Kim Trefz

7074 Theories of Models of Instructional Design

September 28th, 2014

Annotated Bibliography

        

Bybee, R., Taylor, J. et al. (2006). The BSCS 5E instructional model: origins and

     effectiveness. Biological Sciences and Curriculum Study.

Research has shown that the ongoing use of research-based instructional models can benefit students in the learning process if consistently implemented.  For decades, the BSCS 5E instructional model has proven to support a learning experience in engagement, exploration, explanation, elaboration, and evaluation. For engagement, prior knowledge is determined and short activities are provided to promote inquiry as connections are being made to past learning and the learning goals.  Exploration involves the learner investigating questions and then learners can explain their understanding of the content. Elaboration provides an opportunity to go deeper through various challenges presented by the teacher.  The final step in the instructional model is evaluation process where students are assessed for the educational objectives. This research provides a brief history of other instructional models such as Herbart’s models of preparation, presentation, generalization, and application or Atkin and Karplus model of exploration, invention, and discovery. A summary of 5 Es is provided for the sequencing of instruction to facilitate student learning and how it helps the process of conceptual change.  Student cognitive outcomes were measured and it was determined that learner’s perception about how the world works will aid them in their ability to understand new concepts.  Additionally, they will develop a stronger understanding of the conceptual framework that will serve as the foundation for retrieving information and applying it.  Finally, learners will participate in a defining their goals and monitoring their own progress in achieving them.

Baybee, R. (2009). The BSCS 5E instructional model and 21st century skills. Retrieved on

     September 28, 2014 from http://itsisu.concord.org/share /Bybee_21st_Century_Paper.pdf

The BSCS 5E instructional model helps with the development of 21st century skills and has been widely implemented in education.  The categories include the use of documents that frame the curriculum, assessment guidelines, and course outlines; curriculum materials; and professional development and other disciplines outside of science. Some of the 21st century skills include adaptability where there is a willingness to cope with sudden, unforeseen conditions as well as handle the stress of it.  A good communicator is able to process information and respond appropriately through a shared perspective, persuasion, and negotiation. Problem solving is another skill that allows a learner to examine a problem and apply a strategy to reach an outcome.  Self management provides the ability for the learner to adapt to a situation of working remotely, in virtual teams, and autonomously.  Systems thinking is seeing the big picture where decision making plays a part in seeing how one part affects the rest of the system. All of the characteristics of 21st century skill are better developed by the BSCS 5E instructional model.  The majority of the research has been directed at the mastery of science knowledge and scientific inquiry.  The effectiveness of the model in accomplishing the 21st century goals proved to be successful, but there was inadequate evidence to support the success of the 21st century skill of adaptability.  

Bybee, R. W. (2006). The BSCS 5E instructional model: Origins, effectiveness, and

     applications. Retrieved on September 27, 2014 from www.bscs.org/.../BSCS

     _5E_Instructional_Model-Executive_Summary_0.pdf

The 5E instructional design model has been used since the 1980s for curriculum development, particularly the science classroom.  The origins of this model are traced to the philosophy of the early 20th century and Johann Herbart and Dewey.  Their instructional model begins with the students’ current knowledge and how they relate to new ideas as they help to form new concepts.  The purpose of this review is to show how current teaching models such as the 5Es are not a new concept. The 5Es is an extension of the Atkin and Karplus cycle from the 1960s; exploration and evaluation has been added to what was then only the phases of exploration, invention, and discovery. The studies have shown that the learning cycle had proven to show better gains showed superior results over more of the traditional instructional approaches for the studies.  The effectiveness of the learning cycle and variations including the 5E Instructional Model has been successful as it carefully structured learning at elementary and high school levels. The BSCS 5E Instructional Model is grounded in sound educational theory and has a huge impact on science; it is now being adapted to improve instruction in other areas, including technology and math.

Bybee, R. W. (2010). The teaching of science: the contemporary challenges. The teaching of

     science: the 21st century perspectives. NSTA Press.

Cognitive research indicates that learning is an active process that occurs within and influenced by the learner.  Being an interactive learning process, results are based on knowledge and perception.  This research provides how curriculum and professional development is enhanced by the BSCS 5E Instructional model. There is a basic confusion that persists regarding scientific inquiry as it is applied to educational programs.  Science is often reduced to its simplest form that dismisses the content and process.  As a result, inquiry is not recognized as part of an educational outcome because it is believed that it is not effective for learning because of the lengthy process.  However, inquiry is a content goal and does develop cognitive abilities.  The publication of the National Science Education Standards in 1996 stated that inquiry refers to the study of the natural world.  The standards have shifted from science as inquiry to science as a process.  The abilities of scientific inquiry include questions, investigations, the use of technology for research and communication, formulate explanations and provide evidence, and communicate and defend an argument.  There are also understandings about this scientific inquiry.  Federal and state agencies began to ask for the evidence of learning through state tests.

Eisenkraft, A. (2003). Expanding the 5E model. The Science Teacher, vol 70, No. 6. Retrieved

     on September 20, 2014 from florida.iat.com/pdf/articles/expanding_model.pdf

The amendment of instructional models often occurs with new insights and prior knowledge that is gathered from implementation. Research on how people learn and the implementation of those ideas into the curriculum has led to the expansion of the 5E model into a 7E model.  The 7E model has expanded the phases of elaborate and evaluate into three components: elaborate, evaluate, and extend. This is not to add complexity but to prevent educators from leaving out an important opportunity for elements of learning. Current research in cognitive science has shown that prior knowledge is an important and necessary part of the learning process.  This helps with the transfer of knowledge when applied to new learning situations. The addition of the extend phase of the instructional model is the elaborate phase.  This allows the students to practice the transfer of knowledge. This is successful when the students can apply their knowledge in new content which is not limited to simple elaboration. The evaluate phase includes both formative and summative assessment where the teacher should include parts of the investigations on the tests. Formative assessment should not be limited to a particular phase, but ongoing throughout the process, not linear. The goal of the 7E model is to elicit prior understandings and the transfer of the concepts.  

Engaging students with the 5E instructional model (2012). Office of Science Outreach.

         Retrieved on September 26, 2014 from gk12.missouri.edu/showmenature/lessons/5-E  

         %20Overview-GK-12.

The five components of the 5E instructional format are identified and explained with the goal of providing a lesson design for creating an active learning experience. Engagement phase is for developing inquiry where the students make connections between the concept they are learning and their own personal lives.  Some form of activity is used to engage the learner, prompting questions that can lead to discovery.  The role of the teacher is to help the learner focus, make connections, and dispel any misconceptions.  Exploration allows the students to investigate the topic with collaborators as they collect data and build on the concept.  The teacher serves as the facilitator without telling the students what to do, but instead guide them through the investigation, challenging them to make predictions, and using questions to help guide the student in their thinking. Explanation is the phase where students discuss their experiences as they sequence their events and use reflection to solidify their understanding of the investigation. The teacher provides time for learners to share their ideas, challenges them to explain their understanding and give feedback to help learners develop a deeper understanding.  The phase of elaboration allows students time to apply their understanding by taking on new investigations. They reflect on what they have learned and explore new knowledge that stems from it. The teacher help students apply their knowledge and skills to find new answers to questions. Evaluation is for both the student and the teacher to reflect on the concept and determine the level of learning that has occurred.  

Gejda, L., LaRocco, D. (2006, October). Inquiry-based instruction in secondary science

     classrooms: A survey of teacher practice. Retrieved on September 22, 2014. from

     http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED501253

This research on inquiry-based learning provides findings of how the 5E model informed practice in a secondary science classroom. The use of inquiry-based teaching and learning provided the foundation for the philosophy of the National Science Education Standards as it was emphasized as a way to offset the more traditional approaches in the classroom.  The background is a study done in the Connecticut State Department of Education where they set goals to provide resources to beginning teachers to help them transform their knowledge of science into a meaningful experience for students by requiring a science teaching portfolio.  the 5E Model of inquiry was used to the best portfolio assessment program which was the conceptual framework for the study.  The factors that posed a problem in the teacher’s instructional practice of inquiry based learning included time, resources, professional development, science content, and assessment. The purpose of the study was to describe the secondary science teachers who was certified for the BEST portfolio assessment; this included inquiry-based instruction in the classroom and the factors that helped inform practice based upon the 5E model. It required the teachers to have an understanding of implementing inquiry-based instruction, assessing learners for inquiry skills, and the ability to rank classroom experience for informing their understanding.

Inquiry-based learning (2007). Capacity building series. Secretariat Special Edition #32.

     Retrieved on September 27, 2014 from www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/.../CBS_InquiryBased.pdf

Inquiry-based learning is an approach to teaching and learning that allows the students to form questions based on open-ended investigations.  Inquiry based learning is a pedagogical mindset that combines small-group and guided learning that leads to curiosity and understanding. There is a focus on the big ideas and there is more of an opportunity to integrate curriculum. Authentic inquiry begins with questions and problems that students want to explore and the most valuable questions don’t have to be the perfect question.  It is the role of the teacher to place ideas at the center and welcoming all ideas so matter how simple or complex.  The article states how everyone works toward a common goal of understanding where different perspectives and approaches to problem-solving are shared.  It is a misconception that inquiry-based learning means letting go of the class.  The teacher serves as a guide through the inquiry process.  There are important guiding questions for students in an inquiry cycle that aids the teacher in planning the course, monitoring the progress, and reflecting on lessons learned to consolidate inquiry.  Additionally, the article shares ways to build student contributions. The inquiry process allows the students to progress from what begins and curiosity to sustained ongoing inquiry. Reflection is important as the learner uses metacognition to monitor his/her thinking and  learning.

Inquiry, the Learning Cycle, & the 5E Instructional Model (2014). Guidelines for Lesson

     Planning from the Electronic Journal of Science Education. Retrieved on September 22,

     2014.

The National Science Education Standards defines inquiry as a set of interrelated processes by which scientist and students pose questions about the natural world.  The Learning Cycle has been used in science education and applied to the inquiry approach to teaching in a stages of planning strategies. This approach is credited to Roger Bybee who developed the 5E model in which promotes active, collaborative, inquiry-based learning.  Students are involved in more than listening and reading; they problem solve using analysis and evaluation along with collaboration to develop understanding.        Learners are actively involved as they construct their own knowledge through the learning experience and environment.  The students need time to express their thinking, have interaction with others, reflect on their thinking, and make connections between the learning experience and the real world. The 5E Model provides a structure to create a culture of thinkers as it sequences the learning experience. The research illustrates how the 5 Es are implemented in the classroom as behaviors and learning outcomes are described.  A chart is provided to show the stages of the 5E model, and the descriptors provide a contrast of the behaviors of the students and teachers that are consistent and inconsistent with the BSCS 5E instructional model.

                

Learning theory and the BSCS 5E instructional model (2005). NSTA Professional

     Development Institute. Retrieved on September 27, 2014 from https://www.asms

    .sa.edu.au/.../Learning-Theory-and-the-BSCS-5E-Instructional-Model.pdf                        The article summarizes how people learn based on extensive research.  The three key findings for students and teachers are as follows:         Students come to the classroom with misconceptions and preconceptions about the world in which they live.  If they are not engaged in the learning process, they may not grasp the new concepts that are being taught and only learn the content for test purposes.  It is the role of the teacher to make sure to recognize when there are preconceptions and adjust the method of instruction accordingly.  Another key finding is that students must have a deep foundation of usable knowledge in order to develop a level of competence.  Additionally, they must understand the ideas of the conceptual framework that is outlined by the teacher.  The students must be able to apply the knowledge in some way.  The teacher must first provide example for the real world context in which the information and new knowledge will be used. The final key finding is that students must be taught to take ownership of their learning and use reflection to monitor their progress in accomplishing the learning goals.  Teachers should provide plenty of class time for the students to be able to achieve this as well as teach skills for metacognition.  The 5E Instructional Model provides an inquiry process for solidifying understanding as the students engage, explore, explain, elaborate, and evaluate.

McGowan, V. (2009, Fall). Application of the 5E Instructional Model to a mobile learning  

     environment. The  Journal for Computing Teachers. http://www.iste.org/jct

There is a need for instructional models within educational institutions for the use of technological devices.  There has been a challenge to incorporate technology for the mobile student population.  Teachers are now seeing the need to plan instructional practices around the use of mobile devices.  Because of the variation in learner settings, device availability, and resource availability, a student-centred instructional model has been deemed as necessary in the success of their model. 5E Instructional Model has been considered for a mobile learning environment. The following are the unique characteristics according to McGowan (2009): 1.) engagement examines the improvement of autonomy and motivation with the use of mobile devices. 2.) exploration using a mobile device relates how the student-centered instructional methods (ie., problem-based learning)  can be more valuable. 3.) explanation shows how collaborative learning and student presentations can effectively occur in a mobile device setting. 4.) Extension of a learning community and support network has shown gains in engagement. 5.) evaluation shows that e-assessment allows students to adjust or develop their learning while in a  mobile setting.   The goal is to continue research on instructional methods like the 5E Instructional Model in mobile learning settings for design, content, and learning activities with a focus on the constructivist learning environment.

Metin, M., Coskun, K., Birisci, S., Yilmaz, G. (September, 2010). Opinions of prospective

     teachers utilizing the 5E instructional model. Energy Education Science and Technology

     part b: Social and Educational Studies, vol. 3(4): 411-422. Retrieved on September 18,

     2014 from http://www.academia.edu/1434807/Opinions_of_Prospective_Teachers_

     about_Utilizing_the_5E_Instructional_Model_

The aim of this study is to determine the opinions of prospective teachers about using the 5E Instructional Model. The study was done in three stages and consisted of 60 sophomore prospective teachers. They were to first design an experiment using the constructivist approach.  the prospective teachers asked to carry out the activities that were part of the experiment. Interviews were then conducted to determine their perceptions of the 5E Model.  The findings were that prospective teachers have a positive opinions about the application of the model and believe that students can continuously learn.  The concerns were insufficient learning material and equipment and the lack of time to implement the model. Background is also given about the 5E instructional Model. There are over 60 learning theories because of the changes in features of the theories from researcher to researcher.  The three main theories that serves as the umbrella are behaviorist, cognitivist, and constructivist. The constructivist theory reorganized the role of the teacher and student in the learning environment.  There are many ways to apply the constructivist theory in science education: 4E, 5E, and 7E Models of Instruction.   The 5E Model has an effect on the learning process, so it is important to know the perspectives of the teachers for implementation.  

Stamp, N., O’Brien, T. (January, 2005). GK-12 partnership: A model to advance change in    

     science education.  Bioscience, vol. 55, no. 1.

The quality of science education at the elementary level is important for laying the foundation for inquiry.  This article discusses how the 5E teaching cycle is a hands-on/minds-on inquiry method is effective at changing the mindset and culture of thinking in both educators and students.  The conceptual focus was to identify preconceptions and misconceptions of the learners and to use the 5E model of instruction to engage, explore, explain, elaborate, and evaluate the content. The research lesson approach was used and modeled after the methods that teach science in elementary schools in Japan.  They have some differences in their terms of development where they focus more on developing problem solvers and scientific ways of thinking. They are recorded using media, checklists, and collecting student work and the products are analyzed and used to refine the process of teaching. A survey was used as an instrument for the teacher’s feedback as an ongoing process to make changes as needed.  The greatest part of the 5E Instructional Model is how it helps to develop key concepts for an integrated structure for curriculum, instruction, and assessment where teachers don’t have to depend to a textbook approach where it often involved unrelated material that might not be developmentally appropriate.  

Tanner, K. D. (2010). Order matters: using the 5E model to align teaching with how people

     learn. Life Sciences Education, vol 9, 159-164.     GianEkayUIR5v9IXVu2RBVeq2XQ&sig2=gAvaqQz4KPw0o1jFcY9xtg

Students must be interested and engaged in what they are learning.  They also must find it useful and meaningful as they are actively involved in the process of teaching and learning.  Students need opportunities to apply what they have learned in new situations to solidify their understanding and evaluate their own learning.  The key idea is that there is an order to learning, called the learning cycle.  It’s three components of exploration, term introduction, and concept application provides a deeper process for learning, but there can be two other phases that can provide deeper learning opportunities. The direct descendent of the learning cycle is the 5E instructional Model but because of what appears to be a lengthy process, educators are reluctant to apply it.  There are great strategies offered for aligning teaching with learning and the 5E approach is not the goal; the learning experience that happens as a result is. A strategy for using 5E would be to start small and design class sessions only using one or two components of the instructional model.  The unique 5E model is based on both a conceptual change model of learning and a constructivist view of learning.  There are many benefits and uses of the 5E approach that extend outside of a science classroom.

Wilson, C. D., Taylor, J. A., Kowalski, S. Carlson, J. (2009). The relative effects of

     inquiry-based and commonplace science teaching on students’ knowledge, reasoning and

     argumentation about sleep concepts: A randomized control trial.  BSCS Center for      

    Research and Evaluation.

Inquiry has been a theme in multiple science education reform movements. Inquiry is a focus of only 2% of science lessons at grades 9-12 and occurs less frequently since there is more a traditional approach to teaching learning goals. No Child Left Behind has created more of a barrier due to the emphasis on standardized testing to measure teacher and school effectiveness.  This created a shift in teaching practice and even though there is a lot of research to support inquiry-based teaching, only recently has there been the use of instructional design models to improve the learning process.  This study provides the measure of three different learning goals of science education: scientific knowledge, reasoning with scientific models, and construction of scientific explanations.  It also provides the answers to the differences in student learning between inquiry-based and traditional methods, the differences in achievement by treatment group, and differences in ethnicity and socioeconomic status.   The inquiry-based unit organized around the 5Es Model showed consistency with the process from scientific inquiry.  Curriculum developers insured that even though approaches were different, the learning goals remained the same. This study found that students in an inquiry-based classroom reached higher levels of achievement and that teachers need to compromise the quality of their teaching to see increases in student achievement and accountability.