does not consume enough food, there will not be a decrease of energy for the body to use.This will worsen the disease and result in the disease taking a longer time to be cured (ibid). Thus it is essential for people who are suffering from diseases to have a proper diet in order to get the required amount of nutrients and energy. To recover fully, they would need to eat small portions of food more frequently to provide their body with the extra nutrients and energy it needs to stay strong and heal well (Shih,2016).

For example, patients who are suffering from diarrhea require more calories for their body to function normally as their energy output is greater than their intake (Kay, 2012). They might also face problems such as dehydration and electrolyte abnormalities. These are the results of the shortage of minerals such as calcium and vitamins (Marks,2015). They would also require instant energy for their body to function normally. It is essential for them to eat a sufficient amount of the right kind of food in order to have enough energy for the body to fight against the disease and they would have to return to their regular diet as soon as possible to cure diarrhea (Kay,2012).

However, on the contrary,  people who are affected by health conditions such as diabetes require food that are digested slowly and releases their glucose at a slower rate in order to prevent sugar highs (M. C, 2016, September 9). The glycaemic index (GI) was created for this purpose (Lewin,2015). The index indicates the speed at which digestion occurs, and the amount it raises glucose levels in the blood is measured by a score on the GI scale. Glucose, is the reference point for all other foods. A sharp increase in glucose in the blood triggers the pancreas to release a rush of the hormone insulin, which removes any excess glucose. Insulin removes the surplus glucose from the blood and lowers the speed at which the body burns fat. A large surge in insulin, caused by eating high-GI foods, will start reactions in the body that leave you feeling lethargic, hungry and craving more sugar (ibid).

Eating low-GI carbohydrate foods causes a steady rise in the level of glucose in the blood, which in turn leads to a small and gentle rise in insulin (Lewin,2015). Small increases in insulin keep you feeling full and energised for hours after eating and also encourages the body to burn fat (ibid).Thus, it is important for diabetic patients to eat food that gets digested slowly and releases the glucose in a steady level. Hence it is important for patients with diabetes to consume food that does not get digested easily and releases the glucose at a steady level.

Dumping syndrome is another type of health condition that require food to be digested slower rate releasing the glucose to the body at a stable rate. Dumping syndrome occurs when food, especially sugar, moves too fast from the stomach to the duodenum the first part of the small intestine in the upper gastrointestinal tract (NIH, 2013). This condition is also called the rapid gastric emptying. Thus, to prevent experiencing the effects of this syndrome which is vomiting, weakness, sweating and many more patients require to consume food that gets digested at a slower rate and release the glucose to the body at a slower rate (ibid).

Thus, the person’s choice of food diet is extremely important and it is based on their different health conditions. It is essential for people with diseases such as diarrhea to consume food that their body will be able to digest easily but still be able to provide them with instant as well as sufficient amounts of energy for the day. They should not consume food which are rich in fats and sugar as they are difficult to be digested and thus require more energy to be digested which results in stressing the body and digestive system (Klein, 2014).However, on the other hand, people affected by health conditions such as diabetes and dumping syndrome require food that gets digested slowly to allow the glucose to be released at a steady rate, preventing sugar highs. Both their diet should consist mainly of food rich in carbohydrates as they are the easiest type of food to be digested.Since carbohydrates are the first line of energy the body will use, eating food rich in carbohydrates can provide the body with its main and instant source of energy to function (ibid). Carbohydrate foods contain mainly starch which provides us with the energy we need for our daily activities (NHS Choices,2017). Starches provide our body with essential nutrients that satisfy our body’s needs (John, 2016). Increased amount of intake of starchy food is also recommended for the treatment and prevention of many diseases (Klein, 2014). Starch can be found in staple foods such as potatoes, rice, wheat and flour as well as in most green plants (NHS Choices, 2017). However, not all carbohydrates get digested at the same rate. Some food take longer than others to be digested.

Our experiment is to test various starchy foods to find out which item gets digested within the shortest period of time. Since not all starchy food digest at the same rate, some are more suitable for patients to consume than others. Some takes a shorter time to digest than the others and are thus able to provide the sufficient amount of nutrients in time for the body to function normally which makes them more suitable for patients with diseases such as diarrhea to to consume. Some also gets digested at a longer time which makes it suitable for patients with health conditions and diseases such as diabetes and dumping syndrome to consume. Our experiment will help conclude and find out which type of starchy food is most suitable for patients to consume when they are affected with different types of diseases.

Methods:

Our experiment consists of testing common foods that are told to be suitable for consumption when one is sick which are white rice, basmati rice, corn flakes, bread flour, wheat flour and corn flour. According to our research on these 5 food types we found out that white rice has 0.43g of starch per 1g, basmati rice has 0.78g of starch per 1g,wheat flour has 0.6g of starch per 1g,bread flour has 0.6g of starch per 1g. Corn flakes has 0.43g of starch per 1g. Thus our hypothesis is that the lesser the amount of starch the food item contains the faster it gets digested. When our experiment succeeds, we would be able to conclude the most suitable food for patients to consume when they are affected with the different types of diseases.

Although we are able to determine which is the most suitable starchy food to be consumed by a person who is sick, there is a limitation to our experiment. Our experiment only includes the breakdown of the food by amylase thus we are not able to determine the digestion time needed for complete digestion. As the enzymes produced by the body varies from one person to another our concluded digestion time is not the exact and the same for every single person.

C.    Write down your research title:

Investigation of the digestion time for various starchy substances

D.   (a) Aim / question being addressed

We wanted to investigate the digestion time of different starchy substances in order to conclude the most suitable type of starchy substance to be served to sick patients allowing them to digest the food quickly.

(b) Independent variable

The independent variable is the type of starchy substance.

(c) Dependent variable

The dependent variable is the digestion time.

(d) Controlled variables

(a)  Amount of amylase juice used

(b)  Amount of starchy substance used

(c)  Time interval for testing

(d)  Location of testing

(e)  Amount of starch substance used for each test for starch

(f) Amount of hot water used

(g) Temperature of water

     

 (e) Hypothesis

The hypothesis is that the food with the lowest amount of starch, white rice, will get digested the fastest.

E.    Method – Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)

(a) Equipment list:

 

-      Test Tube (x15)

-      Iodine (x300ml)

-      Stopwatch (x5)

-      Bread flour (x150g)

-      Wheat flour (x150g)

-      Corn Flakes (x150g)

-      Basmati rice (x150g)

-      White rice (x150g)

-      Blender (x1)

-      Amylase (300ml)

-      Ceramic tiles (x5)

-      Dropper (x5)

-      Glass Rod (x5)

-      Weighing Scale (x1)

-      Hot water ( x1200ml)

-      Hot plate ( x1)

(b) Diagrams

 

(c) Procedures: Detail all procedures and experimental design to be used for data collection

1.     Blend the 50g of basmati rice

2.     Measure 1g of basmati rice using a weighing scale

3.     Boil 100ml of water

4.     Pour 100ml of water into the beaker

5.     Stir the contents of each test tube well

6.     Take out 5ml of the solution and put it into a test tube

7.     Add 5ml of the amylase solution to the test tube and start the stopwatch

8.    Every 1 minute, use a dropper for the test tube to take out one drop of the solution and drop it on a ceramic tile

9.    Add 1 drop of iodine on the solution

10.    Observe the colour of iodine solution and record down the colour as well as the time.

11.Repeat step 10 until the iodine is observed as yellowish brown

11. Repeat step 2 to step 11

12. Repeat step 2 to step 11 again

13. Repeat steps 1-12 replacing basmati rice with white rice

14. Repeat steps 1-12 replacing white rice with corn flakes

15. Repeat steps 1-12 replacing the blended corn flakes with bread flour

16.  Repeat the steps 1-12 replacing bread flour with wheat flour.

(d) Risk, Assessment and Management: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.

Risk

Assessment

Management

  1. If the blender is not used carefully it may cut one's hand causing deep injuries.

Medium

The power must always be off when handling with the blender and the blades must not come into contact with the hands as far as possible

2. Accidentally dropping and breaking the test tubes which can result in accidentally getting cut

Medium

Always ensure that the test tube is in the test tube holder and if it is taken out ensure that it is handled carefully. If the test tube is broken, immediately inform the teacher.

3. If the iodine is accidentally rubbed in the eye it may cause irritation

Medium

Wash your hands properly and make sure the chemicals used do not come into contact with the eyes.

4. Accidentally consuming of any chemicals

Medium

Always wash your hands carefully after dealing with chemicals and never bring any chemicals close to your mouth

5. Accidentally burning oneself by the hot plate and getting scalded

High

Always ensure that there is adult supervision and that the hot plate is far from where the experiment is conducted.

(e) Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyze the data/results that answer research questions or hypotheses

  1. Record the time taken for the iodine to turn yellowish-brown in the 3 test tubes for Basmati rice.
  2. Find the average from the 3 tests for the basmati rice and record it down.
  3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 for white rice.
  4. Repeat steps 1 and 2 for corn flakes.
  5. Repeat steps 1 and 2 for bread flour.
  6. Repeat steps 1 and 2 for wheat flour.
  7. Draw a bar graph for the recordings using the digestion time as the dependent time and the type of food as the independent variable.
  8. From the bar graph, we conclude the various digestion time of different starch food item and the food item that got digested the fastest and the time taken to the food that got digested the slowest and the time taken to conclude the most suitable food for patients who are suffering with diseases such as diarrhea.

F. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major sources (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order for each type of source.

(a) Books

John, M. (September, 2016). The healthiest diet on the planet. Retrieved January 11, 2017 from National Library Board

    Mann, J. I. (1984). What carbohydrate foods should diabetics eat? Bmj, 288(6423),            1025-1026. doi:10.1136/bmj.288.6423.1025. Retrieved January 13, 2017 National Library Board

Svihus, B., & Hervik, A. K. (2016). Digestion and metabolic fates of starch, and its relation to major nutrition-related health problems: A review. Starch - Stärke,68(3-4), 302-313. doi:10.1002/star.201500295. Retrieved January 13, 2017 National Library Board

 

(b) Journals

Jenkins, David J. A, Alexandra L, Wolever, Thomas M. S, Rao, A. V, … Lilian U. (1986, October ). Retrieved January 12, 2017, from http://web.a.ebscohost.com/abstract?direct=true&profile=ehost&scope=site&authtype=crawler&jrnl=00029270&AN=16283862&h=wwLYL3zE%2fPr99jpk1%2fNAAwi0HMcbpGzVwlJHkkuZuyVEXd%2fHE67FteKSX%2fbimdHqYw7MzBhThG4O0qwuT3pZSg%3d%3d&crl=c&resultNs=AdminWebAuth&resultLocal=ErrCrlNotAuth&crlhashurl=login.aspx%3fdirect%3dtrue%26profile%3dehost%26scope%3dsite%26authtype%3dcrawler%26jrnl%3d00029270%26AN%3d16283862 

(c) Websites

Kay, M. H., Porto, A. F., & V. (2012, December). Diarrhea in Children. Retrieved January 11, 2017, from http://patients.gi.org/topics/diarrhea-in-children/ 

Klein, S. (2014, February 15). What To Eat When You're Sick. Retrieved January 11, 2017, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/02/15/what-to-eat-when-sick_n_4774900.html

Lewin, J. (2015, March 26). Spotlight on... low-GI. Retrieved February 19, 2017, from http://www.bbcgoodfood.com/howto/guide/spotlight-low-gi 

Marks, M. J. (2015, October 29). Diarrhea Symptoms, Causes & Natural and Home

Remedies. Retrieved January 11, 2017, from http://www.medicinenet.com/diarrhea/article.htm#diarrhea_facts 

NIH. (September 13). Dumping Syndrome | NIDDK. Retrieved February 26, 2017, from https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/dumping-syndrome 

 Shih, C. (2016, December 05). The Best and Worst Foods to Eat When You're Sick. Retrieved January 11, 2017, from http://greatist.com/health/best-foods-eat-when-sick 

Staff, M. C. (2016, September 9). Retrieved February 25, 2017, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diabetes/in-depth/diabetes-diet/art-20044295 

(Starch foods (carbs)- Live Well. (2017, April 01). Retrieved January 11,2017,from http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/Goodfood/Pages/starchy-foods.aspx 

U. (2017, February 1). GI Database. Retrieved February 20, 2017, from http://www.glycemicindex.com/foodSearch.php