38.         Establishment of Close Friendship/Affinity by Hunzukutzs with the Chinese Officials at Yarkand

It has been narrated through oral tradition that Mir Salim had been living at Yarkand for a period of twenty-four years prior to his becoming the Mir of Hunza. He had acquired agricultural lands at Yarkand, which have remained the property of Mirs of Hunza till recently (1962). The details of this event as narrated by oral tradition are, that a military contingent had invaded Kanjoot (Hunza). Salim accompanied that invading force as a hostage to Yarkand on its return via Raskam. He then stayed at Yarkand for twenty-four years. During this period he was adopted by an influential and prosperous noble man of Yarkand as his son and was granted agricultural land. Salim during his stay carried out negotiations with the representatives of Government of Khitau (Chinese Emperors) and entered into a pact/promising and pledging to ensure and retain Hunza as a peaceful l vassal of the Chinese emperor. Accordingly, the officials of Khitau therefore sent a representative of theirs who was called "Daroogha" with Mir Salim and sent him to Hunza. From thence onwards, such a representative i.e. "Daroogha" was sent to Kanjoot every year to ensure that Kirghiz raiders did not carryout raids on Kanjoot territory and also to see and ensure that Kanjooties did not establish close ties with any other power or government, detrimental to Chinese interest. Daroogha after the visit and inspection used to go back to Yarkand. During this tour/visit, the Chinese Daroogha used to bring with him a number of daily use items as presents for the Mir of Kanjoot (Hunza) and the Nobel and important functionaries of Hunza. The Mir of Hunza and the people of Hunza, in return presented forty yards of "Pattoo" silk cloth called Sargaz, as present and token of tribute from their side. In addition quantities of dried apricot and other dried fruits were also sent with him as presents and token of subjugation for the officials of Khitau at Yarkand. This arrangement and tradition/custom f relationship continued to remain operative till the reign and era of Mir Khisrau of Hunza, The Mir of Hunza and his officials collected the raw material i.e. silk and readymade thread from every household of Hunza and got the silk cloth woven, This cloth as called "Daroogha Yarkand's cloth". Out of the total cloth prepared, about forty yards of cloth (silk cloth) was presented to the "Daroogha" of Yarkand. The remaining cloth as taken away by the Mir and his courtiers/functionaries.

Hunza valley, during that period had become well known as "Kanjoot". It was because of the reason that it was propagated and rumoured in whole of Turkistan that his valley contained a lot of Gold and precious stones in its mountains and rivers. It was due to this reason that the people of Turkistan called it Kaan Joot (Yurt).  In Turkish language Yurt or Joot means place/country and "Kaan" minerals, Thus Kaan-Yurt or Kanjoot" means mines of precious minerals and stones. Hence 'Kaan Yurt" became as “KaanJoot" in the layman's usage, Hence the name Kanjoot.

39.         Decision of Hunza Among Sultan and Hari Thum

        When Salim completed his life span and by the will of almighty God, he traveled from this mortal world to the next eternal world, the tiny state of Hunza was divided into two portions between Sultan and Harri Thum, the two remaining sons of Ayasho-II, who were still alive, hence Sultan became the ruler of Altit and Harri Thum took over as Amir of Baltit. "Kuturo" was the Wazir to Sultan and "Sulmon" son of Zuqo was the Wazir with Harri Thum.

40.         Occupation of Nagar through a Unanimous Plot by Sultan and Harri Thum the two sons of Ayasho

        Soon after the division of Hunza, Sultan and Harri Thum quickly realized that the three villages (Altit, Baltit and Ganish) of Hunza were too small a possession for the two rulers Hence it was mutually decided that Hunza be vacated by one of the rulers in favour of the other and Nagar be occupied and given to the other ruler. It was, therefore, decided that Nagar was to be captured and brought into possession and allotted to Harri Thum. Hence Harri Thum along with his well wishers and confidants like Wazir Sulmon, Trangfah Kaseero and (Kaseero was a wise and Strongman who was brought from Hindi village and was appointed as Trangfah at Baltit. He was also allotted. along with the appointment of “Trangfah", a piece of agricultural land for  his cultivation, this land or the fields are called ' Kaseero  Farri or fields of Kaseero in Baltit till this day, Kaseero collected buckwheat from his  home village i.e. Hindi and brought  it to Baltit Kaseero had levied a fixed Quantity  of the "buckwheat" on each household of Hindi. later on when "Trangfahs" were appointed from "Baltit” the capital village, wheal was levied in place of  “Buckwheat”. This wheat is still collected and given to Trangfah of Hindi who hails from Baltit) a few best chosen men of Hunza made a strong and firm resolve to take Nagar in their possession. They, therefore, devised and prepared a plan and hatched a conspiracy and implemented the same.

It has been narrated that a Hunza woman by the name of Minali daughter of Phoot was married to a Nagar man and was living in Nagar. The name of her Nagar husband was Jato Minalo. The plan and conspiracy was hatched by incorporating the  above mentioned Hunza woman and her Nagar husband. As per the plan of conspiracy Sutlan and Hari Thum would send a large quantity of a special silk /cloth to Minali in Nagar, so that she should present it to the noble men and courtiers of Raja Ali Dad of Nagar as a present from herself. The woman was then to solicit, sympathy and patronage of all these noblemen and courtier as her brothers and fathers. She, therefore, made large and appropriate pieces of this cloth and presented these pieces of cloth to almost every important and influential nobleman and courtier of Raja of Nagar. She then in a pleading tone disclosed to all these individuals her plight of being the only woman of Hunza among the Nagaris. In order to gain and obtain their sympathies, patronage and confidence she told them that she had neither her parents, brothers, sisters nor anyone of her close relatives and clansmen nor anyone else to look alter her in times of difficulty as she was all alone in Nagar, it was only these noblemen and courtiers only that she considered them as her protectors and hence as her parents, brothers or the relatives of consequence. Hence, she said, she expected such support, sympathy and considerate treatment of hers from them only. This way she was able to gain the sympathies, patronage and confidence of these noble men.

         On the other hand, the same woman secretly went to Raja Ali Dad the ruler of Nagar. By way of sympathy and to gain Raja's confidence, she enacted the same cover story with him also. She to ld him that oh l Raja and the ruler of Nagar, may God almighty protect you from the evils and dangers and calamities of the world and the nature, I am a wretched lonely woman of Hunza living in your domain. I am always in need of your sympathy, kind consideration and help. I want to make you aware and inform  you of an Impending dangerous secret.. I request you to kindly keep it to yourself alone and don't disclose it to anyone else. Please notice and observe and test the loyalties of your courtiers, noblemen and companions. I have come to know through most reliable source, that Mir of Hunza has sent bribes for your these confidants. courtiers and nobleman (Akabir + Moatabaran), Hence all of them have secretly collaborated with Mir Hunza and have decided to rebel against you so that they are able to hand over the slate of Nagar to the Mirs of Hunza. These men of yours are going to implement their  plan in a matter of days. It may happen any day soon, today or tomorrow.

        Raja Ali Dad, on hearing of this piece of information, from this woman, at once believed it to be true. The reason was, that he had specifically noticed and observed the  existence of the above mentioned cloth with most of his companions. They had almost  all of them used the “cloth" (sent from Hunza) as their waist belts and mufflers etc, and attended his court daily since the last couple of days. But they were all ignorant and ill formed of the actual conspiracy. (the same was true with Raja also), Thus Raja Ali  Dad also ignorant and unaware of the dark conspiracy of the cunning woman, at once arrested all his courtiers on the same night and dispatched them to "Hispar" as prisoners and put them in Jail. He had therefore to send all his remaining fighting men for the protection and guarding of these important prisoners.

        Once, Raja Ali Dad arrested all his selected, top of the line and noble companions and Nagar became vacant that wicked and shrewd woman immediately sent the news of this happening across to the Mirs of Hunza. She said in their message that oh! Mir come soon, as, because of your good luck, Raja Ali Dad has fallen into my trap and has arrested all his important and noble persons of influence and sent them to jail in Hisper. Remaining chosen and best fighting men of Nagar have also gone as guards and protection party to the prisoners. Thus Nagar is void of its best men and the capital of Nagar is totally vacant and Raja Ali Dad is asleep alone oblivious and ignorant  of the dangers and happenings around him. It is now absolutely necessary that you act fast and now and immediately reach Nagar and take it into your possession.

        Harri Thum, who was eagerly waiting to receive this information and good news immediately assembled his force consisting of selected/chosen fighting men of Hunza under Wazir Sulmon and Trangfah Kaseero etc and immediately left for Nagar. When this force reached at the main entrance/gate of the Nagar Fort. Mr. Jato Minalo on seeing Harri Thum and his companions at the gate, cut the large wooden gate of the entrance with the help of his axe. into pieces and opened the door. Ham Thum and his raiders  Swiftly entered the fort. In order to make it memorable and in praise and acclamation songs were composed and sung by the singer cum poets of Hunza  are in commemorating this event. A few stanzas of such songs are reproduced below which  are in Shina but written in Burushaski alphabets:






        Raja Ali Dad, who was a very bulky and lazy man, and who is considered by the people of Nagar to be the most incompetent Raja, of all Rajas of Nagar even up of this date was informed about the raid. On learning the news that Harri Thum of Hunza had raided Nagar and had entered into the Nagar Fort. Raja Ali Dad got up from his bed and managed to flee/run away from the fort through a secret back window of the fort. He fled towards Baltistan and this way managed to remain safe and alive.

        Having captured Nagar, in this manner, Harri Thum became the Ruler of Nagar. He immediately got released/freed the captives/prisoners of Raja Ali Dad, and gave rewards and presents to everyone of them according  to their stature importance and influence. He reinstated all the appointment holders on their respective previous appointments. It has been said that Harri Thum ruled Nagar for a period of years. According to a few others, he ruled Nagar for a period of seven years. During this period Raja Ali Dad was able to obtain and muster enough support and strength and hence he returned to Nagar with re-enforcement from Baltistan. On return by Raja Ali Dad in force, Harri Thum ran away and fled towards Kashmir along with his son Rashid Khan. He did not return to Hunza to share the rule of Hunza but  instead both the lather and son reached Kashmir.

        Ali Dad once again sat on the throne of Nagar. He expressed his deep sorrow and  regrets and apologized for his follies from his courtiers and companions. He cursed himself also and Jato Manalo was awarded death penalty and thus was beheaded for his part. However Mst. Phoote Minali had already fled Nagar and reached Hunza. She was  re-rnarried to a man from the clan of Chaboykutz by the name of Mr. Chaboy Bati. The offsprings of this woman and her husband are nowadays known as Chaboy Kuts.

        It  has been narrated that Harri Thum did return to Hunza from Kashmir. His son  Rashid Khan however eluded him and got away from him. He (Rashid) is said to have  fallen in love with a whore in Kashmir, According to another version he died en-route during  their journey towards Kashmir. God knows better.

        Later after his return from Kashmir. Harri Thum got settled down in the village of Hindi ( Hinni) and asked his brother Sultan for support and reinforcement to attack Nagar once again. Sultan granted his request and provided him with the required reinforcements. Thus Harri Thum attacked Nagar With the help of his supporters and companions.  It has been narrated that Raja  Ali Dad was no more the ruler at that time as he had died, and instead his son Shah Kamal was the ruler in his place. Shah Kamal was defeated and he, like his father, also fled towards Baltistan and reached there safely. After passage of about three years he came to know that the people of Nagar had become fed up of and alienated from Harri Thum, as this time Harri Thum had imposed  and  levied very harsh/heavy and innumerable taxes/revenues on the people of Nagar, The people were subjected to over twelve types of heavy and unreasonable taxes. Shah Kamal, therefore, requested and received help, assistance and reinforcement from the ruler of Baltistan and departed for Nagar to retake it from Harri Thum. He also meanwhile obtained blessings and good wishes/prayers from a saint by the name of "Shah Burya" who was considered to be from amongst the blessed Saints and pious men of God. He obtained his prayers and blessings for success in his battle.  The people of Nagar by then had turned in his favour and Trangfah Kaseero had also turned loyal and sympathetic to him. Harri Thum therefore could not dare to stand up  and offer a battle, he therefore fled Nagar, but took Trangfah Kaseero along and beheaded him en-route at the four tracks junction of Nagar and fled to Hunza after burying him on the same track junction, He then went back to Hinni (Hindi), He did so because his brother Sultan had died during that period and his son Shah Abbas had  taken over as the ruler of Hunza.

        Shah Kamal, therefore became the victor and thus he re-established his rule on Nagar very triumphantly and started to rule it. He started spending his life among his  subjects with joy and happiness. He however continued to collect the taxes/revenues which were levied by Harri Thum.

Arrival of Shah Burya Wali to Nagar and Chitral

        Once Shah Kamal established himself firmly in Nagar, Shah Burya Wali along with a few of his disciples arrived at Nagar. Shah Kamal considering his arrival to be of a good and sacred omen gave him extreme reverence and respect and treated him with utmost care It has been narrated:- that once upon a time Shah Kamal was sitting with Shah Burya and was acclaiming his greatness, piousness and sainthood , when Shah Burya asked him to take out his handkerchief and spread it over the palm of his hand, Shah Kamal complied, Shah Burya, with the help of a forceps, took out a red hot  burning piece of coal from the burning fire place, and placed it on the palm of Shah Kamal and asked him to eat. Kamal observed that the red hot piece of coal had now turned into the form of a frog. Kamal requested Shah Burya to allow him to take that Frog home so that  he could eat it at his home. Thus he rolled the frog in that hand kerchief and  took it along and left for his home. However en-route, he threw away  that  frog. On arrival at his home he narrated the whole story to his wife and children and then gave the handkerchief to his daughter to wash it clean. His daughter took, the  handkerchief and saw that it had been soaked in an oily liquid and had become oily and greasy, the daughter, therefore, started licking and tasting the oily kerchief with her  tongue. It has been narrated that the daughter because of her this act of licking and tasting the kerchief, had acquired spiritual powers and divine inspiration. God knows better.

        Another of the miracles or  works of divine revelations of Shah Bunya Wali  as often quoted or narrated by the common people IS that he once desired to have fresh  apples during the thick of winters, when all the trees were barren and Without the leaves. Shah Buriya asked the people to shake the apple tree, on  which fresh apples suddenly apples started to fall down from that tree. Apart from this miracle, another case of such miracles is often narrated. And that is while en-route during this Journey from Baltistan he  had seen a particularly beautiful and flat stone slab. On reaching his destination at Nagar when the time of his prayers came, he desired and asked for particular slab of stone. It  was seen by all around him, that the same slab was Instantly  available and present in front of Shah Burya Wali, and he offered his prayers on the same stone slab. It is said that the same particular slab of stone is still there in its place in Nagar, even to this day.

        When Shah Burya became restless and felt uneasy at Nagar he departed for Chitral.  His disciples who had accompanied him since from Baltistan stayed back at Nagar and got themselves settled down there permanently. The offsprings and descendants of these disciples are now found in Nagar and are called "Darweshan" Two prominent persons from amongst the descendents of these  disciple  have been able to attain some sort of scholarly status and are calligraphers of their era. One of them is known as Akhund Aman Ali Shah Sumayari and the second as Ahmad Ali Shah Chatorkhandi sons of Darwesh Qanmbar. Shah Buryo was able to safely reach Chitral, where after passage of some period, he breathed his last. One of his companions by the name  of  Sangeen Ali stayed back at his grave/tomb (ziarat) and became its curator/ attendant. The Mehtars of Chitral are the descendants  of this Mr. Sangeen Ali. It  IS because of this reason that a saying/proverb among the masses  of  Hunza and Nagar had become common "that the Sung Ali's have turned out to be the rulers” and in Persian.

And in Burushaski it is Said:

"Sangalay Boyo Talay Numan"


"Meaning the descendant of Sangalay have transformed into a ruling elite"

Rule by Sultan the Seventh son of Ayasho

        When Harri Thum abdicated as the ruler of Baltit and became the ruler of Nagar.  Sultan became the ruler of all three settlements i.e. Altit, Baltit  and Ganish With much  relief and peace of mind He was at peace because there existed no more threat and danger from Nagar or from any other direction. It has been narrated, that Sultan had got married with a daughter of Jabbar Khan the ruler of Baltistan. Her name was Bibi  Ghoras and this lady hailed from the family of Shah Khatoon, the mother of Sultan. The artisans  of Baltistan who had previously laid the foundations of forts/palaces at Altit and Baltit were able to complete the construction work during the reign of Sultan, During this construction  activity , they had constructed a "mosque" in the name of Bibi Ghoras within the precincts of Altit Khun, about which it has already been mentioned on preceding  pages of this book. This mosque is still there in its place of its original shape (as of 1962 AD).

        As per the oral tradition this Sultan was an extremely cruel ruler There are famous  narrated tales as examples of his acts of ruthlessness. One of the stones/ tales, which is commonly popular amongst the masses  of Hunza is that:- He used to spend his summers at the meadows or grazing grounds (pasture land) of Seestaan located above and north of village of Alta Abad, accompanying his wives and the shepherds who grazed their herds and sheep for him. He also cultivated Barley crop in the available pieces of land in this grazing ground. He employed Hunza men to perform all these tasks. When the crop of Barley got ripened, he made these men to first cut the crop and then they carried it on their backs to his fields in village Altit. At Altit, they were made to thrash the crop and obtain the grain, by separating it from hay When the grain was thrashed, collected and cleaned the men out of the masses of Hunza were detailed to carry the grain to Gulmit for grinding, as Sultan's personal water mill was located In  Gulmit village. When the flour was produced by the water-mill at Gulmit Village, the men had to carry it on their backs and at the same time they were to carry a water melon in there hands and transport the flour back to Altit  for storage and ultimate consumption, this was the manner in which the men of Hunza carried out the assignments of Sultan. As the routes and tracks passed over rugged mountains and hills and along the share slopes of precipices they were narrow like  goat paths and very difficult and dangerous to traverse. Hence It was exceedingly difficult for such load carrying men, with the water- melon in their hands to negotiate difficult  portions of such a narrow foot-path Hence there  is  an idiom or proverb still in use and popular which say “should i hold the water melon or the Rock”. In Burushaski the proverb/ idiom is as follows:


When the extremes of cruel acts of Sultan exceeded beyond tolerable limits, one day an old  woman, on the instigation and promptings Trangfah Dudaar. Set on the Sultan, route of Mir Sultan. She took a very old shirt of her son and started sewing and mending the same. During this process Mir Sultan happened to walk on that route and passed by the old woman. Trangfah Dudaar, who was accompanying the Mir, asked the old woman as to what was she sewing In her this condition of blindness and deafness? The old woman in reply said. Oh son, I am sewing the torn out skin of the belly of Mir Sultan as my son  has been detailed to go to Gulmit tomorrow and carry the flour and water melon of Sultan.  I am therefore, sewing and mending this shirt so  that my son wears it  for tomorrow work. On hearing these remarks, Sultan silently passed by that woman with out uttering anything and with out showing any signs of annoyance and rage.