HEP-BEJUNE/PF2/Corti/Enseignement à distance
Visible Learning => Visible Chunks
o)(o p.


Visible Learning => Visible Chunks o)(o

Ressources (dossier Google Drive)

Postulat : Ce qui fonctionne dans l’enseignement en classe (cf. Hattie) doit être reconsidéré et réévalué dans les dispositifs à distance. On a p.ex. le support de la communication non verbale, les gestes, ...

Repose sur données d’observations (800 meta analyses, Hattie, J.) et modèles théoriques (cognitifs et physiques).

Processus fondamentaux p.ex. l’impact de la police de caractères sur la compréhension d’un texte, quelles propriétés de l’interface favorisent - ou péjorent - la lecture et la compréhension d’un document lu à l’écran.

Mettre au jour (en évidence, visibiliser) les transactions, leurs coûts et bénéfices. Feedback, objectifs explicites. Complexité des opérations à faire pour atteindre un objectif (p.ex. accéder à un document, l’annoter, changer le style du texte, faire un schéma, etc. )

Quotient “transmedia” :

E=mc2 : apprentissage/mémorisation (énergie) = quantité/volume de travail x temps (effort) au carré. A la recherche de lois, de formules… de science.

Taille des caractères lisibles depuis le fond de la classe => nombre d’élèves et capacité de la classe. Tableau et écriture à la craie => 25, Projecteur => auditoire ;-)

Visible : trouvable, accessible, traces, suivi, explicite, convenu/accord

Domaines :

Mesures, observations, traces visibles

Tâches (fondamentales) “élèves”

Tâches “enseignant”




Moodle, Canvas Instructure, Schoology, Chamilo (UNIGE), Claroline


Walter Levine / harcèlement

edX : Harvard Computer Science CS50x 2015


At this time, we do not have full support for tablet or mobile browsers. (We're working on this!) Though many features of our platform will work in a mobile browser, some like the drag and drop problems will not. We recommend accessing your courses using a laptop or desktop and a current version of a web browser such as Chrome or Firefox. (Jan, 2015, cit)

Kahn Academy



Cognitive Tutor, Oopla ???

Voir l’étude de usability testing with 5 users (Nielsen)


Tests, évaluation assistée par ordinateur


To the point.

Comparer “top chrono” + traces / évaluation :

  1. Arriver en classe, dessiner les données du problème à résoudre (hauteur de la tour) au tableau
  1. synchronicité/simultanéité/temporalité/rythme, présence, un instant, un lieu (enseignement orale-“tribale”, initiatique, disciples/anciens/sages), apprendre dans le même espace-temps
  1. vs. allumer l’ordinateur et présenter le problème au projecteur
  1. temps de connection perdu, risque de problème technique, mot de passe, prévoir une alternative (photocopies)
  1. vs. ouvrir sa tablette/ordinateur, Geogebra ou Excel
  2. vs. communiquer le problème à distance via Google Classroom (ou Cognitive Tutor, ou Khan Academy)
  3. vs …

Notions HTML + CSS (éditeur texte, code iframe)

Postulat : Evaluer “l’intelligence” d’un système comme celle d’un individu

Processus à tester dans un système (interactions entre utilisateur[s] et l’interface de l’application LMS) :

Analyse de tâches de niveau micro (p.ex. lecture à l’écran et annotation d’un document : impact de l’interface, de la lisibilité des polices de caractères, ...) vs. macro (réaliser des documents en groupe et à distance : p.ex. email vs. Prezi, Google Apps, WiKi, ...)

Visible/utilisable sur iPad/Android vs. ordinateur (p.ex. nécessite un clavier)?

Quelles traces/indicateurs visibles du degré d’atteinte des objectifs?

Canvas LMS

QTI import

There are two ways to import a quiz from one course (Course A) into another (Course B). The first one is to export the quiz from Course A as a QTI file and then import it into Course B; the second is to use the "Copy content from another course" functionality.

Here are some links to the lessons in the Canvas Instructor Guides that explain this:

If you are using the direct method of copying content from one Canvas course to another, it is essential that you remember to enable the Select migration content checkbox; otherwise all content within the course will be imported. This is covered in the Select Migration Content portion of the lesson linked to above. If you're only planning to import one quiz from another course, I suggest you use the export/import method described in the first two links.


Moodle LMS



Learning How to Learn (Cours en ligne sur Coursera)


10 Rules of Good and Bad Studying

These rules form a synthesis of some of the main ideas of the course.

10 Rules of Good Studying

Excerpted from A Mind for Numbers: How to Excel in Math and Science (Even if You Flunked Algebra), by Barbara Oakley, Penguin, July, 2014

  1. Use recall. After you read a page, look away and recall the main ideas. Highlight very little, and never highlight anything you haven’t put in your mind first by recalling. Try recalling main ideas when you are walking to class or in a different room from where you originally learned it. An ability to recall—to generate the ideas from inside yourself—is one of the key indicators of good learning.
  2. Test yourself. On everything. All the time. Flash cards are your friend.
  3. Chunk your problems. Chunking is understanding and practicing with a problem solution so that it can all come to mind in a flash. After you solve a problem, rehearse it. Make sure you can solve it cold—every step. Pretend it’s a song and learn to play it over and over again in your mind, so the information combines into one smooth chunk you can pull up whenever you want.
  4. Space your repetition. Spread out your learning in any subject a little every day, just like an athlete. Your brain is like a muscle—it can handle only a limited amount of exercise on one subject at a time.
  5. Alternate different problem-solving techniques during your practice. Never practice too long at any one session using only one problem-solving technique—after a while, you are just mimicking what you did on the previous problem. Mix it up and work on different types of problems. This teaches you both how and when to use a technique. (Books generally are not set up this way, so you’ll need to do this on your own.) After every assignment and test, go over your errors, make sure you understand why you made them, and then rework your solutions. To study most effectively, handwrite (don’t type) a problem on one side of a flash card and the solution on the other. (Handwriting builds stronger neural structures in memory than typing.) You might also photograph the card if you want to load it into a study app on your smartphone. Quiz yourself randomly on different types of problems. Another way to do this is to randomly flip through your book, pick out a problem, and see whether you can solve it cold.
  6. Take breaks. It is common to be unable to solve problems or figure out concepts in math or science the first time you encounter them. This is why a little study every day is much better than a lot of studying all at once. When you get frustrated with a math or science problem, take a break so that another part of your mind can take over and work in the background.
  7. Use explanatory questioning and simple analogies. Whenever you are struggling with a concept, think to yourself, How can I explain this so that a ten-year-old could understand it? Using an analogy really helps, like saying that the flow of electricity is like the flow of water. Don’t just think your explanation—say it out loud or put it in writing. The additional effort of speaking and writing allows you to more deeply encode (that is, convert into neural memory structures) what you are learning.
  8. Focus. Turn off all interrupting beeps and alarms on your phone and computer, and then turn on a timer for twenty-five minutes. Focus intently for those twenty-five minutes and try to work as diligently as you can. After the timer goes off, give yourself a small, fun reward. A few of these sessions in a day can really move your studies forward. Try to set up times and places where studying—not glancing at your computer or phone—is just something you naturally do.
  9. Eat your frogs first. Do the hardest thing earliest in the day, when you are fresh.
  10. Make a mental contrast. Imagine where you’ve come from and contrast that with the dream of where your studies will take you. Post a picture or words in your workspace to remind you of your dream. Look at that when you find your motivation lagging. This work will pay off both for you and those you love!

10 Rules of Bad Studying

Excerpted from A Mind for Numbers: How to Excel in Math and Science (Even if You Flunked Algebra), by Barbara Oakley, Penguin, July, 2014

Avoid these techniques—they can waste your time even while they fool you into thinking you’re learning!

  1. Passive rereading—sitting passively and running your eyes back over a page. Unless you can prove that the material is moving into your brain by recalling the main ideas without looking at the page, rereading is a waste of time.
  2. Letting highlights overwhelm you. Highlighting your text can fool your mind into thinking you are putting something in your brain, when all you’re really doing is moving your hand. A little highlighting here and there is okay—sometimes it can be helpful in flagging important points. But if you are using highlighting as a memory tool, make sure that what you mark is also going into your brain.
  3. Merely glancing at a problem’s solution and thinking you know how to do it. This is one of the worst errors students make while studying. You need to be able to solve a problem step-by-step, without looking at the solution.
  4. Waiting until the last minute to study. Would you cram at the last minute if you were practicing for a track meet? Your brain is like a muscle—it can handle only a limited amount of exercise on one subject at a time.
  5. Repeatedly solving problems of the same type that you already know how to solve. If you just sit around solving similar problems during your practice, you’re not actually preparing for a test—it’s like preparing for a big basketball game by just practicing your dribbling.
  6. Letting study sessions with friends turn into chat sessions. Checking your problem solving with friends, and quizzing one another on what you know, can make learning more enjoyable, expose flaws in your thinking, and deepen your learning. But if your joint study sessions turn to fun before the work is done, you’re wasting your time and should find another study group.
  7. Neglecting to read the textbook before you start working problems. Would you dive into a pool before you knew how to swim? The textbook is your swimming instructor—it guides you toward the answers. You will flounder and waste your time if you don’t bother to read it. Before you begin to read, however, take a quick glance over the chapter or section to get a sense of what it’s about.
  8. Not checking with your instructors or classmates to clear up points of confusion. Professors are used to lost students coming in for guidance—it’s our job to help you. The students we worry about are the ones who don’t come in. Don’t be one of those students.
  9. Thinking you can learn deeply when you are being constantly distracted. Every tiny pull toward an instant message or conversation means you have less brain power to devote to learning. Every tug of interrupted attention pulls out tiny neural roots before they can grow.
  10. Not getting enough sleep. Your brain pieces together problem-solving techniques when you sleep, and it also practices and repeats whatever you put in mind before you go to sleep. Prolonged fatigue allows toxins to build up in the brain that disrupt the neural connections you need to think quickly and well. If you don’t get a good sleep before a test, NOTHING ELSE YOU HAVE DONE WILL MATTER.

study: iPad 1-to-1 vs. shared

Courtney Blackwell, a doctoral candidate in communications at Northwestern University, compared the literacy scores of 352 kindergartners in a school district that was in the process of rolling out a 1-to-1 iPad program. Depending on their school, students had either their own iPad to use in class, an iPad that was generally shared with a partner, or no iPad at all.

The students who shared iPads scored approximately 30 points higher on the STAR Early Literacy Assessment than students in either of the other two groups. Blackwell says that the results suggest that "it's the collaborative learning around the technology that made the difference, not just the collaboration in and of itself."

Blended Learning Research: The Seven Studies You Need to Know

By Michelle Davis on April 13, 2015 9:42 AM


By guest blogger Michelle R. Davis

One of the biggest complaints about blended learning is that educators don't know if it really has a positive impact on student achievement, and if so, under what circumstances.

But in the last few years, a handful of studies have come out concluding that some programs show at least modest gains using blended learning techniques and tools. In a new Education Week report "Blended Learning: Breaking Down Barriers,"  released today, my colleague Sarah Sparks takes a look at the current state of research on blended learning.

Sarah notes that meaningful studies of blended learning are only slowly beginning to accumulate, after years in which educators felt they were operating in the dark in terms of what instructional techniques and software show signs of working.

Efforts to interpret the research on blended learning are complicated by a number of factors. Blended learning programs are often implemented in very different ways, under different conditions; many studies don't use a standard definition of what blended learning encompasses; and technology evolves so quickly that research can focus on a digital tool or system that is outmoded within a few years.

If studies find no impact or only modest gains for students using blended learning programs, that doesn't "really compel dramatic reconsideration of our practices," noted Justin Reich, a fellow at Harvard University's Berkman Center for Internet and Society and the author of the EdTech Researcher blog.

What Works in Education?

Julia F. Freeland, a research fellow at the Clayton Christensen Institute for Disruptive Innovation, a San Mateo, Calif.-based think tank that studies blended learning, said one of the biggest limitations in the research on "what works in education" is that it focuses on average students.

The whole power of blended learning, by contrast, lies in its ability to personalize education to meet individual students' needs.  "When we rely on research for a thumbs-up or a thumbs-down, we don't actually research what educators and administrators really need to know," she said. "We don't need more studies that say, 'On average we see modest gains.' That doesn't help me as a teacher see whether those modest gains could occur for my students."

Despite all the barriers standing in the way, educators will find a number of studies of individual blended learning program and strategies that can help guide their work. A few highlights from that body of research:

Sarah's story on blended learning research is just one of many articles in the special report. Other stories focus on creative ways districts are bringing Internet connectivity to students outside of school, and how school spaces are being redesigned to encourage and take advantage of technology. Another story looks at how school librarians in some districts are becoming digital mentors.

There's a piece profiling an Ohio school district's creation of a laboratory to study teachers' experimentation with technology. And Digital Education blogger Ben Herold looks at the debate over whether centralized district purchasing, or school autonomy, works best when it comes to buying blended learning software.

Photo: Adult observers, behind a two-way mirror, watch teachers working with students using technology in the Catalyst laboratory in Mentor, Ohio. The district uses the laboratory to allow teachers to experiment with blended learning strategies, under the observation of peers, with the goal of refining educators' instructional strategies.

See also:


lien du formulaire d’inscription : http://goo.gl/l8vV6R

UR 4 : Innovation et Technologie de l'apprentissage (ITECA)

Comprendre et mesurer l’effet de l’utilisation des technologies dans le contexte scolaire sur :

  1. Défi : Gestion des ressources en ligne (en explosion).
  1. modèle de l’école/classe en question (présentiel, transmissif vs. inversé, collaboratif)
  2. Computer Supported [Collaborative] Learning/Working
  1. Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices (=>données empiriques, expérimentation)
  1. Observations Macro p.ex. pédagogie de classe inversée
  2. Micro p.ex. lecture-compréhension de documents à l’écran
  1. Littérature scientifique essentiellement en anglais