Course Number: FPA 311
Western Art Humanities: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, Music, and Dance
Term: Fall 2017
Fr. Peter Samuel Kucer, MSA STD
Students will study Western Humanities from a Catholic perspective through the medium of art. The teacher’s presentation on paintings, sculpture and architecture will be complemented by the student’s research and presentations on social dance, from an historical standpoint.
2. ENVISIONED LEARNING OUTCOMES
3. COURSE SCHEDULE
Please note: It is required that you read the chapters assigned in the textbook for further depth and resources. In addition, all quizzes and the final exam are open lecture/book tests.
Week 1: Egyptian Art August 28th-September 3rd
Lecture Sample: Hello and welcome to FPA 311 Western Art Humanities: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, Music, and Dance. In this course, we will study Western Humanities through the medium of art. My lectures on paintings, sculpture and architecture will be complemented by the student’s research and presentations on social dance, from an historical standpoint. The first lecture will focus on ancient Egyptian art.
As is typical with other ancient civilizations Egyptian cities (in Latin civitates) formed around fresh water. In the case of Egypt this was the Nile River. The Nile is the longest river in the world, around four thousand miles. The yearly flooding of the Nile deposited rich soil that was ideal for growing crops. Three eras that Egyptologist consider as high points of ancient Egyptian civilization have been named the Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom. As we look at the art from these eras you will notice that Egyptian art is highly stylized and symbolic. People are portrayed rigidly in a hierarchical manner. The importance of an individual can be determined by their size in relationship to others. Kings, logically, were depicted as larger than anyone else.
Presentation topics: 1. The Early Renaissance 15th Century: the Balli – (see the DVD Vol. 1 and pages 83 and 86 of History of Dance) 2. The Late Renaissance 16th Century: So Ben Mi Chi Ha Bon Tempo. (see the DVD Vol. 1) 3. The Late Renaissance: La Volta (see the DVD Vol. 1 and pages 69, 82, 104 of History of Dance)
Week 2: Greek and Roman Art September 4th – September 10th
We will now shift our attention from Egypt to Greece, and then finally to Rome. Greece is commonly known as the cradle of western civilization, since from the Greeks westerns have received basic philosophical and artistic sensibilities that have shaped a distinctly western world view. In this chapter, you will be introduced to five styles of ancient Greek art: Geometric, Orientalizing, Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic. All of these, styles, especially the Classical and Hellenistic, played a key role in how Western Europe would later create its art.
Presentation topics: The Late Renaissance: 4. Gallaird (see the DVD Vol. 1 and pages 69, 81-82f, 100, 104 of History of Dance) 5. Baroque 18th Century: Minuet (see the DVD Vol. 1 and pages 109, 115-118, 135 of History of Dance) 6. Baroque Contradance (see the DVD Vol. 1 and pages 109, 116, 117-118, 121, 135 of History of Dance)
Week 3: Early Christian and Byzantine Art September 11th – September 17th
After the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ early Christians began to be persecuted, in varying ways, by Roman officials and emperors. The persecution officially ended in 313 when the Christian friendly Emperor Constantine by his Edict of Milan allowed Christians to publicly practice their faith. Since prior to the 313 Edict of Milan it was difficult for Christians to publicly express their faith the Christian art from these times is fairly simplistic. In this chapter, beginning with symbolic letter art and ending with non-letter symbolic art, we will focus our attention on the symbolic art that Christians used to express their devotion to the Triune God.
Presentation Topics: 7. Baroque 18th Century: the Folies d’Espagne – (see the DVD Vol. 1 and page 121 of History of Dance) 8. Regency Early 19th Century: Country Dances: (see the DVD Vol. 1 and pages 100, 105, 117, 160, 162 of History of Dance)
Week 4: Romanesque and Gothic Art September 18th – September 24th
The Middle Ages is the era that historians designate as occurring after Age of Antiquity, which includes early Greek, Roman and Christian times. Scholars choose different historical events to signify the beginning of the Middle Ages. One common one is 476 AD when Romulus Augustulus, the last Western Emperor, was removed from his throne by the Germanic barbarian Odoacer. We will study the art of the Middle Ages by studying Romanesque architecture.
Presentation Topics: 9. Romantic Mid 19th Century: Quadrille (see the DVD Vol. 1 and pages 35, 135-137 of History of Dance) 10. Mid 19th Century: Durang’s Hornpipe (see the DVD Vol. 1 and page 157 of History of Dance)
Week 5: Late Gothic and Medieval Art September 25th – October 1st
Late Gothic architecture was more decorative than earlier forms of Gothic architecture. This is evident in the Rayonnant style that began in the 13th century and the later Flamboyant style. The term Rayonnant is a French word that means radiant. Stain glass windows made in this style give the viewer a sense of light radiating outward. Flamboyant is also a French word. It means flaming or wavy. As the name indicates, flamboyant architectural design, as will be seen, is curvy and flame like.
Presentation Topics: 11. Victorian Late 19th Century: Polka (see the DVD Vol. 1 and page 137 of History of Dance) 12. Late 19th Century Mazurka (see the DVD Vol. 1)
Week 6: Early Italian Renaissance Art October 2nd – October 8th
As with almost all historical eras, dating the beginning and the end of the renaissance in a way that will satisfy all historians is not possible. For convenience sake, I have chosen two dates that roughly coincide with its beginning and end, 1453 and 1650. In the year of 1453 the eastern Christian city of Constantinople fell to the Islamic Ottoman Empire. The fall of Constantinople signaled a decisive end of the Byzantine Empire. After its fall, both Greek and non-Greek intellectuals fled from Constantinople to Western Europe. The knowledge they brought with them, especially of classical literature, was a factor in initiating a re-birth of western civilization. In Latin the word renaissance (renasci from re – “again” and nasci – “be born”) literally means to be born again. During this time, the western world looked back to the ancient Greeks and Romans, for inspiration. Beginning in Florence, Italy, artists reflected this trend. A few notable characteristics of renaissance art are contrasting light with darkness, use of perspective, naturalism, painting with a variety of colors, freely depicting emotions, hidden symbolism, presenting the human body in an uninhibited manner, and depicting Greek and Roman myths.
Presentation Topics: 13. Victorian: Late 19th Century: Galop – (see the DVD Vol. 1 and page 147 of History of Dance) 14. Late 19th Century: Waltz Cotillon (see the DVD Vol. 1 and pages 136-138, 164, of History of Dance) 15. 1910’s: Animal Dances (see the DVD Vol. 2 and pages 171-173 of History of Dance)
Week 7: Italian Renaissance Art Part II October 9th – October 15th
We will continue studying the art from the Italian Renaissance but will go later in history than we did in the previously.
Presentation Topics: 16. 1910’s: Castle Walk (see the DVD Vol. 2 and page 172-173 of History of Dance) 17. 1910’s: Tango (see the DVD Vol. 2 and page 173 of History of Dance)
Week 8: Northern European Renaissance Art October 16th – October 22nd
The two primary reasons why the Renaissance style began in Italy are first because Italy represents the heart of the ancient Roman Empire, and second, the Catholic papacy, which helped to fill in the power gap after Rome fell in 476 AD, resides in Italy. In time, the artistic styles of the Renaissance spread beyond Italy to Northern Europe. In this chapter we will study the later period of Renaissance art by focusing on Northern European Renaissance Art.
Presentation Topics: 18. 1920’s: Black Bottom – (see the DVD Vol. 2 and pages 171-172 of History of Dance) 19. 1920’s: Charleston (see the DVD Vol. 2 and pages 173-174 of History of Dance)
Week 9: Italian and Spanish Baroque Art October 23rd – October 29th
The era that followed the Renaissance is called the Baroque. This word is a French word meaning irregular, which is from the Portuguese word barroco signifying an imperfect pearl. Barroco may have originated from the Spanish berucca, meaning a wart. As the term indicates, calling this art Baroque originally was not meant as a compliment but as an insult. According to the first users of this term to designate a specific style, Baroque art was a deformation of Renaissance art as a wart is an unwanted growth of excessive skin cells. In time, though, the term lost its original insulting meaning and began to refer to art that was an organic development of Renaissance art. It is characterized by its attention to detail, emotional intensity brought about by contrasting light with darkness, and/or choosing subject matter that evokes strong emotional reactions in the viewer.
Week 10: Northern Baroque, Rococo and Neoclassical Art October 30th –November 5th
We will shift our attention of Baroque art in Italy and Spain to Baroque are in Northern European countries. This will be followed by brief glance at Rococo art that followed the Baroque style.
Week 11: Romantic and Realist Art November 6th – November 12th
We will study the artistic movement of Romanticism that occurred along with the neoclassical movement of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. As the name indicates, artists of the Romantic Movement, partially in reaction to the neoclassical style, embraced emotion, passion, imagination, and spontaneity. Consequently, their depiction of feelings is not restrained as emotion is in neoclassical art. The complexities of human life and of nature that often contain unresolved tensions, even insanity, are brought to the fore in Romantic art.
Presentation Topics: 24. 1940’s: Rhumba – (see the DVD Vol. 2 and page 194-195 of History of Dance) 25. 1940’s: Swing (see the DVD Vol. 2 and pages 173-174 and 194 of History of Dance) 26. 1950’s: Rock n’ Roll  (see the DVD Vol. 2 and page 215-219 of History of Dance)
Week 12: Impressionism and Post-Impressionism November 13th – November 19th
In Impressionism painters appear to represent their first blurred impression of life. Its name comes from the title of Claude Monet’s Impression, Sunrise.
Presentation Topics: 27. 1950’s: Mambo (see the DVD Vol. 2 and pages 194-195 and 219 of History of Dance) 28. 1960’s: Twist (see the DVD Vol. 2 and pages 231 and 235 of History of Dance) 29. 1960’s:Mod (see the DVD Vol. 2 and pages 235-236 of History of Dance)
Week 13: Symbolism, Expressionism, Dada, De Stijl, and Abstraction November 20th – November 26th
We will study Symbolism and the multiple types of Expressionism. Symbolism was a late 19th to 20th century movement that centered on what imagination can conjure up. Dreams and figures from fantasy are often portrayed. Expressionism, whose roots can be understood as beginning with Van Gogh, was a style which artists used to express their inner emotions through the subject matter they depicted.
Presentation Topics: 30. 1960’s: Hippies – (see the DVD Vol. 2 and page 233-235 of History of Dance) 31. 1970’s: Disco (see the DVD Vol. 2 and pages 235, 261-262 of History of Dance) 32. 1980’s: Break Dancing  (see the DVD Vol. 2 and page 261 of History of Dance)
Week 14: Surrealism and Minimalism November 27th – December 3rd
The 1920s artistic movement of Surrealism (sur from French meaning beyond) literally means beyond realism. Surrealist artists attempted to bypass the conscious mind by depicting, in various forms of medium, the unconscious mind, a term from psychoanalysis. Their work appears disjointed, illogical and dream like.
Presentation Topics: 33. 1980’s: Punk (see the DVD Vol. 2) 34. 1980’s: Moonwalk (see the DVD Vol. 2) 35. 1990’s:Vogueing (see the DVD Vol. 2) Presentation Topics: 36. 1990’s: Hip Hop (see the DVD Vol. 2 and page 261 of History of Dance) 37. 1990’s: Country Western (see the DVE Vol. 2, and pages 194, 262, 117, 195, 218 of History of Dance for swing and line dancing that Country Western is influenced by.)
Week 15 Op, Pop Art, and Post Modern Architecture December 4th – December 8th
In the mid-1950s Op or Optical artists created visual illusions. This art can appear to move and vibrate when it is not. Another mid-1950s art style was Pop art in which popular objects from culture, such as movie stars, soup cans, and even comic strip characters, are portrayed.
We will end with Post Modern Architecture. These architects considered themselves postmodern since they rejected the assumption of modernists that the world is inherently understandable and rational. Consequently, the buildings they constructed do not have a predictable shape, appear undetermined, and even, at times, unfinished.
4. COURSE REQUIREMENTS
Community Responses 25%
5. REQUIRED and RECOMMENDED READINGS and RESOURCES:
1. Teten, Carol. DanceTime DVD 500 Years of Social Dance - 2 Volume set 15th to 20th century, Dance Time Publications. (The ASIN number is the Amazon Standard Identification Number.) ASIN: B0009KA81C Purchase $74.95
2. Laurie Schneider Adams, A History of Western Art (B&B Art) 5th Edition. New York, New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011. ISBN-13 978-0077560102 ISBN-10: 0073379220 Rent $37.72; Purchase New $149.99.
3. Kassing, Gayle. History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2007. ISBN-13: 978-0736060356 ISBN-10: 0736060359 Rent $16.34; Purchase $47.27
A 94-100; A- 90-93; B+ 87-89; B 84-86; B- 80-83; C+ 77-79; C 74-76; C- 70-73 D 60-69; F 59 and below
COMMUNITY INTERACTION Rubric (50-word response)
0 Points 6.25 Points 12.5 Points 18.75 Points 25 Points
Response merely provides laudatory encouragement for original post, e.g., “Excellent post! You really have thought of something there.”
Response misses the point of the original posting or merely summarizes original posting to which it responds.
Response makes a contribution to the posting to which it responds.
Individually-conscious contributory response
Response makes a contribution to the posting to which it responds and fosters its development.
Community-conscious contributory response
Response makes a contribution to the learning community and fosters its development.
Paper or PowerPoint Rubric – 20 Total Points
Shows a full understanding of the topic.
Shows a good understanding of the topic.
Shows a good understanding of parts of the topic.
Does not seem to understand the topic very well.
Student is able to accurately answer almost all questions about the topic.
Student is able to accurately answer most questions about the topic.
Student is able to accurately answer a few questions about the topic.
Student is unable to accurately answer questions about the topic.
For PowerPoint Only
Quality of the Slides
There were at least 12 slides that were well integrated with one another.
There were fewer than 12 slides but they were well integrated with one another.
There were fewer than 12 slides and only at times were they integrated with one another.
There were fewer than 12 slides and they lacked a clear, logical order.
The student cited all sources in proper format.
The student cited all sources but in improper format.
The student did not cite all sources used.
The student did not cite all sources used and when he or she did they were in improper format.
For Paper Only
Command-level writing, making a clear impression
Analysis is a thorough response to the topic; thoughtful and insightful examination of issues; compelling organization and development; superior syntax and diction; error-free grammar, mechanics, and usage
Solid writing, with something interesting to say.
Analysis is an adequate response to the topic; some depth and complexity in treatment; persuasive organization and development, with suitable reasons and examples; level-appropriate syntax and diction; mastery of grammar, mechanics, and usage, with hardly any error.
Acceptable writing, but could use some sharpening of skill
Analysis is an uneven response to parts of the topic; somewhat conventional treatment; satisfactory organization, but more development needed; adequate syntax and diction, but could use more vigor; overall control of grammar, mechanics, and usage, but some errors.
Episodic writing, a mix of strengths and weaknesses.
Analysis noticeably neglects or misinterprets the topic; simplistic or repetitive treatment, only partially-internalized; weak organization and development, some meandering; simple sentences, below-level diction; distracting errors in grammar, mechanics, and usage.
Holy Apostles College & Seminary is committed to the goal of achieving equal educational opportunities and full participation in higher education for persons with disabilities who qualify for admission to the College. Students enrolled in online courses who have documented disabilities requiring special accommodations should contact Bob Mish, the Director of Online Student Affairs, at email@example.com or 860-632-3015. In all cases, reasonable accommodations will be made to ensure that all students with disabilities have access to course materials in a mode in which they can receive them. Students who have technological limitations (e.g., slow Internet connection speeds in convents) are asked to notify their instructors the first week of class for alternative means of delivery.
7. ACADEMIC HONESTY POLICY
Students at Holy Apostles College & Seminary are expected to practice academic honesty. Avoiding Plagiarism
In its broadest sense, plagiarism is using someone else's work or ideas, presented or claimed as your own. At this stage in your academic career, you should be fully conscious of what it means to plagiarize. This is an inherently unethical activity because it entails the uncredited use of someone else's expression of ideas for another's personal advancement; that is, it entails the use of a person merely as a means to another person's ends.
Students, where applicable:
Consequences of Academic Dishonesty:
Because of the nature of this class, academic dishonesty is taken very seriously. Students participating in academic dishonesty may be removed from the course and from the program.
8. ATTENDANCE POLICY
Even though you are not required to be logged in at any precise time or day, you are expected to login several times during each week. Because this class is being taught entirely in a technology-mediated forum, it is important to actively participate each week in the course. In a traditional classroom setting for a 3-credit course, students would be required to be in class 3 hours a week and prepare for class discussions 4.5 hours a week. Expect to devote at least 7 quality hours a week to this course. A failure on the student’s part to actively participate in the life of the course may result in a reduction of the final grade.
9. INCOMPLETE POLICY
An Incomplete is a temporary grade assigned at the discretion of the faculty member. It is typically allowed in situations in which the student has satisfactorily completed major components of the course and has the ability to finish the remaining work without re-enrolling, but has encountered extenuating circumstances, such as illness, that prevent his or her doing so prior to the last day of class.
To request an incomplete, distance-learning students must first download a copy of the Incomplete Request Form. This document is located within the Shared folder of the Files tab in Populi. Secondly, students must fill in any necessary information directly within the PDF document. Lastly, students must send their form to their professor via email for approval. "Approval" should be understood as the professor responding to the student's email in favor of granting the "Incomplete" status of the student.
Students receiving an Incomplete must submit the missing course work by the end of the sixth week following the semester in which they were enrolled. An incomplete grade (I) automatically turns into the grade of "F" if the course work is not completed.
Students who have completed little or no work are ineligible for an incomplete. Students who feel they are in danger of failing the course due to an inability to complete course assignments should withdraw from the course.
A "W (Withdrawal) will appear on the student's permanent record for any course dropped after the end of the first week of a semester to the end of the third week. A "WF" (Withdrawal/Fail) will appear on the student's permanent record for any course dropped after the end of the third week of a semester and on or before the Friday before the last week of the semester.
10. ABOUT YOUR PROFESSOR
Your instructor, Fr. Peter, is most eager to open your minds to Western Humanities through the medium of art. I hope my enthusiasm will lift your spirits up and, with the grace of God, we will mutually grow in wisdom and knowledge.
 David P. Silverman, Ancient Egypt (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997), 10.
 “The So Ben Mi Chi Ha Bon Tempo was written by Italian dance master Cesare Negri in 1602 in his book, Le Gratie d’Amore. Typical of Italian dance suites of the era, it shows a multilevel nuanced flirtation between a Renaissance man and his lady.” “So Ben Mi Chi Ha Bon Tempo 16th Century”, Dance Time Publications, http://dancetimepublications.com/?s=So+Ben+Mi+Chi+Ha+Bon+Tempo, (accessed April 11, 2015).
 “The Folies d’Espagne started as a popular dance tune from Portugal with a 3/4 time signature, featuring improvisational flourishes for both musicians and dancers. The melodious tune provides a rich platform for highly expressive variations. Composers who created their own versions include Lully, d’Anglebert, Marais, Couperin, and Corelli. The temperaments of its many interpretations run from pensive and slow to vibrant and fast. With much staying power, it developed within the 17th century baroque style dances during the sophisticated era of King Louis XIV.” “Folies d’Espagne ,” Dance Time Publications http://dancetimepublications.com/?s=Folies+d%27Espagne, (accessed April 11, 2015).
 Lindy Grant, Architecture and Society in Normandy 1120-1270 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005), 205-211; H.W. Janson, and Anthony F. Janson, History of Art, (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2001), 316, 340-341.
 “A Polish folk dance from the Province of Mosavia, it traveled to France and by 1845 to England. It then traveled to America. It was the most virtuoso couple dance of the 19th century.” “Mazurka ,” Dance Time Publications http://dancetimepublications.com/?s=Mazurka+, (accessed April 11, 2015).
 William Kloss, A History of European Art, (Chantilly: The Teaching Company, 2005), 71.
 “The Blackbottom originated in New Orleans as a stamping, swaying “Negro” dance. The words for the original Blackbottom dance by Perry Bradford in 1919 were: “Hop down front and then you doodle back/Mooch to your left and then you mooch to your right/Hands on hips and do the Mess Around/Break a leg until you’re near the ground.” Musical Producer George White saw the Blackbottom performed in a Harlem nightclub. White bought the music and introduced it to white audiences in his “Scandals of 1926.” The dance was then popularized and modified for the ballroom.” “Black Bottom,” Dance Time Publications, http://dancetimepublications.com/?s=Black+Bottom, (accessed April 11, 2015).
 Douglas Harper, “baroque (adj.),” Online Etymology Dictionary, http://etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=baroque&searchmode=none, (accessed May 12, 2015).
 “The Dance Marathon was a phenomenon in the lower classes. In a test of endurance, couples competed and winners received cash prizes. In the 1930s, the dance marathon evolved from its original focus on endurance records to a monetized part of show business. Depression-era marathons lasted up to six months, with ten-minute hourly breaks for dancers. If one partner’s knees touched the floor, the couple was disqualified. Entering a dance marathon was often an act of economic desperation by the participants.” “Marathon,” Dance Time Publications, http://dancetimepublications.com/?s=marathon, (accessed April 11, 2015).
 “The 1920s were the early years of the “talkies” (movies with audio) and the beginning of the classic period of the musical. As a result, Movie Musicals were popular. With exhibition ballroom dancing at its height, Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers captured America’s imagination. The lyrical film dance interludes of Astaire and Rogers offered Americans an escape from the harsh realities of the Depression and nurtured the American Dream.” “Movie Musical,” Dance Time Publications, http://dancetimepublications.com/?s=Movie+Musical, (accessed April 11, 2015).
 “The Big Apple originated in a small southern Black town, in a church-turned-nightclub called “The Big Apple.” A group circle dance, it gave couples the opportunity to show off, or “shine.” The Big Apple incorporated early swing steps and required a “caller.” Arthur Murray called it a combination of swing and the square dance; he was instrumental in popularizing the Big Apple within white culture. It was popular during the Depression because of the psychological comfort it gave of “strength in numbers.” Developed from African American roots, it was popularized throughout society; it was danced at the White House and featured in Life magazine in 1937.” “Big Apple,” Dance Time Publications, http://dancetimepublications.com/?s=Big+Apple, (accessed April 11, 2015).
 “The Jitterbug, popularized by African Americans, requires incredible strength and agility. It was known as the “Lindy” by its African-American participants because it evolved from the Lindy Hop (the “Lindbergh Hop” in tribute to Charles Lindbergh’s historic first solo transatlantic flight in 1927). With airborne acrobatics, it increased the dynamic range of social dance with new levels of athleticism, gymnastics, and aerial moves. “Jitterbug” was also a slang term meaning “the best dance partner.” Harlem’s renowned Savoy Ballroom brought the Jitterbug/Lindy to fame. It was a spectacular dance response to the bold sounds of the Big-Band era.” “Jitterbug,” Dance Time Publications, http://dancetimepublications.com/?s=Jitter+bug, (accessed April 11, 2015).
 “A Cuban dance merging African and Latin styles, the Rumba is a courting dance. With small steps in a confined space, a sensual roll of the hips created a dance of passionate appeal. The rumba was first brought to the U.S. in the 1930s; in the 1940s it was accepted as a popular provocative ballroom dance. The seductive Latin rhythms made it a favorite as a soothing counterpoint to the turbulence of the war years.” “Rumba, Swing,” Dance Time Publications, http://dancetimepublications.com/?s=swing, (accessed April 11, 2015).
 “Swing was a white, middle class adaptation of Jitterbug/Lindy. Acrobatic throws, while still impressive, were simplified; the syncopated rhythm of the footwork and the elasticity of the couple’s dancing relationship remained. Popular Big Band leaders Benny Goodman and Glen Miller helped spread swing’s popularity. The Big Band Era became the Swing Era. “Rumba, Swing,” Dance Time Publications, http://dancetimepublications.com/?s=swing, (accessed April 11, 2015).
 “In 1954, Bill Hailey and the Comets unleashed “rock ‘n roll,” derived from rhythm and blues, rockabilly, and gospel, with their song “Rock Around the Clock.” It would ultimately sell 25 million copies. In 1956, Elvis Presley shocked (or delighted) audiences on the Ed Sullivan Show. Dick Clark’s American Bandstand.” “1950s Rock ‘n’ Roll, Mambo,” Dance Time Publications, http://dancetimepublications.com/?s=rock+n%27+roll, (accessed April 11, 2015).
 William Kloss, A History of European Art (Chantilly: The Great Courses, 2005), 270.
 “A hybrid of Rumba and Swing, Mambo was the most esteemed Latin dance of the 1950s. It had the seductive qualities of all the popular Latin dances, and the step began on the second beat of the phrase, which required some dance talent to perform. The mambo’s rhythmic originality reflected the influence of swing and jazz on Afro-Cuban music and dance. The freshness of the mambo rhythm emerged as a platform for artistic creativity in American and Latin music. It became a television showcase for rock and its teenage fans. The new LP record format made rock music cheap and plentiful. With TVs in every home, teenage baby boomers had easy access to their own music and dance, and for the first time, youth dictated American taste. The ”rock ‘n’ roll” dance was an updated form of Swing: couples separated and rejoined in such a way that the woman was held at the end of a rubber band-style relationship with her partner. The basic syncopated footwork was a direct evolution from Jitterbug and Swing.” “1950s Rock ‘n’ Roll, Mambo,” Dance Time Publications, http://dancetimepublications.com/?s=rock+n%27+roll, (accessed April 11, 2015).
 “Chubby Checker first performed the Twist on American Bandstand in 1962 to Hank Ballard’s tune of the same name. Checker told the audience that he invented the dance while drying himself with a towel after taking a shower. The twist was an expression of individualism—there were no distinct roles for men or women, and the dancers danced apart. The Twist arrived at New York’s Peppermint Lounge, solidifying its appeal and spawning a series of overnight fad dances that expressed freedom for the individual. The twist was simple: dancers stood in one place and twisted their hips from side to side, pivoting on their feet. It was both free and provocative.” “1960s – Twist, Mod, Psychedelic,” Dance Time Publications, http://dancetimepublications.com/?s=twist, (accessed April 11, 2015).
 “The Mods were “cool” narcissistic teenagers, initially in London, who rebelled against the emotionalism of Rock ‘n’ Roll. Mod dances didn’t require partners and were jerky in character. The mod fads came to the U.S., along with the British invasion of 1963, extending the post-twist fad-dance craze. Examples of some of the Mod dances are: Pony, Crow, the Monkey, the Boomerang, the Saw, the Freddy, Jump-Up, the Slop, Skate, the Ski, the Jerk, the Kick, and Let Kiss..” “1960s – Twist, Mod, Psychedelic,” Dance Time Publications, http://dancetimepublications.com/?s=twist, (accessed April 11, 2015).
 Hippie culture “and dance aimed at ecstasy and individual self-absorption, representing the lifestyle of those who rejected the rules of established society. In 1967, San Francisco’s Height Ashbury neighborhood was the epicenter of the psychedelic scene, and the Woodstock Festival of 1969 would come to symbolize the music, dance, and youth culture of the era..” “1960s – Twist, Mod, Psychedelic,” Dance Time Publications, http://dancetimepublications.com/?s=twist, (accessed April 11, 2015).
 “The clear-cut rules of Disco’s couple and line dances grabbed everyone’s imagination after a decade of “trippy” head music. The new form encompassed romantic and acrobatic couple dancing as well as communal line dances. Disco was narcissistic and competitive, generating complex dance routines that required teaching and learning. From its roots in R&B nightclubs, disco exploded into a technological fantasy dance form employing strobe lights, mirrors, fog machines, and loud, prerecorded music, as epitomized in the movie Saturday Night Fever starring John Travolta.” “1970s – Disco,” Dance Time Publications, http://dancetimepublications.com/?s=disco, (accessed April 11, 2015).
 “In Breakdance, New York City, inner-city youths “break out” of stylized disco, reaching back to the acrobatic styles of performers from the 1930s such as the Nicholas Brothers and Earl “Snakehips” Tucker. Combined with traditional African movements that isolate body parts and with its athletic, gymnastic component, it was a competitive form of dance performed primarily by males. Born on the streets, it prompted breakdance contests at parties and nightclubs. It remains the most athletic form of individual dance competitions of the 20th century.” “1980s – Breakdance, Punk, Moonwalk,” Dance Time Publications, http://dancetimepublications.com/?s=break+dancing, (accessed April 11, 2015).
 H.W. Janson, and Anthony F. Janson, History of Art, sixth ed. (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2001), 798.
 “Punk is an aggressive style of music and dance expressing dissatisfaction with traditional society. Punk expressed impersonal violence with “Pogo” dancing and “slam dancing.” “1980s – Breakdance, Punk, Moonwalk,” Dance Time Publications, http://dancetimepublications.com/?s=break+dancing, (accessed April 11, 2015).
 “The Moonwalk is a step made popular by Michael Jackson. It symbolized the early MTV era.” “1980s – Breakdance, Punk, Moonwalk,” Dance Time Publications, http://dancetimepublications.com/?s=break+dancing, (accessed April 11, 2015).
 “Vogue was a dance competition incorporating a series of fashion-model poses performed solo. Begun in transvestite fashion shows, it was popularized in music videos by Madonna.” “1990s – Vogue, Hip-Hop, Country Western,” Dance Time Publications, http://dancetimepublications.com/?s=Hip+Hop, (accessed April 11, 2015).
 “Hip-Hop was the quintessential style of MTV, performed to tunes by such popular musicians as MC Hammer and Herbie Hancock. African American and Latin influences combined to create dance moves for both the casual dancer and those with athletic prowess and talent. It started as an expression of urban street culture: emerging from the primal power of people standing in a circle: participants come to the center, one by one, to excel with moves that reach beyond the skill of their peers. Hip-hop expresses individuality and alienation as it evolves with a prodigious range of isometric moves and sharp weight changes. Hip-Hop has moved from the streets to mainstream entertainment in theater, TV, and movies.” “1990s – Vogue, Hip-Hop, Country Western,” Dance Time Publications, http://dancetimepublications.com/?s=Hip+Hop, (accessed April 11, 2015).
 “Variations of Country Western music and dance form were popular throughout all earlier eras of America’s history. In the 1990s its popularity migrated from rural areas to the cities. Couple dances were influenced by the swing era of the 1930s and 1940s, and line dances offered group discipline and camaraderie.” “1990s – Vogue, Hip-Hop, Country Western,” Dance Time Publications, http://dancetimepublications.com/?s=Hip+Hop, (accessed April 11, 2015).