200.         Establishment of Matrimonial Relationship Between Mir Safdar Khan and Raja Azur Khan (1890-91 AD)

As Mir Safdar Khan and Raja Uzar Khan were maintaining a very cordial. Firm and close friendly relations with each other, they therefore decided to further strengthen it by establishing matrimonial relations as well. Accordingly Mr. Muhammad Yousaf Khan alias Nausherawan son of Raja Azur Khan got married to Mst. Gulmiti daughter of Mir Safdar Khan who was also the foster daughter of Mr. Noori Hayat son of Mr. Mirza Hassan. The marriage ceremony was celebrated with great pomp and show both at Hunza as well as at Nagar.

201.         Fleeing of Khisrau Khan and His Brother from the Asylum of Wazir-e-Wazarat of Gilgit (1891 A.D)

        As it has been mentioned earlier in this book, that Raja Muhammad Khan of Nagar had died in the town of "Ram Sue" in Jammu while on his way to Jammu, whereas his wife and his sons were safe under the asylum/refuge and protection of Bakhshi Mulraaj , the Wazir-e-Wazarat of Gilgit, at Gilgit. A few years earlier, Mir Safdar Khan had asked Bakhshi Mulraaj through Wakil Fazal , for the return to Hunza of wife of Raja Muhammad Khan, as she was also the sister of Mir Safdar Khan, but this request had been turned down by the Dogra Wazir. However Wazir Ghulam Haider Gilgiti had made a favorable recommendation for her return and Mir Safdar Khan succeeded in obtaining her release by sending, as a present, one of his best personal horses for the Bakhshi Mulraaj, and this way this sister of Safdar Khan was brought back to Hunza safely. However her sons Messrs. Khisrau Khan, Badshah and Abbas had continued to remain under the protection of officials of Maharaja at Gilgit, when on finding a suitable opportunity and a chance this Khisrau Khan along with his other two brothers managed to flee and run away and succeeded in reaching the safety of their maternal uncles at Hunza. When during the year 1891 AD Khisrau Khan (and his brothers) managed to reach Hunza, Mir Safdar Khan felt extremely pleased and happy and accorded them a warm welcome. However this event annoyed and became a source of anger and anxiety for Raja Azur Khan of Nagar.

Wazir Muhammad Dara Beg (Wazir Dado) who was a well wisher and supporter of Raja Uzar Khan, advised and informed Mir Safdar Khan that the presence of Khisrau Khan etc, his nephews, with Safdar Khan was a source of annoyance and anxiety for the Raja Uzar Khan . He, therefore, suggested to the Mir that these nephews along with their mother be given a home and some agricultural land at Gulmit and be settled at Gulmit. Mir Safdar Khan showed a liking for such a suggestion and recommendation and accordingly made a plan for settling them in Gulmit, during his annual tour of Gojal in the coming autumn season, but the events of invasion of Hunza and Nagar and its capture by British forces during the winters of 1891 AD., overtook everything.

202. Assassination of Ghuri Thum and Deeng Malik (May 1891 AD)

        As it has already been mentioned earlier on in this book, that Raja Zafar Khan of Nagar had many sons from his many wives. Among those there were four sons who were from the womb of his wife Mst. Zebunnisaa. The four were Mr. Ghuri Thum, Deeng Malik, Sikandar Khan and Babar Khan. Ghuri Thum and Deeng Malik were settled at village Ghulmet and Sikandar was placed al Chaproat as the representative of Raja Zafar Khan.

        Azur Khan, the heir of Raja of Nagar bore malice towards Ghuri Thum and both had animosity and hatred for each other. This was because of the reason that Ghuri Thum had been making frequent visits and tours of "Astore", and during these trips and tours he had been visiting and meeting the officials of Maharaja at Gilgit As a result of these meetings officials accorded him a lot of attention and respect/importance. This was because he had become an informer of these officials and he had been providing every information about the activities of Mirs of Nagar and Hunza both Accordingly it was after his such a visit to Astors when he had gone to meet his wife there, who was the daughter of Raja Bahadur Khan of Astore, and had arrived back to his home at Ghulmet , when Raja Azur Khan invited him to Nagar with the pretext of offering him to participate In a polo match at Nagar, Accordingly, having accepted this invitation, Ghuri Thum left his home and proceeded towards Nagar. However when he reached a place called "Yall” which is located a few miles upstream of Ghulmet village, the trap was duly laid, ready and In place for him, and soon the conspirators opened fire on him. He was thus shot dead at the hands of one Mr. Hatam of Nagar (May 1891 A.D)86

        As it was a joint and coordinated plot prepared by both the Mirs to assassinate, Ghuri Thum, an identical/similar alternate trap and ambush was also put in place across river Hunza which was manned by the Hunza men under the command of Mr. Noori Hayat son of Mirza Hassan, exactly opposite the primary ambush site at "Yall". This was done as a precautionary measure and as an alternate plan to cater for the contingency under which Ghuri Thum may have resorted to crossing of the rive over to Hunza side of the river bank to escape a failed attempt. Hence these men were all set and ready to take on Ghuri Thum under such an eventuality, but he was ambushed and assassinated at the primary ambush site and these Hunza men were spared of the trouble.

86: Page 206, "The Gilgit Game”, by John Keay

 When the news of the assassination of Ghuri Thum were received by his brother Deeng Malik at Ghulmet. he was scared of the danger to his life as well and in order to save his own life he left his house and started fleeing and running towards Gilgit. When he reached the hill feature located above the Ghulmet water channel. he was also assassinated by Gushpur Shahrindaan and his companions who had been sent after him and were going in his pursuit. John Keay, on page 206 of his book "The Gilgit Game" has stated that this murder was taken as a pretext and a substantial enough reason by Colonel Durand and he therefore immediately had dispatched a four hundred (400) men strong Dogra Army Contingent along with a mountain battery of artillery mounted on mules for occupation of Chalat, immediately. This strong contingent had soon arrived at Chalat and had immediately cut the local foot bridge over river Hunza, connecting Harespo Das with Mamushi Didding

Back at the village (Ghulmet). the home of their mother Mst. Zebunnisaa was looted, plundered and obliterated . She was however not murdered , as she had by then taken refuge at the tomb of "Syed Shah Wali" the saint. Though her new clothes were taken off her body and she was given some very old and tattered clothes to wear so that she did not remain naked.

Their third brother Sikandar Khan, who was traveling towards Chaproat managed to save his own life by turning back and reaching Gilgit, as on the same day he was returning back from Gilgit after a visit and had received the news of the assassination of his two brother while still en-route from Gilgit to Chaproat. He, therefore, succeeded in reaching back to Gilgit safe and sound and took refuge, and protection under the British Agent and the officials of Maharaja at Gilgit. His other companions were Messrs Sultan Ali son of Mr. Sultana and Mr. Mirza Beg etc. He along with his these companions remained under the protection of British Agent at Gilgit till after the conquest of Hunza and Nagar States by the British officers leading and employing the Dogra army troops.

203. A "Farman" (Edict) by His Highness Agha Khan the Third for Mir Safdar Khan (1891 AD)

During the fifth year of Mirship of Mir Safdar Khan and in the month of August 1891 A.D, a religious command and edict  issued by His Highness the Imam and Maulana Sultan Muhammad Shah. well known as the Agha Khan the Third, was received al Hunza through the hands of the disciples of Pir Shahzadah Lais of Chitral meant for the Mir, Wazir and the entire Hunza community containing the following subject matter and the message that:

"Mir Safdar Khan. Wazir Dado, all the notables and the entire population of Hunza!! Who belong to the community of my followers and are from my "Jamaat"! You are all hereby called upon by me and directed that you should not obstruct and oppose the passage through Hunza territory of the "British Mail" and the officials of British Empire, destined for delivery at Kashghar. Instead, you must all provide all possible support and assistance to facilitate the British government as this is the best government amongst the present governments. The British government is just, equitable, dispenses justice, and believes in fair deal. You must seek and obtain the goodwill and respect of the British rule. In case you invite the hostility of the British and make them your enemies, this would result into the extreme displeasure and annoyance of my family and myself.

In addition to the above edict. the contents of this "Farman" also carried a message for procurement of an eagle, for His Highness. The type to which is called "Taighoon” in local Burushaski language. At the time of the receipt of this "Farman" at Hunza, Mir Safdar Khan himself had gone to Gojal and was not present at Baltit. Hence this "Important and sacred Farman" or letter was received. opened and got it read by Wazir Dado Dara Beg at Baltit. The Wazir Immediately dispatched a fast and athletic young man by the name of Mr. Jawan Beg. towards Mir Safdar Khan at Gojal informing him about the "Farman" and its contents and asking him to reach back Hunza immediately to personally convey with reverence the contents of the "Farman" to the Jamaat of Hunza and thereby attain the goodwill and achieve submission to the "Imam" and his Farman. However Mir Safdar Khan did not act upon this advice and instead asked for the "letter" or Farman to be delivered to him at the village of Fasso. On receiving the "Farman" he and his accompanying notables, while sitting on the roof top or house of Mr. Muhammad Sakhi, listened to its contents as it was read to them by this Mr. Sakhi, his personal clerk (Munshi) or secretary After listening to the contents to this Farman, all those present made mutual consultations and after reaching upon a unanimous decision, they decided to write a letter in reply appealing and requesting His Highness the Imam not to write them any more such letters in support of the mailers regarding the handling of British Dak or Mail in Future.

204. Returning Back of the Dak (Mail) of British Agent Gilgit from Hunza (1891 AD)

Around the same period (after receipt of Farman) and immediately on return by Mir Safdar Khan back to Baltit Hunza from Gojal, Colonel Durand, the British Agent at Gilgit, sent his mail meant for delivery to Mr., McCartney the British General Counsel at Cheeny Bagh Kashghar. through the hands of Mr. Akbar Ali alias Akhund Zadah of Gilgit. John Keay, in his book "The Gilgit Game" has slated that this particular mail (Dak) was actually meant to be delivered to Captain Young Husband, who was at that time wandering in the Pamirs. Onward dispatch of this mail after its arrival at Hunza was held up and kept suspended for a few days at Hunza. Meanwhile, the Mir and his advisors made mutual consultations as to whether this "mail" be given the passage through Hunza or otherwise Wazir Dado, regarding this matter gave his opinion and advised and strongly recommended to the Mir and the rest of the gathering that it was binding and essential for the Mir and the people of Hunza to obey and respect the sayings and "Farman" of the Imam of the era and we should not ignore and disregard this order. So that we avoid being punished for the disobey. Hence of orders to our Imam (spiritual leaders). As the "mail" of the British government has already reached this place, hence we should not indulge in the act of returning it and sending it back. We must also fully understand the fact that we do not possess the required strength and resources to invite the enmity and hostility of Kings of greater Empires. It is, therefore advisable and prudent to make arrangements to deliver the "British Mall" up to Tasghurghan. However, Mir Safdar Khan and his remaining advisers and notables opposed this proposal and insisted on a decision contrary to his recommendations. They made the accusations against Wazir Dado of having received a bribe from the British officials. In the recent past and said that he had received a sum of rupees one hundred (Rs 100/·) as bribe from the British Agent at Gilgit sent to him through the hands of Wakil Daulat Shah who was the son-in-law of Wazir Dado. in order to gain the support and sympathies in favor of the British government. They further alleged that it was solely because of this reason that Wazir Dado was in favor of providing passage to the British Empire They all declared that they were all against such a decision. Wazir Dado in reply said to them that If they all had made such a resolve. then In that case they will have (a call back the Russian Torum or any of his men and place him In Hunza along With a few Cossack soldiers as only the Russians were a match to the British. Having said this he expressed his utmost annoyance and walked out of the gathering and went to his home. However after a few days Mir Safdar Khan managed to get him back on good terms and with some tact. diplomacy and persuasion sought his approval and the British mail was turned-back and sent back to Gilgit. In the same manner the detachment of security troops of Dogra Army, stationed at Chalat and Chaproat were also intended to be banished and evicted and dispatched back to Gilgit in coordination. cooperation and consultation With Raja Azur Khan of Nagar. In this way the troops of these outposts also arrived back at Gilgit along the British mail. John Keay has expressed his opinion, that Durand had included this event, in his list of three major apparent pretexts and reasons, to fulfill his long cherished desire of invading and conquering both Hunza and Nagar. The two other pretexts and accuses/reasons used by Colonel Durand for his invasion of Hunza and Nagar, were the one as mentioned earlier, the murder of Ghuri Thum and his brother at the hands of Raja Muhammad Khan Durand had reasoned and argued that Azur Khan had the intentions of attacking Chalat. and hence he wanted to pre-empt and forestall this impending Threat from Raja Muhammad Khan by stationing a strong contingent of Dogra troops at Chalat and Chaproat. The third reason or pretext is said to be the abduction of a Kashmiri person during those very days (However nothing has been mentioned about the details to this abduction).

205. Dispatch of Mr. Tul1ah and Mr. Gul Muhammad to Quqand for Seeking Military Aid (1891 AD)

        When Mir Safdar Khan and Azur Khan, both the rulers, came to know and learnt about the counter measures taken by the British Agent Gilgit, in which he had not only re-established the security outposts at Chalat and Chaproat by sending back the Dogra troops, but he had also further strengthened these garrisons by sending more troops along with a large quantity of additional arms and ammunition and other war material and had also employed his road construction organization called, "Salar" Meena for the construction of a mule track upto the oasis of Chalat, they immediately dispatched an emissary to "Quqand" for seeking military aid from the Russian government. Hence Mr. Tullah of Baltit and Mr. Gul Muhammad of Gulmit were dispatched as envoys of Mir Safdar Khan, to Quqand (Khuqand) to seek immediate and emergency military aid, and assistance from the officials of Russia. These two emissaries were sent with the pretext and under cover of a message and request that they were going to procure an "eagle" (Taighoon) as per the desire and demand of His Highness Agha Khan the Third. Hence a letter was addressed to the Ambaan of Kashghar informing him that the two representatives were being sent to "Quqand" to procure and purchase an "eagle" as per the desire and demand of the exalted Imam, His Highness Hazrat Agha Khan-III. Yet another separate and confidential letter was given to the two men, which was meant for the Russian Torum, requesting him to send and deliver all possible military aid. weapons, ammunition and other combat material as promised by him al Hunza , immediately and as soon as possible

However Mr., McCartney, the British Counsel General at Kashghar was all alert and ever inquisitive who always remained in search of such activities, hence he was soon able to discover and find out the reality that the messengers of Mir of Hunza had gone to "Quqand" with an aim of seeking and obtaining urgent military aid and assistance from the Russian government. He also came to know that these two men were returning from "Quqand" after acquiring and obtaining some arms, ammunition and some other combat material and were on their way to Hunza via the Chinese territory. The British Counsel General , accordingly informed the Chinese officials at Kashghar about the real intentions of the two Hunza messengers. He also wrote a letter to the British Agent at Gilgit informing him about the same and dispatched this letter to Gilgit via Hunza. However this letter was also not allowed to be passed through the Hunza territory. Hence this letter was therefore re-routed and sent to the British Agent Gilgit via the route passing through Wakhan corridor and via the Burughul Pass in Chitral

When the two messengers of the Mir of Hunza left "Quqand" carrying with them (on horses and mule caravan) lot many presents, gifts like silk cloth, fur cloth, cash and also arms and ammunition and weapons like breach loaded rifles, small cannons called "Sher Bachas" and explosive and cannon balls etc, and entered the Charaq Khitai, the Chinese or Khita'a territory, they were immediately taken into custody by the Chinese security men already patrolling the routes in light of the tip off given to them by the British Counsel General. The entire luggage and caravan of the two messengers were subjected to a thorough search by these border security men of Khita'a and on the orders of their high officials. Every item of military use like arms, ammunition and cannons and explosive etc were confiscated, The two were however re leased and left free and were allowed to carry along all other items like silk and woolen cloth, money and other gifts and presents meant for the Mir, Wazir and notables of Hunza. This emissary of the Mir managed to arrive back at Hunza during or around the time period when the invasion of Hunza/Nagar by Durand was imminent and its fall was around the corner.

206. Preparations by the British Agent Gilgit for Subduing and Capture of Hunza and Nagar (1891 AD.)

When the British Agent Gilgit found and became convinced that the Rajas of both Hunza and Nagar were not steady and firm on the treaties and agreements made with him, he, therefore. lost the trust and confidence to their pledges of friendship. The reasons for this loss of trust and confidence were; that Raja Uzar Khan had murdered his own brother Ghuri Thum for his loyalty to the Maharaja of Kashmir. secondly the "British Mail" for delivery to the British Counsel General residing at Cheeni Bagh Kashghar was sent back from Hunza. and thirdly the security detachments of Dogra troops stationed at the forts/outposts of Chalat and Chaproat had been evicted, banished and sent packing back to Gilgit. Furthermore, the rulers had made their utmost efforts to establish close and friendly relations with the Russian empire and by carrying out correspondence with the Russian officials assuring them of their loyalties and subjugation to the Russians. In view of all these clear evidences and resulting environments and situations, the British Agent had arrived at the conclusion that it had become inevitable for him to physically invade, subdue and conquer both the States of Hunza and Nagar.

The British Agent, therefore, made preparations and necessary arrangements to provide for the acquisition and assembling of required war maternal for a military operation. The road construction organization called "Safar Meena" (Sappers) was organized and deployed all along the route to improve and construct a good mule track right from Kashmir up to the frontier garrison of Chalat. Stocks of arms, ammunitions, equipment and rations and clothing’s etc were procured and transported from Kashmir and dumped and piled up at Gilgit. The strength of the Kashmir forces at Gilgit had already been increased substantially as per the aim and objective of the British Agent at Gilgit. A large number of Baltit Porters were brought from Baltistan for the carriage/pottering of war material for the battlefield . Some very useful information and suggestions/advises were obtained from Gushpur Shah Sikandar Khan who was staying at Gilgit as a refugee and asylum seeker, for the capture of Hunza and Nagar. Wazir Zadah Humayun Beg was also summoned from Chitral and his services were utilized to facilitate the capture of Hunza and Nagar States. Humayun Beg was, al that time living in Chitral as an exile and as a refugee for the last five years (since 1886 AD.) as a result of the coercion and compulsions by Mir Safdar Khan and Wazir Dado Dara Beg of Hunza. and had taken refuge under the protection of Mehtar Aman-ul-Mulk of Chitral.

Humayun Beg when, having readily accepted the invitation of British Agent Gilgit, left Chitral for Gilgit. the principal advisors of Mehtar Aman-ul-Mulk of Chitral, like, Inayat Khan, Wafadar Khan, Mehtar Bahadur Khan and Aqsaqal Fateh Ali Shah etc having become suspicious, advised the Mehtar to recall back Humayun Beg from midway They had an apprehension that the British Agent Gilgit may use Humayun Beg as a useful support for the capture of Chitral. Accordingly Mehtar Aman-ul-Mulk of Chitral immediately wrote an urgent letter to Mr. Rehmanullah Tongah , the governor of Kohi-Ghizer ordering him to send Humayun Beg back to Chitral while he was still en-route to Gilgit. He was instructed to get Humayun Beg murdered in case he refused and resisted to return back to Chitral, and thus he was to be denied the opportunity of going  to Gilgit at all costs. and was not to be given passage to Gilgit. However, Rehmanullah informed Humayun Beg about the receipt and contents of the letter and the intentions of the Mehtar of Chitral and immediately dispatched Humayun Beg, towards Gilgit during the same very night of his arrival at Kohi Ghizer, and in reply to the Mehtar's this urgent letter sent him a letter explaining that Humayun Beg had already left him well before the arrival and receipt of the urgent letter by him, and had already reached Gilgit.

When British Agent Gilgit completed all his preparations and arrangements for the invasion of Hunza and Nagar he assembled and organized Punial Levies under the  command of Raja Muhammad Akbar Khan and the Gilgit Levies under the patronage of Wazir Shah Mirza, Wazir Muhammad Khan and Raja Bahadur Khan of Astore. He then dispatched his force to Chalat in a gradual manner according to an order of march as per military battle procedures. Chalat was made a forward assembly/concentration area and all the forces and war material was accordingly concentrated, assembled and dumped at Chalat. The road construction organization SAPPERS called or “Safar Meena" was actively employed on the construction of a mule track from Gilgit to Chalat and even beyond for making it wide and sale enough for use by the loaded mules of the invading force. Mir Safdar Khan on witnessing and observing such an unprecedented situation, and elaborate and thorough preparations, became aware and also extremely scared of the actual strength and the military might and prowess of the British Agent Gilgit, and he, therefore, immediately dispatched an envoy consisting of his notables to the court to the British Agent Gilgit at Gilgit . However in the meanwhile he concentrated his attention towards strengthening and building to the defenses at the locations of Mayun and Nilt.

207.         Sending of an Envoy of Hunza and its Eventual Fate at Gilgit (1891 AD)

During the period at the end of the spring season of 1891 AD both the Rajas of Hunza and Nagar after unanimous mutual consultations, dispatched Messr. Daulat Shah, the Wakil to Kashmir, Mirza Sarhang Muhammad and Khalifah Bahadur son of Haider of Ali Abad , along with a few more persons, in shape of a delegation, on behalf of the inhabitants of Hunza, to the court of the British Agent at Gilgit. The aim and purpose of dispatch of this envoy to Gilgit was to reassure and re -affirm that the Mir of Hunza and the people of Hunza were still steadfast and fully observing and upholding the treaties and agreements made with the British Agent and their relations and contacts with the Russians and Chinese was of mere formal and traditional nature and bore no more depth and purpose. In addition it was conveyed that the rulers and the people of Hunza had a great desire to avoid any sort of confrontations and disputes and war like activities with the officials of British Empire and the forces of the Maharaja of Kashmir. Hence it was proposed that all the doings of the past may be forgotten and utmost caution and care would be taken in the future conduct. The exact words and the sayings of the Persian proverb in the last sentence was, (Kare Guzistah Ra Salwaal, Aayindah Ra Ehtiat).

However when the British Agent at Gilgit had a meeting with the envoy of Hunza and had listened to their messages of reconciliation he gave them a curt reply in the negative. He said that there had been left no more reason and room for any sort of negotiations, except for the conquering of Hunza and Nagar States. Hence then gave them all some more presents and gifts to every member of the delegation and them dispatched them back to Hunza.

208. Preparation, Construction and Strengthening Defenses of Hunza and Nagar at the Villages of Mayun and Nilt (1891 AD)

When both the rulers of Hunza and Nagar received a definite and final ultimatum of the Intentions and determination of the forces of Maharaja of Kashmir under the command of Colonel Durand, the British Agent Gilgit, they became anxious and concerned and turned their attention towards preparations. construction and strengthening of the defenses to defend against enemy invasion and an attack against their states. They found to their utmost surprise and horror that the valleys of Chalat and Chaproat had already been occupied and taken over by the forces of Maharajah since a few days earlier, hence there remained no possibility of preparing a forward line of defense ahead of Chalat. The only option now left to them was to prepare a line of defense in the village of Mayun in Hunza and in the village of Nilt in Nagar, both voltages being located opposite each other on the right and left banks of Hunza River respectively. The responsibility and the task of construction and strengthening of these defenses was assigned to Wazir Dada Dara 8&g of Hunza and Wazir Muhammad Shah son of Mr. Ajzdar of Nagar. The fort of Nilt was selected as the first and forward line of defense and it was turned into a strong Point. While Wazir Dado, Wazir Muhammad Shah son of Ajzdar and Raja Azur Khan were actively busy In the supervision of and preparation and construction of defenses, the advisors of the paralyzed Mir Zafar Khan of Nagar were conspiring against Wazir Dado, Mir Safdar Khan and the inhabitants of Hunza.

209. Ignominious Plot/Conspiracy of the Advisers of Mir of Nagar (1891 AD)

During the period when Wazir Dado Dara Beg and Wazir Muhammad Shah were actively busy overseeing and supervising the construction, preparation and strengthening of defenses and defense works at Nilt, the advisors of Mir Zafar Khan of Nagar, like Wazir Shah Murad, Wazir Zadah Ghulam Hussain son of Wazir Halo, and Yarfah Nadilo son to Muhammad Beg etc had been hatching conspiracies and had unanimously decided and agreed upon a plan/plot to arrest Wazir Dado and hand him over to the British Agent Gilgit. They had also made a plan to allege and accuse Mir Safdar Khan and the people of Hunza as the real culprits and declare them guilty and prove that Raja Azur Khan and the people of Nagar were innocent and absolved of the responsibility for the prevailing situation. After that they wanted to establish contacts and friendly relations with the forces of Maharaja and the British Agent, by submitting and surrendering to them and showing their loyalties and allegiance to these officials. In this way they expected that Mir Safdar Khan would therefore be declared guilty and hence would be arrested and this way the possession of Hunza State would also be taken by the Mir of Nagar.

After that and in order to also obtain the willingness and approval of Raja Azur Khan and Wazir Muhammad Shah in favor of this conspiracy, both to them were called back from Nilt to the capital town to Nagar, and were informed to the details to this ignominious plot of theirs. Son of Ajzdar (Ibne Ajzdar) did not agree to such a dastardly plot and conspiracy and he, therefore, out rightly rejected their proposal and told them all that it was a matter of great disgrace and utmost shame for the son of Ajzdar to betray and arrest Wazir Dara Beg and to gel myself involved in such a shameful act of betrayal. Having uttered his These sentences he got up and walked out of that gathering He while walking away, once again turned around and reiterated his resolve and declared that the neck of Ibne Ajzdar would first be slashed. (before any harm came to Dara Beg) before Dara Beg's neck is slashed. On receiving such a response and a firm resolve, Raja Zafar Khan and his advisers became highly disappointed and disshelved. They were, therefore, compelled to follow the dictates of Raja Azur Khan and Ibne Ajzdar (son of Ajzdar).

210.         Personality of Muhammad Shah Ibne Ajzdar (Son of Ajzdar) of Nagar

Muhammad Shah son of Ajzdar was also the foster father of Raja Azur Khan son of Raja Zafar Khan to Nagar. He held the appointment of Wazir of Sheen Barr (i.e. Chalat, Chaproat, Budalas and Barr). He was a man of utmost patience and was enduring, was courageous, coosrstent. and truthful and was a very brave man He was of a very generous nature and was highly Intelligent, Wise and enlightened. He was taciturn, habitually a silent and reserved man and remained aloof and in seclusion and solitude. He was a very close and dear friend of Wazir Dado Dara Beg. Ibne Ajzdar was equal and a match to Wazir Dado Dara Beg almost in all virtuous and good aspects of his personal traits and character qualities. He was betrayed and murdered at the hands of a few traitors of Nagar during the battle at Nilt. (December 1891 AD) account of which is going to be narrated in the succeeding paragraphs of this book. He had left behind two sons as his heirs. One of his sons Manhood, was also the "Mirza " or personal clerk (Mir Munshi) to Mir Sikandar of Nagar. This son was from his first wife. The second son was Trangfah "Roodaar" who was from the womb of his second wife. His second wife Mst. Shah Jehan Begum was brought in to marriage by Trangfah Sultan Ali son of Mr. Sultano after the martyrdom of Wazir Muhammad Shah (Ibne Ajzdar). Trangfah Sultan Ali had a son Wazir Sarwar from the womb of this Mst. Shah Jehan Begum and this Mr. Sarwar is the present titular Wazir of Nagar (as of 1962 AD).

211- Assault and Storming of Nilt Fort by Colonel Durand's Forces (Nov-Dec. 1891 AD)

When Colonel Durand completed all his military preparations for an offensive operation the rulers of both Hunza and Nagar also made their final deployments of their forces in the forts of Nilt and Mayun. A woman's pajama was hoisted on a stick al the "Uyar Nullah” on the orders of Wazir Dado Oars Beg of Hunza, this being a symbol of expression of extreme hatred and contempt for the enemy forces and was meant to be a sign of ridicule, taunt and sarcasm for the forces and troops of Durand.

        Details to the events which unfolded right from the initial days of the preparations and movements made by colonel Durand till the final stages of the battle and Its conclusion have been Suitably narrated by Malawi Hashmatullah Khan Lakhnawi (of Lakhnow) in his book "Tareekh-e-Jammu" or History of Jammu, written in Urdu while quoting extensively from the Book called "Where Three Empires Meet”, written by Mr. E F. Knight. This Mr. Hashmatullah Lakhnawi had also been the Wazir-e-Wazarat of Gilgit in the year 1898-1903 AD, although he had a stint of his postings at Gilgit in the year 1894-5 as well. Hence the details of the military operations of Colonel Durand, for the capture/conquest of Hunza and Nagar are once again being narrated below by the writer of this book with the help and quotations/excerpts from the above-mentioned two books and these are as follows:-

        "In short the preparations were completed and all available forces were assembled and concentrated at Gilgit Hence the total strength of the force under Colonel Durand, assembled at Gilgit, was about 2000 fighters men in all. This total strength was inclusive of the available British forces, troops of Maharaja to Kashmir and the newly raised local irregular force called "Punial Levies" available at Gilgit. However, it was not possible to utilize all these 2000 combatants for the battle of Hunza and Nagar as with these he had to garrison Astore, Bunji and Gilgit and hold all the posts along the line of communications and from Gilgit up to Chalat, which for many marches was exposed to the attacks of the Shinaka tribes and had to be well guarded. Consequently, only 1000 combat worthy men could be spared for operations beyond Chalat. Hence this invasion force which had been assembled at Gilgit started moving towards Chalat gradually in phases and in groups/units as per order of a march. On November 27 (1891 AD) Colonel Durand and his staff arrived at Chalat Dr Robertson also came in later With his six Kafirs. The Dogra General, Suram Chand who commended the Gilgit Brigade, also arrived on the next day with his staff. On November 30th the final reply to Colonel Durand's ultimatum came in through his own messenger Mr. Khush Waqt of Baseen. He also came to know through his this messenger that the enemy had prepared the defenses of Nilt Fort so strongly and in such a manner that it was impossible even for the strongest of the force s In the world to overcome and reduce these defenses till the arrival of the next spring season, It was also reported that by that time the officials to the Russian Empire would be making available and would have supplied the required weapons and ammunitions like artillery guns, their ammunition, breach loaded rifles With their ammunition and explosives etc. The Russians had also reportedly made promises to send reinforcements and even their military/combat forces as support and assistance. In this connection it is worthwhile to describe the above situation from the point of view of the British officials and their reading of the situation. Hence a paragraph from the book 'Where Three Empires Meet" written by E.F. Knight. who personally participated in these operations is reproduced below·

        On November 30 (1891 AD) the reply to Colonel Durand's ultimatum came in. It appeared that the Nagaris assembled at Nilt had half a mind to come to terms with us, when, suddenly, there rushed over from the Hunza fortress of Mayun on the other side of the river, the ferocious hereditary Wazir of Hunza , who broke in upon the council, threatened to cut off the head of anyone who ventured to speak of peace, and, overpowering all present by the violence of his eloquence, brought the Nagaris to throw in their lot with the Hunza. He insulted, maltreated, and was about to slay Colonel Durand's envoy a native of Nagar, but eventually contended himself with robbing him of his horse and sending the man back to us on foot."

        The written reply of the two rulers of Hunza and Nagar to Colonel Durand's ultimatum staled that !hey would allow no roads In their territories, and boasted of their capacity to resist any forced effort by the British Agent to resort to construction of any such roads, by saying that they will reply through violence and war.

        After receipt of such an unequivocal final response, the orders were Issued for an advance across the frontier and to launch an attack on 1st December 1891 AD The total strength 87 of the British force, called "Hunza-Nagar Field Force", as it was called, was as follows:-

158 men of the 5th Gurkhas, 28 men of the 20th Punjab Infantry; 76 men of the Hazara Mountain Battery; 7 Bengal Sappers and Miners; and 661 Imperial Service Troops (257 from the Ragu Pertab or 1st Kashmir Infantry Regiment: and 404 from the Body Gurard or 2nd Kashmir Rifles), In all about 1000 regular troops. In addition to these were the Irregulars-the Punialis and Spedding's Pathans, 160 and about 100 each respectively. Two thousand Baltit Coolies performed the bulk of the transport services. Sixteen British officers accompanied the Field Force.

In the Order Book of this same evening, Speeding was given orders to make a practicable mule road(track) over the Kotal (Pass) on the following day, the ridge was to be previously occupied and secured by fifty (50) men of the Ragu Partab Regiment (Under Lieutenant Widdicombe); while later on in the day, the whole Field Force was to cross the Hunza River, and (from Chalt) Bivouac/camp on the Nagar Side in the wide open flat barren tract of "Harespo Das".

The ascent and going up the steep slope up to the pass was difficult. Hence when a mule track/path was constructed on this steep slope, the mules carrying the guns were taken up. As the height of the Pass was some 800 feet above the Valley level, there was a magnificent view up the Hunza Valley and one could observe the valley up into a far distance. Some seven to eight miles away the towers of the fortress of Nilt could be clearly observed, which we hoped to capture on the morrow. In the same way the entire force and the accompanying coolies and porters carrying the loads, managed, with difficulty, to reach and cross the Kotal (Pass). Hence after undergoing the difficulties of the journey up this steep slope, the entire force succeeded in reaching the village of Nilt safe and sound. The sepoys gazed with interest at the distant towers of the reputedly impregnable fortress of Nilt However there was no sign of presence of water in the village of Nilt. It was also very difficult and impossible to descend to the banks of Hunza River to fetch water. It was already past noon and the sun was well past its noon position. In-spite of all these difficulties, it was decided that at first the fortress should be assaulted and captured before our thirst is quenched as it could be done after the mission was completed.

When the advancing troops reached the near vicinity of the fort the Nagaris were the first to open fire on these troops, from inside the fort through the loopholes. The soldiers of the 5th Gorkhas who were leading the assault also started firing in response. Hence the battle and exchange of firing ensued. On this the guns of the mule artillery also opened their fire and started bombarding the fort and its defenses. During this period it was learent that Colonel Durand had been wounded. Meanwhile Captain Aylmer had succeeded in reaching the main gate of the Nilt Fort. under the cover of the artillery fire and other small arms fire and had managed to place and ignite an explosive! Change at the main gate of the fort . The explosive charge went off and it blew out a wide gap in the walls and entrance of the Fort. The assaulting troops closely following behind entered the fort through this gap and immediately got down to a fierce close Quarter and hand to hand combat The enemy (Nagaris) offered very stiff and ferocious resistance but the assault was so sudden and fierce that they soon gave up the fight.

87: Page 112. "Where Three Empires Meet" by E.F. Knight

Lieutenant Townshend, along with his Imperial Service Troops, soon arrived and rushed into the interior of the Fort, and started a free for all massacre inside the Fort. The valiant Wazir Ibne Ajzdar was martyred . However other notables and the commanders of the forces to Nagar managed to get away safely, from the Inside of the Fort by escaping through secret and hidden windows and baa door exits and succeeded In running away to their next line of defenses.

In this manner so reputedly impregnable fortress to Nilt was reduced and captured in a matter of few hours. which was the sign and symbol of utmost pride and boasting for the combined and united forces of Hunza and Nagar, through a bold fierce and daring assault by a few men. The Total losses suffered by the attackers was six killed and twenty-seven wounded. The losses suffered by the enemy (Hunza Nagar Coalition forces) was eighty killed inside the fort. As the enemy had prepared defenses on the hills and along the top to the mountain across the Nilt Fort. they soon started directing their fire from these trenches and sanghars, using their matchlocks and Sher Bachas (Small Cannons) throughout the night. Colonel Durand just before he was wounded had given the orders that the fort should be taken by assault and the attack be pressed forward alter the capture of the tort . to also reduce the entire defenses by maintaining the momentum of assault to evict enemy from their defenses and force them to retreat. However Colonel Durand was seriously wounded even before the assault on the fort itself and command of the troops, right during the course of fluid battle, was therefore, handed over to captain Bradshaw Hence the plan of attack as envisaged by Colonel Durand could not be implemented One of the main reasons being that the Withdrawing enemy forces had obliterated and destroyed the available tracks and paths leading towards their second line of defense, along the high banks of Nilt Nullah across Nilt Fort.

The route and the path beyond the Nilt Fort towards Nagar and Hunza. First descends deep down winding into the gorge and bed of the Nilt Nullah, and after crossing the stream it again ascends upwards winding along the opposite banks of the Nullah and hence the path reaches the other end and onto the territory of village Thol The enemy had constructed a line of defense and sanghars along the high banks of the Nilt Nullah across Nilt Fort. About one hundred riflemen had occupied these sanghars on the far bank and high ground above and they were firing their matchlocks from inside these sanghars. This constant and effective fire was effectively checking any further advance by the advancing troops. In order to counter this effective firing, the artillery guns were repositioned and redeployed and ranging was carried out. Because of this redeployment and the resulting effective artillery bombardment, the enemy sanghars were soon destroyed and silenced

Meanwhile a search operation of the Nilt Fort was conducted. As a result of this search and exploitation a number of Nagar men found still alive inside the fort were taken prisoners and were taken out of the fort one by one. During this process, the soldiers of Gorkha Regiment indulged in bayoneting and massacring of the enemy fighters to take a revenge for their dead comrades. However within a short period of time the peace and normalcy returned and the situation became calm, cool and normal. Hence attention was directed towards treatment of wounded, injured and Sick. Colonel Durand had also been wounded in his thigh/buttock With a Single bullet wound Initially It was feared that the wound was serious and fatal, but later, when the pieces of the bullet were extracted from his wound, it was revealed that the wound and injury was not so serious as a few broken pieces of a bullet made of "Garnet" coated with lead had hit him, and the wound was not very deep.

At this stage it would be worthwhile to reproduce tile detailed deception of this phase of the battle as had been narrated by Mr. E.F. Knight, as a witness and participant, in his book "Where Three Empires Meet". Following is his description of the layout of Nilt fort and the details of the operation by the British Forces to overcome this fortress:-

" Nilt is a formidable place. As is the case in all Kanjut villages, the villagers live within the fortified village, which is a very rabbit-warren of strongly built stone houses, two or three storeys high in places, with narrow alleys between, the whole enclosed within a great wall, carefully baltit of stones and strengthened with massive timbers. This wall is 15feet to 20feet in height, and 12feet thick in most places, with large square towers at intervals. The flat roofs of this fortified village were covered with stones and were so well constructed that they were proof against our shell when dropped upon them, while guns of very much heavier calibre than ours would have failed to make any impression on the great wall, the loopholes of which, again, were very small, and offered little mark to our riflemen. The garrison of Nilt was, indeed, practically secure from any ordinary mode of attack. Another wall, bout 8 feet high, and also loopholes for musketry. surrounded the main wall, and from here the ground fell away precipitously on all sides, save at one point where was the narrow approach to the chief gate. A steep watercourse served as a trench to that side of the fort which faced us as we approached , and here the enemy had placed a strong abatus of branches to oppose us. In all their preparations the Kanjutis exhibited considerable foresight and skill, and there can be no doubt that they had with them leaders of no mean military ability the enemy's fire was well directed, and it is certain that they had excellent marksmen amongst them, even at long ranges, as we afterwards discovered Colonel Durand had just been severely wounded I will now explain how Nilt was stormed.

Any other method of attacking so strong a fortification How this was done will long be remembered as one of the most gallant things recorded in Indian Warfare. Captain Aylmer, as our engineer. was now instructed to blow up the main gate of the fort, so as to admit the storming party. This gate. the only assailable one did not face the direction from which our forces had advanced, but was on the side of the fort which is under the mountain, and was difficult of approach.

First our guns and rifles opened a very heavy fire upon the fort , under cover of which 100 of the 5th Gurkhas, led by Lieutenant Boisragon and Badcock, made a rush at the outer wall, and began to cut their way through the abatus with their Kurkis, of the garrison the while firing steadily into them. A small opening having thus been made, the three officers, closely followed by about half a dozen men, pushed their way through it. They then made for the wooden gate of the outer wall, which they soon hacked to pieces. They now found themselves in front of the main wall, and while his companions fired into the loopholes. The officers using their revolvers, captain Aylmer, accompanied by his Pathan orderly, rushed forward to the foot of the main gate, which was strongly built, and had been barricaded within with stones in anticipation of our coming. The enemy now concentrated their fire upon this gallant little band . Captain Aylmer placed his slabs of gun cotton at the foot of the gate, packed them with stones, and ignited the fuse, He was shot in the leg He and his orderly then followed the wall of the fort to a safe distance, and stood there awaiting the explosion. But there came no explosion, for the fuse was a faulty one, so captain Aylmer had once again to face an almost certain death. He returned to the fuse, cut It with his knife, lit a match after two or three attempts, and re-ignited the fuse. While doing so he received another two or three injuries ……………………….

This time a terrific explosion followed, and at once, before even the dust had settled/cleared or the stones had ceased dropping from the crumbling wall, the three British officers, with the six men at their back, clambered through the breach and were within the Nilt Fort ……………………………………………….so for many minutes that little handful of gallant Englishmen and Gurkhas were engaged in a hand to hand fight……………………………… Gurkhas, who poured into the narrow alleys of the fort. The Kanjooties defended themselves at first, but soon lost heart before the fierce attack. The fort was soon swarming with our men…………....... Thus was Nilt Fort taken after a daring rush................................................... our total loss was only six killed and twenty seven wounded, The loss of the enemy was uncertain; but it was estimated that over eighty were killed in the course of the action............................................... Captain Aylmer and Lieutenant Boisragon have both been decorated with the Victoria Cross, which they thoroughly deserved, while Lieutenant Badcock, who in the opinion of his brother officers had also earned that highest award of valour, received the Distinguished service order.

............ .......................... .. Across the ruined gateway lay the dead body of a Gurkha, one of Boisragon's Gallant handfuls, and close to him was the corpse of Muhammad Shah (Ibne Ajzdar) Wazir of Nagar, and one of the enemy's best leaders."

On the morning of 3rd December, it was decided to resume our advance towards the village of Thol. We understood that Spedding’s Pathans were to make a road/track across the Nilt Nullah, under cover of the guns. and that the whole force was to then advance and attack the large Nagar fortress of Thai, and the other defenses on the maidan ahead . The advance guard also commenced its advance. and when it had just spread out and reached an open space still on the home bank of the Nm Nullah, a heavy volley of enemy fire came on the leading men of the advancing body, a few men were immediately killed and few others wounded, and the force was distinctly repulsed with loss.

Later on, the track up to the top of the pass and the high banks was repaired with utmost effort and difficulty and the advance was resumed. This time again the enemy once again opened very heavy and effective firing and our advance was repulsed In view of this precarious and dangerous situation, It was decided that the old road/route, be discarded and abandoned and a new and fresh route be selected and a path/track be constructed. Hence an effort was made to find a new route of advance, but the enemy was all alert and he did not allow us to make any headway along this new route as well. After failing in all these efforts, Captain Bradshaw, issued an order to carryout an assault on these enemy positions located at the lower banks of Nilt Nullah, which were presenting an effective opposition to our advance, on the 8th of December, However the enemy became aware of our this decision also. on the same night, and he resorted to heavy firing as well as rolling down stones throughout this night right from the early evening onwards and frustrated our this plan also. "It was a most vigilant enemy. that we had to deal with. The Kanjutis seemed to read our thoughts, for some of our most secretly planned night attacks were anticipated by them. They were always ready at the threatened point; showers of rock would sweep down the hillsides, and large fire balls of resinous wood would be rolled down the Nullahs, their blaze disclosing the presence of our men and making a rapid retreat necessary:

The problem no easy one before our leaders, was how to turn this strong natural position with as little loss as possible, for we could ill afford to waste men. About forty men had already been killed or incapacitated by wounds: of our British Officers five were now "hors de combat, and twelve were left to us.

The following were the officers now with the Field Force. Colonel Durand had been our Political Officer as well as our commander. After he was wounded, captain L.J.E. Bradshaw, 35th Bengal Infantry, succeeded to the command, while surgeon Major Robertson was entrusted with the political duties. Captain R.H. Twigg, 12th Bengal Infantry, was deputy-Assistant Adjutant General (DAAG) to the Force Captain C.J. Mackenzie, Seaforth Highlanders, aide-de-cmp to his Excellency to Commanderin- Chief, was Deputy Assistant Quarter master General {DAQMG). Of the three officers of the 5th Gurkhas. Lieutenant G.H. Boisragon was now alone left. so Lieutenant J . Manners Smith, formerly of the same Regiment, was attached to that gallant little Corps. Lieutenant C.A. Molony, Royal Artillery, took charge of the mountain battery in place of Lieutenant R.St. G. Gorton, wounded. Lieutenant C.V.F. Townshend, Central India Horse, Lieutenant F. Duncan, 23rd Bengal Infantry, and Lieutenant G.T. Widdicombe, 9th Bengal Infantry, were attached to the Ragu Pertab Regiment of the Imperial Service troops; while Lieutenant J. Mc. D. Baird, 24th Bengal Infantry , and Lieutenant F H. Taylor, 3rd Sikh Infantry, were attached to the Body Guard Regiment of the Same Force. Captain W.H.M. Stewart Commanded the detachment of the 20th Punjab infantry, and superintended the transport service. Two good officers had to be spared from the front to guard our long line of communications, Captain Kembell remaining at Bunji, in view of a Chilas raid; while Lieutenant C S. Williams, 43rd Bengal Infantry, after the fight at Nilt. was given the command of our advanced base at Chan. and acted as Commissariat officer.

The next day. December 9 (1891 AD). some men were observed upon the opposite bank of the Kanjut River, upon whom our sepoys opened fire , until It became evident that these people had no hostile intentions, but wished to communicate With us. One of our officers accordingly walked down to the river-bank, and made Signs to them that they could come on with safety. All firing ceased on both sides, and one of the men swam across the river on a mushok, and was escorted to our head-quarters. He brought a letter from the Thum of Hunza, which stated that His majesty was quite prepared to make peace, but that he would not accede to our demands as expressed in Colonel Durand's Ultimatum, and was as determined as ever to have no roads made through his country. He pointed out that the capture of Nilt was but a small affair. of which we had not cause to boast, and had been more or less anticipated by his generals; but that we must know that it would be impossible for us to advance any further, so impregnable were his defenses. The envoy carried back our political officer's reply, in which the Thum was informed that it was useless for him to send us letters unless he was prepared to do as the Government of India had ordered. Half an hour after the envoy had left our camp hostilities were renewed, and an exceptionally lively little artillery and rifle fire was exchanged. as if to make up for the time wasted In the futile truce

During the night of 12th December 1891 AD a detachment of our forces managed to cross river Hunza over to Mayun and made an attempt to carryout an assault. on the village of Mayun. However the ever vigilant men of Hunza were alert and ready to face such an eventuality, they, therefore, repulsed this night attack and the assaulting force was compelled to make hasty retreat without even firing a single round.

For the eighteen days we remained here the Kanjuties and ourselves were always firing at each other from our respective sides of the Nullah. Our guns and rifles at any rate compelled the enemy to keep within their fortified villages by daylight. On the other hand, their marksmen made it inadvisable for any of us to show his head above the parapet of Nilt Fort.

Still our little force remained in front of the great Nilt Gorge, while reconnaissance, feints, and probing and attempts continued to find a way and a method to launch an attack and resume our advance. The troops and sepoys of state body Guards were in the forefront and leading these attempts and probing. In particular one brave and determined soldier by the name of "Nagdah" who was an expert and skilled crags-man and mountaineer remain busy and in search of a suitable route and path to scale the steep sides of the gorge He made an extensive reconnaissance during the nights and made his utmost efforts and extreme hard work in this regards. He had finally succeeded in proposing such a viable plan of action that his this plan was implemented on 20th December 1891 AD and success was achieved.

Nagdah was a skilled crags-man and had the mountaineering skills in climbing the steep mountain faces. He had personally demonstrated the practicability of the ascent so far as he himself was concerned. It was his idea that it would be possible to scale the high cliffs where the enemy had constructed a fresh sangar on top of the cliff and the ridge. He suggested that he should take with him twelve good men accustomed to hill-climbing, and make the attempt on a dark night. He would himself go first, and lower a rope when necessary to assist the others. On reaching the summit they would surprised the little sanga that stood at the cliff edge, and by holding it would prevent the enemy from rolling down the rocks on our troops who according to his plan, were to ascend by the same route on the following dawn and carry the whole position.

        It was a bold design, and it appeared to be practicable so that the brave Nagdu was allowed to try what he could do. One dark night he and a party of men of his regiment noiselessly ascended the Nilt. But the watchful………………or well informed

Kanjooties were aware of the presence of our sepoys, and they had not gone far before the alarm was given. First a gun was fired as signal in the enemy's lower sanga and at once a loud shout was carried up the mountainside from sanga to sanga, the tom-toms beat, the fire balls and rock avalanches plunged down the precipices, and fire was opened from a hundred matchlocks and jezails. Nagdu and his men had to shelter themselves behind a rock for a time, and then seize what opportunities they could to creep from cover to cover back to the fort. On the following day it was observed that two new sangas had arisen in the night just over the portion of the cliff that Nagdu had proposed to scale.

This did not discourage the indomitable Nagdu, who tried again and again , and at last his perseverance was rewarded, to the foot of the enemy's sangas: and now, having satisfied himself that the thing could be done, he returned, and promptly thought out the outline of the scheme of attack which was afterwards adopted with success

Nagdu 88, as I have said, had scaled the cliffs by night, and demonstrated the practicability of the ascent so far as he himself was concerned , but so difficult was the way he had discovered, that it was held to be impossible to take a body of troops carrying arms and ammo up these precipices in the dark. It was, therefore, proposed that the sangas should be stormed in broad day light, under cover of heavy covering fire. Nagdu himself suggested this plan to our Political officer when describing what he had ascertained of the nature of the ground . He said that the cliff below the sangas was so steep (over hanging) that the defenders could not possibly see what was going on below, unless they came out of their cover and looked over the edge. our marksmen could prevent this.

A careful examination to the position through glasses from our block house on the ridge completed the Information that Nagdu had brought The accessibility of this portion of the cliff having been thus determined, it was obviously important that we should make our attack without delay, else the enemy, as they had invariably done hitherto, would get Wind of our Intentions. and take steps to frustrate it.

At this time Captain Bradshaw happened to be at Gilgit, having been compelled to ride there in order to consult with Colonel Durand on the troublesome subject of supplies and other matters: the command, therefore, devolved on Captain Colin Mackenzie, who carried the above plan into execution.

On the afternoon of December 19th an order was issued that on that night Lieutenant Manners Smith and Lieutenant Taylor, with one hundred men of the Kashmir Body Guard Regiment, fifty of whom were Gurkhas. the other fifty Dogras, all hill men and accustomed to clamber over difficult precipices, were to set out for the bottom of the Nilt Nullah. with the object of ascending its bed till they came to the foot of the cliff at the point where it was Intended to scale it, and these remain hidden until daylight, when our sharpshooters would tine the ridge above and cover their advance With their covering fire.

Accordingly at 7 O’ clock sharp on the same evening Lieutenant Manners Smith along With his troops left Nilt Fort for the Nilt Nullah. The little force under his command was paraded, and then noiselessly marched off under cover of the darkness, It was calculated that the best part of two hours would be occupied by the storming party in reaching the hiding place in the nullah; hence it was decided to place and position the troops of the covering party and the sharpshooters at their assigned ridge top well before the first light of 20th December 1891 AD This covering party consisted of 135 rifle men, all selected shots and best marksmen and the skilled sharpshooters: viz fifty rifles of the 5th Gurkhas under lieutenant Boisragon, twenty five rifles of the 20th Punjab infantry under E.F Knight, thirty rifles of the Ragu Pertab Regiment under Lieutenant Townshend. and thirty rifles of the Bodyguard Regiment under lieutenant Baird. Lieutenant Molony was also hem with the two seven pounders lieutenant Widdicombe was left in charge of Nilt Fort: all the loopholes of which were lined with rifles. These were also to act as part of a base of fire meant to provide covering fire to engage and neutralize the four sangas which were intended to be stormed. Accordingly, early in the morning of 20th December, before the first light. all four covering fire parties reached the ridge above Nilt Fort and occupied their assigned positions in the base of fire. The men of the four covering parties lying down.

88: The real side of the story so ably concocted by the British author and officers is however altogether different. A local man of Chalt/Chaproat knew the existence of the mute up the precipice by the name of Qasim Shah, a shepherd and a reputed Shikari (Hunter) who was summoned and made available by the accompanying Gushpur (Later Mir) Sikander Khan of Nagar. This Qasim Khan or Qasim Shah had guided the invading troops by marking the route with the help of flour he carried on his back in a local leather sack with a small hole in its bottom The white flour kept flowing out from this hole in the bottom of the sack while Qasim Khan walked along the route he was so familiar as a hunter of the area. The idea being that of Skindar Khan of Nagar,

line the edge of the ridge and at the crack of the dawn Captain Colin Mackenzie gave the order to commence firing, each part engaging its assigned sanga; the range between them being between four to five hundred yards At this range the fire of our sharpshooters was so accurate, that the return fire soon slackened, and then ceased altogether. It was evident that in the lace to such a shower of lead as we were directing upon them no man dared stand behind his musket at a loophole , still less came out of cover to hurl down rocks. At the same time our two (seven pounder) guns were busy throwing shrapnel on the four doomed breastworks.

Lieutenant Manners Smith was not to commence his ascent until we hade carried on this fire for half an hour.

The people and the men to Hunza were witnessing and observing all this intense firing event from the village of Mayun, and had concluded that this was a very unusual and major event as anxious spectators of the battle, with some very serious consequences and outcome. However the enemy men were totally unaware of the presence of our forces down in the nullah bed. The people of the villages of Mayun, Thol and Ziarat, however kept on observing as spectators from the roof tops of their houses and awaited and anticipated the final outcome of all this heavy firing .

As mentioned earlier, Lieutenant Manner Smith was not to commence his ascent until we had carried on this fire for half and hour. Now, he with his fifty Gorkhas began to clamber up the steep rocks, Lieutenant Taylor following with the fifty Dogras. This party had to scale a steep face of about twelve hundred feet to reach the top of the ridge. This little stream of men could now be seen, gradually winding up, now turning to the right, now to the left, now going down again for a little way when some insurmountable obstacle presented itself, to try again at some other point, presenting very much the appearance of a scattered line of ants picking their way up a rugged wall.

At last Manners Smith, who had been scrambling up active as a cat, ahead of his men, attained a point some 800 feet above the nullah bed; and here he met with a check. After a through trial, it was obvious to him, that the precipice above him was absolutely inaccessible; it was, therefore, now necessary for him and his men to turn around and retract their steps down to the nullah bed. Nearly two hours had thus been wasted looking on with some dismay, we began to fear lest this should prove yet another of our failures. Lieutenant Manners Smith, however did not get discouraged and he now flag-signaled to Captain Colin Mackenzie that he would make another attempt a little lower down the nullah, this he accordingly did , as soon as he had got his scattered party together again.

He now hit upon an easier route, probably the one Nagdu had originally taken in the night. As we fired over his head at the now silenced sangas, we saw him start from this fresh point and clamber higher and higher, till he and a handful of the more active and venture some sepoys who immediately followed him were within sixty yards of one of the four sangas on the edge of the cliff.

It was happily not until this moment that the enemy had any idea that a party of sepoys was scaling the heights. The Mayun people first detected our men, and shouted a warning across the river, which was carried up the mountainside from sanga to sanga until the men holding the four sangas with which we were immediately concerned realized that their position was being stormed, and that unless they bestirred themselves to make a resolute defense our sepoys would be amongst them, and their retreat would be cut off. Rocks were now thrown over the sanga walls, and showers of stones poured down the cliff. Happily by this time most of the gallant party had passed the point most exposed to these deadly missiles, and the rocks either swept down the steep shoots to the left of our men: or bounded harmlessly over their heads. Several men, however, were more or less seriously wounded. Lieutenant Taylor himself was knocked down by a rock, but luckily received no injuries of any account.

The two British officers manoeuvred their men admirable, watching their opportunities, working their way from point to point, with cool judgment, between the rock avalanches, and slowly going the height foot by foot. It was a fearful thing to watch from our side. A little lack of caution or an unlucky accident might have seriously led to scores of our men being swept off the face of the cliff during this perilous ascent. We poured in a fiercer fire than ever in order to silence the sangas: but we could not prevent the defenders from throwing rocks from the inside of their breastworks, which dislodging others, produced dangerous cataracts of stones.

Still our, men pushed pluckily on up the steep slopes under/beneath the sangas; while the Kanjutis became desperate knowing that there was no hope for them should the sepoys once attain the summit. Some of the enemy exhibited great bravery, boldly standing out in the open and rolling down the ready-piled-up rocks as fast they were able, until they were shot down by the marksmen on our side of the ridge/fire base. At last - and it was a moment of intense suspense for the onlookers - we saw Lieutenant Manners Smith make a sudden dash forward, reach the foot of the first sanga; clambered around to the right of it, and step on to the flat ground beside it. A few sepoys were close at his heels, and then the men, having got to the back of the sanga, began to use their rifles. A few shots in rapid succession, a rush though the opening behind With bayonets and kukris, lieutenant Manners Smith himself  pistol  ling the first man, and the sanga was ours, those of the garrison who were not killed Within being shot as they fled down Ina hillside by our marksmen on the ridge, and from the battlements of Nilt Fort.

More men having now rejoined lieutenant Manners Smith, the other three sangas were rapidly cleared in the same way, Nagdu, bold as ever, rushing into one sanga, and fighting the defenders single-handed. The position being now secure, lieutenant Manners Smith collected his men, and a short halt was called until the remaining Gorkhas and the Dogras under Lieutenant Taylor had come up Then dividing into parties, the sepoys attacked and carried the numerous sangas which studded the hillside , firing their roofs as they emptied each one some of our men swarmed high up the mountain side, captured the sher-bachas posted there, and rolled them down the precipices.

A determined resistance was offered by some of the enemy's marksmen, who fought to the death and asked no quarters; but seeing how desperate was their situation, between the storming party on one side and our rifles (covering fire from the base of fire) on the ridge, the Kanjooties became flurried, their fire was steady, and the casualties on our side amounted only to four men wounded. Then the tribesmen lost heart and began to bolt precipitately from their defenses; at least a hundred of them were shot down as they attempted to escape, and many of those who succeeded in getting away from the ridge were picked off by our riflemen in the fort.

And now the tom-toms that had been beating in the distance became silent, and suddenly we saw a strange sight beneath us which made our men raise cheer upon cheer. The garrison of the enemy's fortresses realizing that we had effectively turned this position, on whose impregnability they had relied and prided, that we had outflanked them , and that their retreat would be speedily cut off did they remain where they were, realized with panic, and we looked down upon long streams of men hurrying up the valley on both sides of the river, the defenders of Mayun, Thol and the Ziarat, hundreds upon hundreds of Kanjooties, racing up to Hunza and Nagar for their lives, and abandoning to us all the country within sight. Many horsemen too, were galloping up the valley, evidentially notables; and among them, as we afterwards learnt, were the leaders of the Kanjoot forces, their generals, the dreaded and infallible Wazir Dado, and the infamous Uzar Khan of Nagar.

These terror-stricken people were not able to get away so fast as they would have liked: for just beyond Mayun the mountain falls precipitously in to the river. and for some distance the path is very narrow and difficult. Here the hurrying fugitives were checked by a tremendous block of humanity. We were surprised to see that large garrisons these forts had contained. Our guns shelled the fleeing tribesmen, but with little effect from this distances,

The attack had thus proved a complete success, In recognition of the gallantry he displayed while leading this attack, the Queen conferred the Victoria Cross on Manners Smith Thus, though this was but one of the little wars, no less than three of our officers won that coveted decoration, while another was appointed to the Distinguished Services Order (DSO).

Subsequently after this great success, the advance was resumed all left over sangas and pickets of resistance were overcome one after the other, and these were cleared of any enemy presence, All those who were found in their sangas, were taken prisoners. Thus, in this manner the forces reached the village of Pissan located about seven miles upstream of Nilt. By this time in an, one hundred and twenty six men of enemy's force were captured and taken as prisoners of war, from the locations of Nilt. These prisoners were dispatched to Chalat.

From Pissan, our troops marched towards Nagar and reached Nagar on the morrow and captured Nagar, fortress. The porters and coolies along with the luggage and other war material had been left behind . While still en-route we came across Raja Jaafar Khan (Zafar Khan) of Nagar at the location of Fekar. He immediately accepted and showed his subjugation and allegiance. When the main body of our forces reached near the capital town of Nagar, a written message arrived from Hunza This message contained the news that the Mir and his Wazir had fled from Hunza along With their close companions and followers, and that the rest of the people of Hunza staying back at their places were willing to submit to the British officers

It was not considered necessary to leave any troops In occupation of Nagar; there was very little chance of our having further trouble on that side of the river The Thum was therefore informed that all the weapons In his country must be collected and delivered to us within a certain time, and at 10 am, Our force evacuated the lawn to Nagar and marched five mile back down the valley to Sumayar, perched above the Hunza River, and exactly opposite to the capital of the Hunza state. The road to Hunza bifurcates at this village. It was at this village that the remaining portions of the Field Force joined the main body from the rear.

Fourteen notables from amongst the inhabitants of Hunza reached this Village of Sumayar as a token as hostages. These men were sent as hostages in order to provide a guarantee and a measure of assurance for the safely of the British troops who were to be sent to Hunza, for the symbolic capture of the Baltit fortress.

The Hunza are a thorough people, and were now as energetically zealous in rendering us assistance as they had been in fighting us a day or two before. A party of tribesmen in the course of a few hours threw a capital local temporary bridge across the Hunza river to facilitate the passage of our troops; and as soon as it was ready Captain Twigg, Lieutenant Boisragon and 100 men of the 5th Gorkhas were sent from Sumayar to occupy Hunza castle. This force after traveling for about seven mills from Sumayar reached and occupied the Baltit Fort. Haying safely secured and occupied the fort, the same was communicated to Sumayar with the help of flag -signals from the roof top of the fort.

On the next day i.e. on 23rd December 1891 AD a thorough search of the Fort was conducted as it was heard and believed that the Fort was full of treasures, wealth and valuables. However as a matter of fact, few articles of any worth were discovered: those being mostly the garnet bullets, some explosives and lead etc. though a few jezails, pistols and sher bachas were found present in the armory of the Fort. One cannon was also discovered, which had been manufactured at Hunza by a craftsman/blacksmith from Yarqand: and the Mir had sent this man to heavens as reward for his this service to him. This he had done so in order to ensure that the Mir of Nagar was denied the possibility of making a cannon of this match, as this would have affected the balance of power which was in favor of Hunza. In addition to this there was found a good collection of books and Qura'ans. These were many beautifully bound and illuminated copies of Oura'ans, and curious Hindu books and manuscripts, some evidently of great age.

On 24th December 1891 AD the entire force left Sumayar and arrived at Baltit, the capita l town of Hunza State. On arrival of the force at Baltit it was learnt that Mir Safdar Ali Khan, the Mir of Hunza and Raja Azur Khan the heir apparent of Nagar, had fled along with another four hundred people. It was also revealed that they had taken along not only all their wealth and valuables but also many a precious and high quality weapons and rifles, which were carried by the accompanying men of Hunza as porters; it was also revealed that they intended to cross the frontiers of Hunza via the Kilik pass and reach the safety of Chinese by reaching Tashghurghan in the Chinese Turkistan In view of the above information it had become imperative to immediately send a force in their pursuit and capture the fleeing rulers, so that they wee prevented from creating any sort of a trouble and mischief in the future. Accordingly a force, consisting of one hundred sepoys of Kashmir Body Guards under the command of Lieutenant Baird and Molony. was immediately organized and prepared to carryout this task. Lieutenant Manners Smith was made the Political Officers for this expedition. This force was then ordered to proceed and pursue the fleeing rulers right up to the base of the Kilik Pass, This force departed on the eve of the Christmas day i.e., on 25th December 1891 AD from Baltit; its first stop being the village of Ataabad, the second Gulmit, third Fasso. When the force reached Fasso, the third stop, they found that many a men were returning to their homes in small groups after they had delivered the fugitive Thum across the Kilik Pass. Among these returning men were the two sons of Wazir Humayun Beg, Wazir Humayun Beg, during the reign of Mir Ghazan Khan; father of Mir Safdar Khan, was holding the appointment of Wazir of Hunza. However when Mir Safdar Ali Khan, had murdered his own father, Humayun Beg was forced to flee towards Chitral as he feared for his life from Safdar Khan. Safdar Ali Khan had taken the possession of wife of Humayun Beg in his absence from Hunza, The above mentioned two sons of Humayun Beg, therefore, had been living with their mother. When British Agent Gilgit had finalized his plans and preparations he had called Humayun Beg back from Chitral and had brought him to Gilgit. to seek help, support and advice for the conduct of the operations against Hunza forces. Hence when the two sons received the information about the arrival of their father, they immediately left the company of their own mother and Safdar Ali and fled back to Hunza to meet and rejoin their own father.

This force spent the next night in the village of Khyber, during this period Mr. Khisrau Khan also reached back after parting ways with Uzar Khan. This person had been staying at Gilgit, previously, as a hostage, hence, he had some close affiliations and acquaintances with many an officials of Gilgit during that period.

The above mentioned pursuing force left Khyber and reached Girchah on 29th of December. The going and the path/track beyond this location was difficult, hence a smaller party of twenty five all ranks. with utmost difficulty and managed to reach the village of Misgar on 30th December, This is the highest village of the entire Hunza valley. The average height of this village is over ten thousand two hundred (10,200) feet above sea level. whereas the height of Kilik Pass is over fifteen thousand (15.000) feet above see level. By this time Safdar Ali Khan had managed to safely cross over the Kilik Pass and get beyond the frontier of Hunza, hence it had become not feasible and In advisable to continue the pursuit of the fugitives; thus the Hunza-Nagar expedition had became a failure from this aspect. However the positive aspect of this pursuit was that a complete knowledge of the entire Hunza valley was gained, all the weapons held by the inhabitants of the Gojal valley were Collected and confiscated. Lieutenant Townshend along with a small body of troops made a visit of the remaining side valleys to collect the weapons in possession of the remaining people and joined back the main body at Misgar after completion to his assigned task. Hence the whole party, after collecting and confiscating every weapon from the possession of each and every inhabitant of the entire Gojal valley arrived back at Baltit on 6th January 1892 AD caring with it entire stock of the confiscated weapons.

At Baltit, six hundred men of the Kashmir Impanel Service Troops were stationed to organize and ensure the occupation of Hunza State, lieutenant Townshend was appointed as the Military Govern or of Hunza, while rest of the forces left for Gilgit on the 7th of January 1892 AD

Later (April 1892), Muhammad Nazim Khan, half brother of Mr. Safdar Ali Khan was Installed as the new Mir of Hunza whereas Humayun Beg was appointed as the Wazir of Hunza; while In Nagar, Raja Zafar Khan (Jaafar Khan) was re-installed as the Mir/Raja of Nagar. As he was sick and incapacitated as a result of a paralysis attack, his son Sikandar Khan, therefore. performed the duties of the ruler or Nagar on his behalf Azur Khan, who had managed to safely cross over the Kilik Pass, and reach the territory of Chinese Turkistan , was soon rounded up and arrested by the Chinese officials and was sent back to Gilgit after a few days and was handed Over to the British officials at Gilgit. From Gilgit he was sent down to Srinagar in Kashmir, and was kept under arrest and in custody inside the fort of Harri Parbat for some time. Later he was placed under house arrest in the capital city of Srinagar, where he finally died, his offspring’s and children can now be found at Srinagar as of his day Most of the rest of fugitives to Hunza and Nagar soon returned and came back to their homes from Chinese Turkistan.  and ended their exile, however the Chinese officials had taken away and confiscated all their weapons at the time of their return journey and were allowed to enter Hunza unarmed. Safdar Khan however continued to stay back at Chinese Turkistan. as he was granted and handed over the possession of the lands/Jaagir at the location of Koochar, which had been granted to his forefathers and father by the Chinese government in older times. These lands became the source for his sustenance and income to live a life His imprudent Wazir, Dado Dara Beg also died while In exile in the Chinese Turkistan."

I, the writer of this book of history of Hunza, have compiled the details of the above British military expedition for the conquest of Hunza and Nagar. by taking Excerpts and references from the book written by Mr. Hashmatullah Khan Lakhnawi, Who in turn has taken help from the famous book "Where Three Empires Meet" written? By Mr. E. F. Knight, the British war correspondent who had personally participated in the operations during its entire duration. And now i want to narrate the events of the same operation and historic event, as narrated by the authentic notables of Hunza, specially the aspects of the operation as narrated by my own illustrious grand father Muhammad Reza Beg, who had participated in this battle from Hunza side. Thus the other side of the picture as presented by him is also being narrated below ·

"When British Agent Gilgit, Colonel Durand finally decided and completed his preparations for the conquest of Hunza and Nagar, and moved his forces from Gilgit, Mir Safdar Khan of Hunza and Raja Uzar Khan of Nagar also swiftly deputed Wazir Dado Dara Beg of Hunza and Wazir Muhammad Shah Ibne Ajzdar of Nagar to prepare, organize and strengthen the defenses al Mayun, Nilt and Thol and deploy the combined forces of both the state In these defenses. Accordingly, these two commanders got themselves busy in their this task With utmost hard work, dedication and urgency. A Hunza contingent consisting of 300 fighters/warriors under the command of Gushpur Muhammad Nazim Khan was deployed at the Chupurson Valley, with the task to block the approaches via the Chillinji and Irshad passes. This step was taken to cater for an eventuality and in anticipation of a possible threat from the Mehtar of Chitral, Mehtar Aman-ul-Mulk, on behest and prompting of the British Agent.

When Colonel Durand, along with his attacking forces left the garrison of Chalat and arrived at the barren flat wasteland of "Harespo" after crossing the Hunza River. and established his camp there; Wazir Dado issued an order to hoist a "pajama of a woman" in the "Uyar" Nullah as a taunting symbol of reception for the invading forces. Accordingly, a woman's pajama was hoisted. On the next day the invading forces resumed their advance and after scaling and climbing over the intervening mountain feature en-route descended down on the other side and reached the planes of "Khinachi" barren land (the present day Sikandar Abad), and soon reached the flat and open agricultural fields of the village of Nilt. From this, place onward they launched their attack on the fortress of Nilt without making any pause. They succeeded in reducing and capturing the fort within a short period of time, and carried out a massacre of the defendants of the Nilt Fort. In the face of this sudden defeat, many a men of Hunza and Nagar managed to escape and nee towards the village of Thai. Among those killed was also included Wazir Muhammad Shah of Nagar, who was the commander of Nagar forces. The circumstances under which Wazir Muhammad Shah was killed, have been ,narrated thus; that when the attacking forces commenced their covering artillery fire directed against the Nilt Fortress, one Nagar man by the name of Mr. Baitham son of Mr. Berrai, and according to another account Shaaban son of Mr. Zareer, on the first available opportunity, shot the Wazir from behind with a matchlock and killed him instantly. This murder was committed by these men of Nagar on behest and instigations of Mir Zafar Khan and his adviser notables. It was after the martyrdom of Wazir Muhammad Shah, that the attacking British forces were able to capture the Nilt Fort so conveniently.

When the Nilt Fort had fallen, into the possession of the attacking forces, the defenders of Nagar and Hunza, fell back onto the main line of defense organized along the eastern banks of Nilt Nullah located on the side of village Thol. The command of Nagar forces was taken over personally by Raja Uzar Khan of Nagar, after the martyrdom of Wazir Muhammad Shah. Uzar Khan was assisted by Wazir Zadah Ghani of Nagar in his handling of the defensive battle fought from the defenses of Nilt/Thol Nullah. Wazir Dado Dara Beg of Hunza made frequent visits and shuttled between the defensive positions of Mayun and Thol and rendered advises and useful directions for the improvement and conduct of a defensive battle.

Wazir Dado Dara Beg had got deployed the Sariqooli cannon on a suitable location on top of the hill/mountain above and north of village Mayun. This cannon was manned, handled and fired by one Mr. Narzo (Nazaro) son of Muhammad Ali of Hunza However, the cannon balls fired from this cannon did not reach the village of Nilt. The reason for this short falling of cannon balls was that sufficient lead coating was not applied to the garnet and stone made balls, and the cannon balls made of iron or lead were in short supply. In view of the shortage of lead coating and in many cases no coating at all. The garnet and stone made cannon balls would therefore get shattered in the air during the night and turn into dust and small pieces. However, Wazir Dado himself was also firing with his then the most modem available and only breach loaded Russian rifle. It has been narrated that when he opened fire with his this rifle, its bullets started reaching the ground at Nilt In which the British officers had established their camp. The British Officers became extremely warned and got scared. as they thought that the support and reinforcements from the Russians may have armed. However, as Humayun Beg was readily available and present in the camp, he informed them about the presence of the only Russian rifle and the marksmanship of his brother and this way put the British officers at ease.

The fortress village of Mayun had been got vacated of all the women and children and they were shifted to the village of Hindi for their safety and security. When the battle became a stalemate and got prolonged along the defensive positions of Nilt Nullah, at Thol the attacking forces, launched two successive attacks on the Mayun positions but both the attacks were successfully repulsed and the attacking forces had to retreat to their positions as the Hunza forces reacted violently and did not provide an opportunity to the attackers to gain any success.

When the stalemate got prolonged and the attacking forces became standstill as they found no headway and failed to resume their further advance, they became desperate and highly disappointed in face of the impregnable Thol defenses and wanted a way out Hence it was at this critical stage when they were guided and advised by Humayun Beg of Hunza and Gushpur Sikandar of Nagar to explore the possibility of the route through the Nilt Nullah and then climb the cliff. The two other companions of the above two men Mr. Sultan Ali and Mirza Beg also supported Sikandar Khan and Humayun Beg's proposal as all these four men were accompanying the Dogra forces of Colonel Durand and were available in the camp These local men (with the help of a local hunter (Shepherd Qasim Shah/Khan) indicated the route of the Nilt Nullah bed to Lieutenant Manners Smith. It was after this proposal that Manners Smith and Nagdu, a Dogra soldier were able to take the route as indicated by them and were able to scale the high face of this cliff along with their companions and had succeeded in capturing the four sangas of the defensive positions of Thai along Nilt Nullah. A large number of Nagar men were martyred during this last day of the battle Among those killed/martyred was Wazir Zada Ghani also. The number of Hunza men who got martyred/killed did not exceed seven. Among those killed/martyred was Mr. Sher Dil son of Trangfah Mamuro of Ganish, whereas Mr. Muhammad Zameer son of Mirza Hayat of Haider Abad was wounded.

Humayun Beg after the fall of Nilt Fort had gone back to Gilgit either in the company of the wounded Durand or sometimes later. At Gilgit, he had been ordered to accompany the reinforcements of Mehtar Aman-ul-Mulk of Chitral and guide and assist these forces to establish a blocking position at the gates (Dar band) of Khyber village in Gojal, by manoeuvring the Chitralis over the Chillinj Pass. However, Humayun Beg could not proceed any further beyond Yasin as he was seriously injured because he was kicked in his thigh by a horse, and hence he had to stay with Sardar Nizamul Mulk at Yasin. In addition he had received no news from the side of Mehtar Aman-ul-Mulk."

And now once again the details of events are being reproduced from the written records of Muhammad Reza Beg, which are as follows:-

"Not even two months had passed since the "British Mail" had been turned back from Hunza, when the British government forces arrived back and re-occupied Chalat. It was only then, that it had become apparent that we did not have the strength and resources to oppose and resist the might of the British forces. Hence, it was decided to re- initiates the moves for a compromise and a truce. In order to restart the negotiations for a peaceful settlement of the issues, Yarfah Nadilo of Nagar and Trangfah Khurram Shah of Ganish, Hunza, the two notables of Nagar and Hunza, were sent as envoys to the court of British Agent Gilgit, at Gilgit, During this period Mir Zafar Khan of Nagar and his son Azur Khan had reached at Ghulmet and were among their warriors, Wazir of Hunza Dado Dara Beg had also joined them. The Hunza men were present in the village of Mayun, and were strengthening the defenses of Mayun Fortress. It was during this period that Wazir of Hunza gave a reply to a question by Khurram Shah on the peace negotiations proposals; and said that the notables and people of Hunza had not liked and not agreed to his advice and recommendations saying that this time over even the women of Hunza were ready and prepared to fight the enemy; so if that be the case and if you all claim to be the brave men, you should now be ready for the war. He argued that they were left with no other choice as the British government was no more willing to accept our request for peace at this belated stage. After talking to Khurram Shah in this manner he immediately sent back Khurram Shah from Mayun. I, Muhammad Reza Beg was also present in Mayun during those days.

Khurram Shah, during those days came to me and met me at Mayun and confided in me after swearing in the name of God and asked me about my opinion regarding the impending serious consequences we all were about to face. He asked me not to hide my true feelings and the readings of the coming events and wanted me to express my true opinion about the whole situation, I told him in reply that as he had bound me to express my true feelings under an oath and swearing to God, I Will, therefore, have to give my frank opinion as I am a Muslim, and irrespective of the fact whether he had swore in a true spirit or by deceit and hypocrisy, I was bound to honor his this swearing and oath taking at all costs and to ld him that I will not hide my true feelings and secret inner most frank opinion, as the religious teachers have taught us and informed us all, and that I have also read form the books of religion that the a follower who does not listen to and disobeys the saying and instructions of his religious and spiritual leader, his destiny and fortunes faces the doom and disaster and faces dire consequences, Such a defaulting and disobedient disciple faces a punishing rewards for his such bad deeds. Thus, the orders and instructions of our present Imam (spiritual leader) have been disobeyed and disregarded buy our leaders, hence I am fully convinced that the British government is going to conquer and subjugate both the states of Hunza and Nagar sooner or later now. At that time and in such an eventuality, Mir Safdar Khan would run away and flee the country at the first available opportunity. My own brother Wazir Muhammad Dara Beg, would either be killed during the battle as he is a brave man, or at least he will be the last man to also feel the country.

When it was late morning and tea time (10-11 am) Khurram Shah left Mayun for Hunza. On the next day I myself also arrived at Hunza. When I had spent just one night at my own home, Mir Safdar Khan left Baltit for Mayun. During the afternoon of the same evening, the “Charboo” (announcer of orders) of Haiderabad village had came to my home and had informed me that Mir Safdar Khan was proceeding towards Mayun. Accordingly I left my home and when I reached the fort/village of Haiderabad. I saw him I offered my wishes and respect as per the custom and tradition and joined him. Mr. Safdar Khan after giving reply to my ”Salam” and gestures of respect immediately began to express his regrets and sorrow and said that Oh! My brother come! That I am highly perturbed and regretful for the past follies and mistakes I have committed. In case the British government was kind and willing to listen to my request and petition I was all prepared and more than ready to ask my  apologies and express my sense of utmost regret. Otherwise, I am convinced that I am going to lose this country form my own hands.” At Hindi, during that night, he called me and Mr. Skindar of  Ganish to saying that he was losing his country because of the saying and advises of three our persons, and by not acting upon the advice of Wazir Dado, asked both of us to express our opinion and point of view on his new proposal and fresh course of action in which he said he was planning to personally go and meet the British officials and express his apologies and regrets and seek their pardon. This he said he wanted to do in case the British forces paused at Chalat and he got a Chance of doing so. Both of us agreed an supported his this proposal. The next day, Mir Safdar Khan and all of us reached the village of Mayun. At Mayun the Mir carried out an inspection of the defenses of Mayun and saw the arrangements and other preparations and came back to the location then called "Maori Daas", which is the present day "Khan Abad". This place was barren and not yet inhabitable during that period/till that time. His tent had been pitched and a camp had been established at this location, hence he went into the tent, on his arrival from his inspection tour of defenses of Mayun. It had not been too long since the Mir had entered his tent, when the news came in that the British forces had been observed descending down towards the barren plains of Khinachi (Present day Sikandar Abad) after crossing the hill/mountain pass west of this barren patch of land In a mailer of few hours, this force reached the village/fields of Nilt, these forces got assembled and formed up at this place and paused for half and hour or so Mir Safdar Khan, according to his assessment, though/imagined that this force was likely to spend the night at this place, and it may not launch any attack that night. He, therefore, wanted and decided that he would go to their camp early in the morning on the next day. However, while this conversation was going on, the news came in that the government forces were moving towards the Nilt Fort itself. About half the portion of these forces were going towards the hills/mountains above the Nilt Fort. On receiving the news and information about this latest development the Mir also carne out of his tent, and instructed me (Muhammad Reza Beg) to take a contingent of sixty Hunza men and immediately proceed towards the Nilt Fort, as a reinforcement for the defenders of the Fort. Accordingly, I took sixty men along and immediately left for the Nilt Fort; having crossed over to Nagar side, I had not yet come out of the Thai Nullah bed, when the enemy started firing on us. When my this party traveled about twenty or more paces beyond the Thol fortress, enemy engaged us with the machine gun fire. The party got dispersed and each one of us started running towards the Thol Fortress individually_ By the grace of almighty Allah, none of us was injured as the bullets and shells falling around us were not effective. When we all arrived back at the Thol Fort we were met there by the Wazir of Hunza and Raja Uzar Khan of Nagar. Hence, the two leaders started asking us about the ongoing events and we got ourselves engaged into a customary conversation While we were busy in this conversation, the news arrived that the Nilt Fortress had fallen into the hands of the attackers. This battle was short lived and did not last for more than half an hour or even less than that. I continued to remain with the Wazir and the Raja at Thol Fort for the next nineteen days. Our Thol defenses also crumbled on the nineteenth day (20 December 1891 AD) and we all withdrew and made a hasty retreat. J came back to Village Mayun, whereas the Wazir of Hunza and the Mil'" of Nagar retreated and ran back through the Nagar territory and reached back at the capital of Nagar

When i arrived at the village Hindi, I came across Gushpur Nazim Khan at the village. He had just arrived at this village along with his men as the reinforcement for the frontline, on the orders of Mir Safdar Khan. However the fighting men of Hunza, manning the defenses at Mayun and Nilt had already bolted and retreated towards Hunza en-mass. My cousin, Muhammad Zameer son of Mirza Hayat, who was wounded, was also among the retreating men. Hence, I accompanied my this wounded cousin and left Hindi and reached the village of Hassan Abad by about past mid night. While still at Hassan Abad, I sent my own younger brother Mr. Mamuro (Babar Khan) with a confidential verbal message to Gushpur Nazim Khan. My message to Nazim Khan was that it was not proper for myself to personally go to him and meet him as it would have created serious doubts and misunderstandings among the people of Hunza. However, it is advisable that he should not flee from Hunza as I was contemplating to personally go to Nagar to meet the British officers and seek a truce and ask for an honorable and peaceful settlement.

During this very night the notables like Ali Gauhar, Sikandar, Ajzdar and Khurram Shah of Ganish also came to me and made promises and pledges that we should not move out of Hunza at all costs. In spite of my this recommendation and suggestion, Gushpur Muhammad Nazim Khan, left for Baltit and reached Baltit by morning. He then joined the party of Mir Safdar Khan and his family and both soon left Hunza for the Chinese border. Having offered my early morning prayers I left for my home In Village Haider Abad. When i arrived at my village, I saw that a large crowd had gathered at Haider Abad. The men, women, children and young and old from all the Villages and main valley of Hunza had gathered and converged onto this village, On becoming aware of my arrival, the entire people of the gathered crowd started a great hue and cry and many a women and children began to weep and mourn out of an unknown fear When I witnessed this great hue and cry and a kind of mourning and weeping, I did not  go to my home, and instead took Mr. Mahmood son of Ghulamo, Mr. Mahboob son of Khawaja and three other men with me and left for Nagar. Prior to my departure for Nagar, I Quickly scribbled a few words/sentences. addressed to the British officer expressing our all out intentions for a truce and peaceful settlement of the affairs as the people of Hunza, left behind. were all out to submit to the British and wanted to be allegiant to them and dispatched this letter with Muhammad Dost son of Haider Muhammad of village Haider Abad. I crossed over the River Hunza and reached the village of Sumayar where I first met Munshi Abdul Hakeem who was the Head Clerk of Gilgit officer. I then departed for the capital town of Nagar and was able to have a meeting with Mr., Dr, Robertson in the evening on the same day, During my this meeting with this British officer, I requested him for a truce and sought an honorable peace for ourselves, During this meeting it was agreed that I would personally take the responsibility for the safety and security of the British officers and the Dogra troops once they crossed over to Hunza for occupation, As a token of this surety and our good intentions I agreed to send fifteen notables of Hunza to the British camp as hostages and measure of guarantee for the safety of the occupation forces in Hunza. In addition I was asked to construct a foot bridge over Hunza River at Shamess for a smooth crossing of the occupation forces. This officer very kindly and readily agreed to my proposal and made a firm promise for a peaceful hand ling of the whole affair, and granted amnesty to the people of Hunza. After securing the promises and pledges of peace and an honorable truce, I departed back for Hunza and reached Hunza by midnight of the same day. On my arrival back at Hunza, I immediately dispatched Mr. Nooro son of Sarhang Muhammad in pursuit of Gushpur Nazim Khan with the message that the British government had been kind and magnanimous to grant us all the amnesty and had assured us of a peaceful hand ling, hence he must therefore, immediately return back to Hunza. I collected the available fifteen Hunza notables and dispatched them to Nagar as hostages as was agreed upon. Early in the morning on the next day, I also dispatched yet another man by the name of Abdool. However when the first messenger Mr. Noor Muhammad had reached Misgar village, he had been immediately arrested by the fleeing part of the fugitive Mir and he was taken along to Sariqool; Mr. Abdool also came back from Misgar.

I also made the necessary administrative arrangements for the troops of the British government at Hunza, during the same night. I also mobilized the necessary manpower and material and got constructed a local type temporary foot bridge over river Hunza at the location of Shamess for the crossing over of the government troops and their mules from Sumayar to Hunza. This was done early in the morning. Hence the Dogra troops of the British Indian government arrived at Hunza on the same day. These Dogra troops did not make any effort to go into anyone house or village and instead remained restricted to the foot track as per the agreement and entered the Baltit Fort The British officers of that time leading these troops were highly pleased and satisfied with me for the excellent, smooth and peaceful arrangements I had been able to make. The people of Hunza were even more pleased and happy with me for the efforts I had made to secure an honorable peace and amnesty from the British officials and for protecting the chastity and honor of the women of Hunza."

In short, when the main line of defenses at Thol and along the home banks of Nilt Nullah had been breached and broken by the attacking British forces, the defenders of Hunza and Nagar beat a hasty re treat and started running away towards their villages and homes. Mir Safdar Al i Khan along with his entire family and his close associates immediately fled towards Sariqool. Raja Azur Khan of Nagar also forward suit along with his family members and many companions and crossed over from the Kilik Pass to obtain support and assistance from the Khaqan of China. All these fugitives fled in a great haste and by traveling through day and night managed to get away from Hunza territory by crossing over the Kilik Pass, and into the Chinese territory.

Meanwhile and during this great turmoil, when Muhammad Reza Beg had arrived back at his village Haider Abad from the battlefield of Thai, he saw that the entire population of central Hunza villages had converged onto Haider Abad village and there had gathered a large crowd consisting of men, women and children of Hunza. These terror stricken people were weeping. crying and mourning and making a great hue and cry in anticipation of a very harsh and dishonoring treatment from the troops and solders of the attacking and triumphant British Dogra forces. They all made an appeal and request to Muhammad Reza Beg to save them from the impending humiliation and disaster, They addressed him and said to him that Oh! The scion of Wazir Asadullah Beg, we have heard and came to know that the conquering government forces are paying no attention towards safeguarding and protection of chastity and honor of the women of Nagar and are indulging in rape and molestation of the chastity of the women of Nagar. We are afraid of such a great humiliation and we all are looking up to you as the only saviour of our honor and chastity as you are the one who can do something for us to save us from such a dreadful eventuality and fate." Having witnessed and seen such a precarious and terror stricken plight and condition of the people of Hunza, Muhammad Reza Beg immediately wrote a letter to Major Or. Robertson, who was the commander of the occupation forces and was officiating in place of Colonel Durand: and dispatched this letter to him through the hands of Mr. Muhammad Dost son of Haider Muhammad of Haiderabad, ahead of his own departure for Nagar. It was after sending of this man and the letter, that he also left for Sumayar (Nagar) along with a few chosen men of Haider Abad and Ganish villages. A refugee by the name of Syed Shah , one of the sons of Syed Hussain Sohrabi was also in the company of Muhammad Reza Beg during his this trip to Nagar. This man was living in Hunza as a refugee and a visitor from Badakhshan.

Wazir Zada Muhammad Reza Beg, along with his companions first arrived at village to Sumayar. He had a meeting and some discussions with Munshi Abdul Hakeem at Sumayar, after which he proceeded towards the capital town of Nagar, for the reason, that Or. Robertson and his forces had arrived at Nagar during that period, Dr. Robertson conducted a meeting with Muhammad Reza Beg and as a result of this meeting, he treated them with much care, respect, honor, and agreed to the terms, conditions and requests made to him by Muhammad Reza Beg. He made a pledge and promise to bring about peace and tranquility and assured to protect the chastity and honor of women of Hunza; in return for making of the arrangements under which the British forces were to be given safe and secure entry into Hunza territory and a smooth passage up to and inside of the Baltit Fort He demanded from Muhammad Reza Beg to send fifteen notables of Hunza as hostages and also immediately get constructed a local foot bridge over Hunza River for crossing of the British forces over to Hunza." Having successfully conducted the meetings and finalizing the negotiations for a truce and peaceful settlement of the issues, and also ensuring an honorable and respectable capitulation, Muhammad Reza Beg soon came back to Hunza during the same dark night. The next day, early in the morning, Muhammad Reza Beg mobilized the fifteen notables and some suitable skilled men of Hunza and made necessary arrangements to get a local foot bridge constructed over the Hunza River at a location called “Shametzs" located downstream of the confluence point of Hunza-Nagar Rivers. Hence the troops of government forces were able to cross the river over this bridge in a single file and in the same manner and order of march these troops entered the Hunza territory smoothly, safely and orderly and finally entered the Baltit Fort. Soon this move was completed it seemed that Hunza had returned to normalcy and peace and tranquility prevailed, and it looked as if peace had returned to Hunza.

Muhammad Reza Beg, during the same night, after his arrival back from Nagar, dispatched Mr. Noor Muhammad son of Sarhang, one of his most trusted confidants, in pursuit of his nephews Shukrullah Beg and Inayatullah Beg, with a message for them to immediately turn back and reach Hunza along with their mother. He sent them the instructions to not to join and accompany Mir Safdar Khan as their father Humayun Beg was arriving back at Hunza soon. He also sent the same message for Gushpur Muhammad Nazim Khan to abandon the company of Mir Safdar Khan and return back to Hunza immediately, as a lot many rumors were afloat regarding the appointment of a new Mir of Hunza and many a proposals were under the consideration of the British officers in this regard.

Muhammad Reza Beg also dispatched yet another person. by the name of Mr. Abdool, behind Mr. Nooro, with a message and task to in form and convince the fleeing people of Hunza and Nagar to immediately return back to their homes and villages as the British government had granted a general amnesty for everyone and had pledged and promised to provide safety, security and protection of life, property and honor of the general public. These people were advised to return to Hunza instead of fleeing away with complete trust, confidence and peace of mind as complete and total peace and normalcy had returned to Hunza and Nagar.

Accordingly on receipt of such a consoling and reassuring message from Muhammad Reza Beg sent through his above mentioned messengers, the people who were hiding in side valleys and in the shepherds huts in the pasture lands and meadows, and those still en-route and on their way out, soon returned and came back to their villages and homes. The two sons of Humayun Beg also turned back from Misgar or Haaq and proceeded back for their home at Hunza However their mother could not leave Safdar Khan and was not able to return; Gushpur Nazim Khan also did not abandon the company of Safdar Khan and thus they all managed to cross over from the Kilik pass and managed to get away. Mr. Nooro, the messenger, was also made a captive by Safdar Khan and taken along for the very reason that he had delivered this message to Safdar Khan; Mr. Nooro was also punished and was beaten ruthlessly. In fact he was stripped naked and wrapped inside a fresh skin of a yak and was made to spend the extremely cold season night in the open in this state. It was a miracle and a mercy from God almighty that he had managed to survive this ordeal under extremely low temperatures of this middle of the winter season at such a high altitude, otherwise, he was meant to be harmed. However Mr. Abdool managed to deliver the message of Muhammad Reza Beg to rest of the fleeing people of Hunza and safely returned to Hunza from Misgar, in one piece.

On the third day of his first meeting with Muhammad Reza Beg, Major Doctor Robertson, once again invited and summoned Muhammad Reza Beg near himself at "Jator Khun" as he had not yet arrived at Hunza, and informed him that he had not yet heard anything from Humayun Beg till that time. He, therefore, informed Muhammad Reza Beg, that he wanted to write a letter to him (Humayun Beg) and asked Reza Beg to also write a letter and send both these letters to Humayun Beg through the hands of a trusted man of his choice, urgently and speedily, to Yasin. Having said this Doctor Robertson then wrote a short letter and gave it to Reza Beg. The contents of the letter were as follows:-

        Your Highness Honorable Wazir Humayun Beg

Would you be kind enough to be informed, that immediately on seeing and reading the contents of this letter, please be kind to depart for Hunza and make yourself available and present in the court of the undersigned at Hunza as soon as possible, as the forces of the mighty and powerful government have arrived at Hunza. In addition everyone is fine and healthy here with us.

From the location of Jator Khun

21st Jamadi-ul-Awwsa 1309 A.H.

It is once again repeated that your brother Muhammad Reza Beg is present at Hunza and in our court with up.

Yours G.S. Robertson

23-12-1891 AD

Photo copy of the original letter is placed opposite.

Accordingly Muhammad Reza Beg also wrote a short letter from his own side and he then dispatched both these letters towards Humayun Beg, then staying at Yasin, through the hands of a special courier by the name of Mr. Gauhar son to Reza Ali , who was an ardent supporter and well wisher of Humayun Beg. This man was, in the past, harassed and harmed by Mir Safdar Khan on a number of occasions for his loyalty and support to Humayun Beg. He also sent oral messages regarding the complete details of latest prevailing situation in Hunza and explaining to him the aims and goals of the British officers regarding the future plans for the Mirship of Hunza.

212. Administration of Hunza Under Muhammad Reza Beg (December 1891 -March 1892)

When Muhammad Reza Beg introduced himself to and came into contact with the British officers as the sole representative of people of Hunza and became acquainted with them, the British officers soon recognized and accepted him as the sole representative of the people of Hunza at that time. These officers did not let Muhammad Reza Beg remain away from their sights and kept him as part of their set up handling the affairs of administration of Hunza. They always and invariably consulted with him and sought his advices to once again, put in place, set into motion and run the traditional system of governance and self rule in Hunza. Accordingly these Officials reinstated the previous notables on their appointments and all existing "Trangfah" were once again reinstalled on their respective old appointments. A few new men, though were appointed on some of the vacant appointments. II was in this context that on one of the occasions, Manners Smith had enquired from Muhammad Reza Beg as to the name of the person who had been manning and firing the only Hunza cannon from Mayun during the battle of Nilt. Muhammad Reza Beg in reply informed him that a son of a notable by the name of Mr. Narzo was the gunner/firer of this cannon. Manners Smith then had asked as to the appointment of Mr. Narzo. on which he was told by Muhammad Reza Beg, that he did not hold any other appointment. Hence Muhammad Reza Beg was asked to create and propose a Suitable appointment for Narzo. Muhammad Reza Beg proposed for him the appointment of "Yarfahgi" of Beeshkar (the supervisor of Mir's lands at the location of Beeshkar). thus Mr. Narzo was. therefore. appointed as the Yarfah of Beeshkar. This favor was Specially extended to this Mr. Narzo son of Trangfah Muhammad Ali. on his own request as he had stated and informed the British officers, after the battle, that he had not been using the solid cannon balls made of lead, while firing the only Hunza cannon, intentionally and as a good-will gesture towards the British officers. However Narzo did not live longer and died within a very short period of time after his appointment

The British officers demanded and issued orders for the supply and provision of fire wood and rations for the occupation troops at Hunza. Muhammad Reza Beg being the only man solely responsible, arranged to supply the required firewood by culling down the fruit trees and other non-fruit trees from the orchards and gardens of the Mir of Hunza both at Baltit and Atilt and did not impose this heavy revenue on the ordinary people of Hunza. The required floor/wheat and other ration items were procured from the stores and coffers of the Mir's Baltit Fort and fugitive Wazir Dado's house, and an these items were handed over to the troops of the government forces, Muhammad Reza Beg also appointed and detailed Mr. Zarr Parast son of Yarfah Murato and Mr. Babar Khan, his own real younger brother, as the liaison officials, with the government forces, and assigned them the task and responsibility to settle any disputes arising between the people/inhabitants of Hunza and the occupation troops. and also to look after the administration and welfare of British officers. As these two men were not Skilled in any other languages he therefore appointed Mr. Darwesh son of Mr., Deewana of Baltit, and Mr. Abdool son of Reza Ali of Ali Abad, as interpreters, as these two men were conversant in Dogri language. The two men had learnt Dogri Dialect as they had been accompanying the "Wakil of Kashmir" during his trips and visits to Kashmir Darbar.

When these invading forces first arrived at Hunza, they were initially accommodated at the Baltit Polo ground and in the Baltit Fort. Some of these officers and men, however, had soon, been dispatched in pursuit of fleeing Mr. Safdar Khan and Azur Khan towards Kilik Pass, though the bulk of the troops stayed back at Baltit. The remaining British officers took their accommodation at "Shumal Bagh"

A hectic and thorough search of the Baltit Fort was conducted by the British officers for the discovery to hidden treasures and wealth of the Mirs of Hunza. It was imagined and believed by the British officers that a huge Quantity of precious stones. golden jewellery and other precious treasures were buried and hidden inside the Baltit Fort. However in spite of a very thorough and detailed search nothing of the sort could be discovered, or recovered or found as all of such precious stones. gold and other treasures were earned away and taken along by fleeing and fugitives Mr. Safdar Khan, on the backs of the Hunza men accompanying him. Anything of any value left over and left behind was looted and confiscated by many of Hunza notables after the departure of Safdar Khan Prominent among such notables were Mr. Zarr Parast, Mr. Qalandar son of Mr. Safa and Mr. Gauhar son of Reza Ali etc. These notables had confiscated and taken away a large quantity of valuable cotton cloth and expensive silk cloth One of the "Domialis" by the name of Mr. Mumayo had managed to lay his hands on and had taken away a small box full of precious stones, gems and Jewellery and diamonds etc, which he later turned it in and handed over to Muhammad Reza Beg, who in turn, and after some period gave into his brother Humayun Beg. Many other men had also looted and taken away the sheep, goat. cows and other animals belonging to the fugitive Mir, Wazir and their fleeing companions, whereas the remaining animals were procured. And handed over as meat on hoof ratios for the occupation troops.

A small security and protection contingent under the command of Lieutenant Molony was left behind and stationed at the hamlet of Khyber, when the remaining perusing force returned to Hunza after Its abortive pursuit. The bulk of this expeditionary force then returned to Hunza and reached Baltit (06 January 1892 AD). After that more than half of the troops of the entire invading force returned to Gilgit on 07 January 1892 AD

Meanwhile Doctor Robertson and Manners Smith in formed Muhammad Reza Beg, that the Maharaja of Kashmir had expressed his ardent desire and had issued orders as a policy matter that all out efforts must be made to bring back the fugitive Mirs of Hunza and Nagar and re-installed and re-instated on their respective thrones and appointments, at all costs. In case this was not possible and feasible, a person belong to their family and having a direct lineage to their families Should be appointed in their place. Such a person should belong to the bloodline and both his mother and father should have been belonging to the ruling dynasty. For example a person likes Raja All Dad of Gilgit may be installed as Mir of Nagar as he belonged to the ruling family both from his mother as well as from his father's side and his mother belonged to such a family from both sides. The British officers however confided in Muhammad Reza Beg and disclosed to him that in spite of such instructions from Maharaja, they were intent and desirous to appoint Humayun Beg as the Governor of Hunza and he himself as the Wazir of Hunza; they added and said to him that this aim of theirs could not have thus far been implemented as there was no news from Humayun Beg, as he had proceeded to Yasin, (after the fall of Nilt Fort) with an understanding to reach back the settlement/village of Khyber in Gojal via "Chilinji Pass" and Chupurson and occupy and secure the "Darband-e-Khyber" as a blocking position, within nine-days of his departure from Gilgit. However he was, till then, staying with Sardar Nizamul Mulk at Yasin and was reportedly resting and recuperating. In view of this solution the British officers said, they wanted to immediately appoint you (Reza Beg) as Wazir to Hunza. They said that they would propose and recommend the name of such a suitable person to the Maharaja, for the Mirship of Hunza, as per the desire of the Maharaja of Kashmir",

Muhammad Reza Beg on listening to such proposals by the British Officers, immediately raised an objection to some of their proposals as according to such proposals Sikandar Khan of Nagar had made a claim for this slot as he was born from the womb of Mst. Zebunnisaa, daughter of Mir Ghazanfar Khan of Hunza. Gushpur Khisrau Khan son of Muhammad Khan of Nagar was yet another claimant of the Mirship of Hunza, as he also claimed that he was the son to Mst. Zad Afza sister of Mr. Safdar Khan and daughter of Mir Ghazan Khan.

Yet another claimant was Mr. Sher Ghazi son of Mir Ghazi Mulolo, son of Mehtar Ghazi Gauhar Aman of Yasin, who had made his claim for being the son of Mst. Bibi Zareen daughter of Mr. Ghazanfar Khan and who at that lime was present and living at Hunza along With his own mother. In view of such a situation and so many claimants for" the Mirship of Hunza, Muhammad Reza Beg firmly and resolutely made his own recommendations to Doctor Major Robertson and Lieutenant Manners Smith and protested against and objected to the contentions of all the claimants. He argued and informed the two British officers, that as Safdar Khan had become a fugitive and In case he was declared as an offender and a criminal, there lived other more deserving and legal heirs who were the sons of Mir’s of Hunza, Included among such sons of Mirs Of Hunza is one Gushpur Rehan Shah son of Mir Ghazanfar Khan, who was still alive and was living in Kashmir. Yet other more deserving candidates were Gushpur Mohammad Nazim Khan and Gushpur Muhammad Nafees Khan both sons of Mir Ghazan Khan. As both these men were alive and healthy and were Innocent who had committed no crime and offence. Muhammad Reza Beg then argued and added that it was in view of such a situation and according to this principle and my point of view in this regards, that I refuse to accept the offer of the appointment of Wazirship of Hunza for myself, till the arrival of my brother Humayun Beg al Hunza; it is therefore requested that a decision in this regards may kindly be kept pending tilt then and no recommendations be forwarded in favor of anyone whosoever It may be. Muhammad Reza Beg has narrated and has also recorded in Writing that on listening to such arguments, protestations and refusal by him, the two British officers had shown and expressed their utter annoyance and disapproval to his this refusal and had become unhappy. They regretted and expressed their grief and remorse and after brooding over their this affliction for his unwise and stupid decision told him that they had decided to make strong recommendations in his favours In View of his great services rendered by him to the British government and the people of Hunza. They then had told him that if he so desired and was happy and satisfied with such a plan as suggested by him, they were willing to agree to such a proposal for his sake only and thought it to be a better option only because of his insistence and recommendations.

213. Appointment of Assistant Political Agent for Hunza and Nagar (January 1892 AD)

Muhammad Reza Beg has recorded in writing  and narrated that after about a week or two of the occupation of Hunza; during which period Manners Smith, along With other British officers, enjoyed their stay with the notable of Hunza and passed their time leisurely playing polo matches and participating in other such activities. finally appointed Captain Stewart as the Assistant Political Agent for Hunza and Nagar. A "Munshi" or Head Clerk was also appointed under him as his staff. Captain Steward had elected to stay and live at the location of Shumal Bagh in Baltit Hunza. A small military contingent was also detailed and stationed at Baltit for the purpose of maintaining security and ensuring law and order and this contingent was accommodated in Baltit Fort. In this manner the reins of the government and rule of both Hunza and Nagar States were now in the hands to captain Stewart. In addition Muhammad Reza Beg had become the representative of the people and state of Hunza and Sikandar Khan was recognized as the representative of Nagar State This was the prevailing Situation when an order was issued by the British Agent Gilgit, saying that the representatives of both Hunza and Nagar had been extended an invitation by the viceroy to India to proceed to Calcutta, the then capital city (metropolis) of British Indian Empire; and have the honor of an audience with the viceroy and also to express their allegiance, loyalty and subjugation to the British Empire, in his court in India,

214. Departure of the Representatives of Hunza and Nagar for the Capital City of Calcutta for an Audience with the Viceroy of British India (Feb 1892 AD)

When about a month and half Of little morn than that had passed Since the capture and occupation of both Hunza and Nagar States by the British Invading forces: a letter was received by captain Stewart, the Assistant British Agent for Hunza and Nagar, sent to him by the British Agent Gilgit, instructing him to dispatch both the representatives of Hunza and Nagar to Gilgit along with their notables and servants; as these men were required to be sent to the court of viceroy of India at Calcutta, to make them submit and express their loyalty, to the British Empire. The letter also mentioned that the viceroy of India had made a desire to afford them an opportunity to have an audience with himself and had wanted to shower upon them and reward them with gifts, presents and souvenirs. Accordingly the Assistant British Agent for Hunza and Nagar issued instructions to both the representatives of Hunza and Nagar to prepare and submit to him, in writing, the names of suitable notables of their choice, whom they wanted to take along and also Instructed them to make necessary preparations and be ready for the long journey. Accordingly Wazir Zadah Muhammad Reza Beg, as the representative to Hunza proposed and submitted that names of notables of Hunza of his choice. These men were Me Sultan Muhammad son of Arbab Dewana Shah of Gulmit, Mr. Zawarah son of Sikandar and Mr. Haibat Khan son of Khurram Shah of Ganish. from Hunza, and a few servants like Mr. Darwesh son of Mr. Dewana of Balm etc. Representatives of Nagar were Sikandar Khan, his nephew Gushpur Khisrau Khan and a few other notables along with their servants. having been approved and finalized , all these men departed for Gilgit (on 28 February 1892 AD).

Muhammad Reza Beg, having depends from Baltit Hunza, when arrived at the village of Mayun; he came across and met his brother Humayun Beg at Mayun, who had also arrived at that village on the same day from Yasin. Both these brothers were extremely happy to see each other alive and healthy, after five years of separation and therefore expressed their sense of relief and gratitude and thanked god for this favour. Both these brothers then sat together and exchanged their views and carried out a detailed discussion on the prevailing situation and events and informed each other about their respective environments and viewpoints. It was during their historical and important meeting at Mayun, that both brothers unanimously decided, agreed and made a resolve to ensure that the Mirship of Hunza was to be retained within the family of the Mir’s of Hunza alone. Accordingly, Muhammad Reza Beg proposed that he would therefore, arrange to bring along Gushpur Rehan Shah from Kashmir during his travel to India. Hamayun Beg consented but with the condition that this may be done only in case, Gushpur Muhammad Nazim Khan had failed to part with Safdar Khan and was not able to come to Hunza. In case Nazim Khan turns up at Hunza, he would immediately inform Muhammad Reza Beg through a letter while still in India to not to send Gushpur Rehan Shah to Hunza. After conclusion of this important meeting. Muhammad Reza Beg departed for Gilgit, whereas Humayun Beg left Mayun for his home at Baltit Hunza.

When the representatives of Hunza and Nagar arrived in the court/service of British Agent at Gilgit, they saw that Raja Akbar Khan of Punial along with his notables were also preparing and ready to embark upon for the journey to India. Hence the entire party of this large entourage and envoy departed for Kashmir via the route of Baltistan , as per the instructions of the British Agent Gilgit (probably during end February or first week of March 1892 AD). The entourage traveled through Indus valley and by crossing over the "Zoojilah" pass arrived safely at Kashmir (probably by third week of March 1892 AD.). The horses were left behind at Kashmir. From Kashmir this entourage was transported to Rawalpindi in "Tongas" or the horse drawn passenger carts. This journey took them three days. From Rawalpindi they boarded the train and departed for Calcutta, as during that era the capital of British Indian Empire was at Calcutta when the representatives of these three petty frontier states and tiny kingdoms arrived at Calcutta , a dispute arose among them regarding the superiority of the States and preference of the representatives as per the order of precedence. Sikandar Khan of Nagar, as the representative of Nagar, made a claim to be recognized as the senior most rulers among others as he said he belonged to the oldest ruling family and dynasty of Nagar State; and that his predecessors and the State of Nagar had both remained as a loyal ally and friends of the Maharajah of Jammu and Kashmir since old limes He therefore demanded that he should be granted the highest and senior most seat and precedence in the seating plan of the formal official gatherings and functions Raja Muhammad Akbar Khan of Punial also made a claim and a strong case for his status and argued that his forefathers and predecessors had been the first and foremost amongst the rulers of this region to have remained the most loyal servants and collaborators of the Maharajah of Kashmir and the British officers both; hence he should be given the highest and senior most seats at the formal official gatherings and functions. However in-spite of all these strong claims it was decided by the British high officials to grant the highest precedence to the representative of Hunza State and declare Hunza as the most senior State, according to the statement of Muhammad Reza Beg. Hence it is since this format event (April 1892 A.D) at Calcutta, that Hunza State continues to have the precedence over the other tiny state to Northern Areas.

Hence, these representatives had the honor to meet the Viceroy according to this order of precedence and performed the formal official ritual of expression of their submission and allegiance to the British Empire . Whereby the Viceroy of India also inquired and conversed with each one of them and briefly discussed with them regarding the prevailing situation faced by every member of this delegation, and expressed his sense of pleasure.

Muhammad Reza Beg has recorded and narrated that this entourage stayed at Calcutta for thirteen days in all. During their this long stay they had the honor and the opportunity to have meetings With the ' Commander In Chief of the British Indian forces and the "Foreign Secretary" of British Indian Empire. He also narrates that they all were taken around on tours and visits during which they were shown most of the factories and industrial units existing during that era. Finally at the conclusion of this official itinerary/tour, all the members of the entourage were presented with the Khalaats or "Robes of Honor" and many precious gifts and souvenirs were presented to them according to each one's status, stature and importance. At the time when we all were about to leave/depart, the viceroy, from among other rulers, got hold of my hand and took me into a seclusion and isolation and started uttering some very king sentences and conversation and said to me that the British Government was extremely pleased and happy with me (M, Reza Beg) and he said that he was sure that I would be suitably and appropriately rewarded for the services I had rendered as the representative of Hunza during a very difficult period. He then said, that he wanted, at that moment, to provide us the opportunity and the facilities to enable us to have a tour and visit of the Indian sub-continent, a British Empire, according to our choice, liking and free wish, and said that he was granting this permission to me, as Sikandar Khan had shown his desire to make a visit to "Karbala" in Iraq and Raja Akbar Khan had opted to visit Burma. In reply to his this blanket offer, I expressed my desire and choice to be given the permission, opportunity and the facility to go and visit Bombay City: and said that I would feel more than happy and honored. The viceroy asked me the reason for my apparently humble choice and demand. In reply, I said that my visit to Bombay is not out of a desire to have a tour of this city But it is with the sole aim of a "Deedar" (Seeing of the face) of Sir Agha Khan the third, who is my Imam of the present era, And all these services, which I have rendered for the British officials and for the people of Hunza, with utmost dedication and sincerity of mind, are all because of the "Farman" or orders of my this Imam of the era. After this exclusive and intimate conversation, we all took leave and departed from the viceroys chamber, with much favour, And all of us the representatives along with our entire entourage left Calcutta for Bombay, by train, while the officials responsible for our administration also accompanied us On arrival at Bombay, we were still treated as official guests, Here at Bombay, I along with the men of my community, who were among the members of our entourage. later on arrived at the bountiful Darbar of our Imam of the era at the location of Agha Hall, Mujgam.

215. Arrival of Muhammad Reza Beg for the "Deedar 89 " of Imam of the Era (April 1892 AD)

After the arrival of the representatives along with the rest of the members of the entourage at Bombay, Wazir Zadah Muhammad Reza Beg proceeded to the Darbar of the spiritual leader or Imam of the era, Sir Sultan Muhammad Shah al-Hussaini, well known as the H. H. Sir Agha Khan the third , along with all those members of the entourage who belonged to the Ismailia sect. Hence a few men from Punial were also included. At first this small party joined the rest of the Jamaat or people of community to perform the "'Deedar" of the Imam of the era as part of the general gathering. Later, after the conclusion of the proceedings of this general "Deedar" gathering, Muhammad Reza Beg and his companions were summoned by the exalted Imam for an exclusive and special "Deedar" in private and was therefore granted this unique honor to this particular group from Hunza and Punial.

Accordingly, Muhammad Reza Beg has narrated orally and has also recorded in writing, that when the members of the rest of the entire Jamaat (community gathering) dispersed and proceeded for their respective places after a common "Deedar", the members of the small group of community belonging to Hunza and Punial were, very kindly and favorably summoned by his Highness the Agha Khan at his Banglow/ residence, personally for an exclusive audience, Hence H, H, The Agha Khan had a very exclusive and detailed meeting with this small group of ours at his residence. It was during this exclusive meeting that the Imam himself, very kindly, enquired from me the entire details of the whole events at Hunza including the reading of his "Farman" its un-acceptance by Mir Safdar Khan, Wazir Muhammad Dara Beg and their notables, their fleeing from Hunza and the conquering of Hunza and Nagar by the British forces and the details of subsequent events. This wretched mortal, in a shivering and shaking state, condition, with utmost reverence narrated, and explained in detail whatever I had witnessed, observed , endured and heard regarding the whole affair right from its Deed",. A spiritual ritual in which a follower of Ismailia sects seeks to see the face to his Imam of the Era beginning until its conclusion. After a very patient and detailed hearing from me about the entire details of the events of my country, His exalted Highness the Agha Khan, gave us his "Farman" and said that the Government of British India was a government which dispensed justice and it believed in fairness and was equitable, hence under this government we, the people of north would be benefited and would prosper three to four times more than what we were at that time. His Highness then guided us and instructed us all to remain loyal and discharge our duties in the service of the government with utmost dedication and honesty and always remain alert and upright and ready to assist and obey the British Government. The Imam declared and emphasized that our service to government with loyalty would amount to be loyalty and service to Imam himself and would become a matter of joy and happiness for the spiritual family of the Imam himself. Having honored us with this "Farman" the Imam allowed us to leave with his kind favour.

After Muhammad Reza Beg was granted the permission to leave: he once again received a "Farman" or an order edict H.H. The Agha Khan, instructing him to also perform the religious duties for his community when he returned to his country. As per this formal order of the Imam he was appointed as the leader of the Ismailia Community of Hunza and was assigned the task to guide and lead the community. As a symbol of grant of this honor and as a memento , The Agha Khan presented to Muhammad Reza Beg, a pair of personal clothes, his personal walking stick, and a religious book titled “Masnawi-e-Maulanana Roomi Haft Daftar". The two precious gifts of the "walking stick: and the "religious book" is still in possession of the writer of this book of History of Hunza.

Among the fortunate and lucky members of the entire Ismailia Community of Hunza and Punial. who had the honor of performing the "Deedar" of the Imam of their era, were Mr. Darwesh son of Mr. Deana of Baltit Hunza who was later addressed as Haji Darwesh. Mr. Qurban Ali resident of Sher Qila Punial, who also later on became well known as Haji Qurban Ali. In addition to these two, the other notables were , Mr. Sultan Muhammad of Gulmit (Hunza), Mr. Zawarah of Ganish, and Mr. Haibat Khan of Ganish. Among the followers were Tash Muhammad and Mr. Gauhar of Gulmit, Abdul of Ali Abad, Nazar Shah Veerako. Nadir Haider Abed; Nazar Shah the second. and Mr.Darwesh of Ganish.


After the meeting with the viceroy of India and on conclusion of the tour and visit of the sub-continent and other places all the representatives and their companions left Bombay and departed and reached Kashmir From Kashmir these people reached Gilgit during the first week of June 1892 AD after traveling via the "Khayam" and "Burzil" Passes. From Gilgit they finally dispersed and proceeded to their respective homes. However, during this period Muhammad Nazim Khan was installed as the new Mir of Hunza and Humayun Beg were appointed as Wazir of Hunza. In Nagar Raja Zafar Khan was given the title of Mir of Nagar, and in view of his paralysis and poor state of health, his son Sikandar Khan was appointed as the de-facto Raja and the Regent of Nagar.

216.    Major Events After the Return and Arrival of Humayun Beg at Hunza (March 1892 AD)

When Muhammad Raza Beg acting as the representative of Hunza: who was proceeding for the meeting with viceroy of India, left Baltit and arrived at Mayun, his elder real brother Humayun Beg also arrived at Mayun on the same day from Gilgit and thus, both These men had a detailed meeting at this place Both these leading men of Hunza during their this meeting at Mayun made detailed discussions and mutual consultations on the subject of Mirship of Hunza and exchanged views on the future and impending events in Hunza, and agreed on a future course of action. Although Colonel Durand had made a promise and a pledge to appoint Humayun Beg as Governor of Hunza and Muhammad Reza Beg as Wazir of Hunza. the two unanimously decided and agreed and said that as it was now their prerogative and choice, therefore a suitable heir from the family of Mir’s of Hunza shook! be nominated and appointed as the Mir of Hunza. Some of the suitable names, they mutually considered were one was Gushpur Rehan Shah who was living in Kashmir as an exile and the other was Muhammad Nazim Khan who had fled from Hunza and was in the company of Safdar Khan as a fugitive; hence the two men confided and agreed that they could only enjoy as the real "Rulers" of Hunza only by appointing one of the above candidates as the Mir otherwise, they unanimously agreed. that the people of Hunza were likely to create serious trouble disturbances and mischief and may raise a tumult. This was necessary as a large number of powerful and influential men of Hunza were still hostile and opposed to Humayun Beg and his party and were in favour of and well wishers of Safdar Khan and Wazir Dado Dara Beg. Thus having agreed upon this mutual proposal, Humayun Beg left Mayun for Baltit, whereas Muhammad Reza Beg proceeded onwards towards Gilgit. The first and foremost action Humayun Beg initiated, immediately after his arrival at Hunza, was that he wrote and sent a letter to Gushpur Muhammad Nazim Khan, through the hands of one Mr. Khaar Kush of Sariqool, who was one of the notables of Sariqool, and was present at Hunza at that time; and who was returning to Sariqool soon, as he was also carrying the official letters of British officers to the British Counsel in Kashghar and to the Ambans of Kashghar and Tashghurghan, written regarding the affairs of Safdar Khan, Azur Khan and the refugees accompanying them. Humayun Beg also wrote a letter for Muhammad Nazim Khan asking him to break away from Safdar Khan and reach Hunza under all circumstances and at all costs, so that necessary efforts could be initiated to obtain and acquire a position of authority and the highest office for him and he could be presented as one of the strongest claimants and deserving contender for the Mirship of Hunza State.

217. Return of Raja Azur Khan and Other Refugees of Nagar from Sariqool (1892 AD)

As, Maharajah Partap Singh the ruler of Jammu and Kashmir had made a policy desire, after the conquer and occupation of Hunza and Nagar, that the former rulers of both the states be reinstated and re installed as rulers of their respective states after bringing them back from Sariqool, such efforts were therefore made to fulfill his desire. Accordingly as per this policy instruction and desire of the Maharajah the British officers, especially the British Agent Gilgit, had initiated a direct written correspondence with the fugitive rulers at Sariqool to pave the way for their re turn. However Humayun Beg of Hunza, and Raja Zafar Khan of Nagar and his son Sikandar Khan had all made their all out efforts and had managed to hatch many conspiracies, intrigues and manipulations to bring about a disaster for the two fugitive rulers, as Colonel Durand, the British Agent Gilgit was also in league with them and he favored and supported both Humayun Beg and Sikandar Khan. Both Humayun Beg and Sikandar Khan therefore made their moves and acted on the Inklings and on behest and instigations of the British Agent himself. Hence, they finally succeeded in proving and declaring Azur Khan as the real culprit and the offender.

In short. consequently, Azur Khan along With his family members and most of the refugees of Nagar were repatriated back from Tashghurghan through the security troops of the Khitai government and were brought back to Hunza. All the repatriated refugees of Nagar were allowed to return to their own homes. but Azur Khan and his family members were taken to Gilgit. From Gilgit, he was sent to Kashmir and was placed under house arrest at Kashmir. However, the Maharaja of Kashmir soon showed his magnanimity and favours and hence arranged to fix stipends and an annual sustenance allowance for Azur Khan. Wazir Shah Murad and few other companions of Azur Khan along with a few of their followers and servants also remained al Kashmir. Azur Khan and Wazir Shah Murad, therefore, had later breathed their last in Kashmir. However the sons of Azur Khan, i.e. Muhammad Ayub Khan alias Nausherawan and Alif Khan born of his wife Mst. Jehan Aara, who was the daughter of Ghazan Khan and the Sister of Safdar Khan are still living in Kashmir Yet another son of Azur Khan by the name of Asghar Ali born of his second wife Mst. Henai daughter of Mr. Nooro of Mayun of Hunza is also found to be living in Kashmir. This woman Mst. Henai was initially in the marriage of Mr. Rustum Ali resident of Budalas, but she was later taken away from him forcibly by Azur Khan during the period when he was the representative of Nagar at Chaproat and had taken her into his own marriage.

218. Repatriation of Refugees of Hunza in the Company of Muhammad Nazim Khan from Sariqool (April-May 1892 AD.)

As has already been mentioned. the British Agent Gilgit had been carrying out written correspondence With Mir Safdar Khan as per the policy desire and Wishes of the Maharaja of Kashmir, Although Colonel Durand, personality, was in complete favour of Humayun Beg and preferred to keep Humayun Beg pleased and happy. However Humayun Beg was making his all out efforts to bring complete destruction upon Safdar Khan and deprive him of every possible concession. it was only out of his official compulsion and in line with the desire and policy of the Maharaja, that Durand was compelled and duty bound to maintain written correspondence with Safdar Khan, which he continued to maintained through the Amban and British Counsel General at Kashghar. This correspondence was conducted to convince and motivate Safdar Khan to agree to return to Hunza along with the rest of the refugees of Hunza, and must express his sense of regret and repentance for his crimes and wrong doings so that Maharaja could pardon him and grant him amnesty so that he himself or his son could be installed as the Mir of Hunza.

However, Safdar Khan did not trust and believe in the authenticity of the orders of Colonel Durand, as he was highly suspicious and felt scared of his past deeds and a possible dangerous consequences for his person. Safdar Khan, therefore, suggested and made an alternate proposal that instead he would send one of his own men as his representative to Hunza along with the refugees of Hunza, as he first wanted to investigate and ensure that all these letters and orders were genuine and were actually those of the British officers and of the officials of Maharaja and were not the products of deceptions, intrigues and manipulations of Humayun Beg.

Accordingly, Safdar Khan made consultations with his closest companions and confidants regarding this matter and sought their advices. In this connection his own wife or Rani, Mst. Aasman Parri, made a proposal to him and suggested that he himself Should personally proceed back to Hunza along with the rest of the refugees and his own wife and children and the wife of Humayun Beg and try to patch up with Humayun Beg at Hunza. In this connection she suggested that both the daughters of Safdar Khan be offered into marriage with both the sons of Humayun Beg, as this will greatly reduce the intense hostility and mistrust among both. However Safdar Khan did not approve of this proposal of his own wife for he was too scared and afraid of possible revenge and retributions from the person of Humayun Beg, and thus he out rightly rejected this proposal. Hence, Gushpur Muhammad Nafees Khan was asked to be the representative of Safdar Khan and proceed to Hunza However he also was too scared and afraid, for his own deeds. to act as the representative, as he also had got named to the sister of Humayun Beg in his absence, forcibly, as she was already in the manage of and was the wile of Mr. Muhammad Raffi son of Sangi Khan.

Hence after some very long and extensive discussions and consultations it was finally decided and agreed that Gushpur Muhammad Nazim Khan accompanied by Wazir Zadah Sarwar Khan, Trangfah Fazilo son of Naseero of Ganish and Wakil Daulat Shah along with three hundred refugees from Hunza should be sent back to Hunza. Accordingly, they all were sent back along the replies in shape of letters and oral messages. When this large group of returning refugees arrived at the village of Fasso (Passu), they came across and encountered the Assistant Political Agent of Hunza and Nagar and Humayun Beg both, who were on an official tour of Gojal valley at that time Thus, Muhammad Nazim Khan was sent to Baltit from this place The two officials however returned to Baltit after a few days and on completion of their tour of Gojal. They then were able to receive the letters and messages sent by Safdar Khan and dispatched the same to the British Agent at Gilgit.

219. Politics And Manipulations of Humayun Beg Against Safdar Khan

Humayun Beg, who had been praying to and asking from God for a total disgrace and disastrous end for Safdar Khan right from day one and all along; when round Safdar Khan now fallen Into such a deplorable state and precarious situation, he continued to make his utmost efforts to keep Safdar Khan away from Hunza and stepped up his efforts to bring further defeat and almost humiliation onto Safdar Khan. He therefore used all possible means and deliberations to achieve his aim. As Humayun Beg was a very seasoned and mature politician and he very well understood all aspects and avenues of political game playing he, therefore used his skill against Safdar Khan very judiciously and skillfully. Through some very deliberate planning and utmost efforts he managed to procure and collect copies of all those letters, which had been written by Safdar Khan or which he had received, to the Russian officials and from the Russian officials against the Chinese and British governments and presented these letters to the British officials. Consequently, because of these letters Safdar Khan was fully exposed and was therefore humiliated and doomed forever.

In the same manner Hammayun Beg having summoned Akhund Aman Ali Shah son of Darwesh Qnmbar from Sumayar, got a document prepared With such a subject matter, which slated that Mir Ghazan Khan had disowned and disinherited his eldest son Safdar Khan. and instead had nominated Mirzada Salim Khan (Bappo) as the legal heir for his throne. And that in case Salim Khan did not remain alive, then Muhammad Nazim Khan was to be the legal successor to the throne. Humayun Beg himself accompanied by Sikander son of Ruppi of Ganish, personally presented this document, to the British officials as a written proof as the documents paper was aged With the help of carbon powder scratched from the ceilings of the house. In addition many a notables and influential persons of Hunza, who were considered to be well Wishers and sympathizers were also taken into confidence by Humayun Beg and they were accordingly briefed and made to fully support this whole plan of action. It was then manipulated and made to appear that the main and real reason for the murder of Mir Ghazan Khan was in fact this important Issue of nomination of heir to the throne

Captain Stewart, the Assistant Political Agent Hunza and Nagar, after necessary Calculations and correspondence with the British Agent Gilgit. did not allow Muhammad Nazim Khan to return to Sanqool, and asked him to stay back at Hunza He however allowed other companions of M Nazim Khan and allowed them the option to either return and join Safdar Khan or stay back at Hunza and start living in their own homes Hence Mr. Sarwar Khan son of the fugitive Wazir Dado Dara BI!9, along Walsh his family did not return to Sariqool to join his own father or Safdar Khan and opted to stay back and live at his own home at Hunza, as he had come to Hunza on the behest and suggestions of his uncle Humayun Beg. Thus, he got settled in his own home Wakil Daulat Shah also opted to stay back In Hunza and therefore were settled In his home However Trangfah Fazil did not abandon the company of Safdar Khan and opted to return to Sariqool/Yarkand, and went back to Yarkand accordingly. He however dispatched his son back to Hunza, but he himself remained with Safdar Khan's family in Yarkand till the last days of his life; though he did return to Hunza when he was too old and died in his own home in Hunza. However his wife had already died while at Yarkand .

220. Eventual End/Fate of Safdar Khan and Wazir Dado Dara Beg

When in view of the above mentioned reasons and circumstances, Muhammad Nazim Khan had to stay back at Hunza; the British officials disclosed the complete details of the crimes, to the Chinese officials or the officials of "Khitau" along with solid evidences, which were committed by Mir Safdar Khan as well as Wazir Dado. Hence on receipt of this evidence against Safdar Khan, the Chinese officials immediately placed Safdar Khan under arrest and he was taken to Kashghar from the town to "Tashghurghan". His wife, children and other family members were separated from him and they were taken to Yarkand, and were transferred to the farm house at the location of Ghujareq (Khawaja Areeq) which had been the ancestral property to Mir’s of Hunza.

Wazir Dado was also separated from his family and other companions and was taken to Kashghar along with one of his sons Khairullah Beg and a male servant Hassan. In the lawn/locality of "Yamol" in Kashghar, Khairullah Bed died of small pox. However, his other son Mehrebanullah Baig, rest of the family and Gushpur Nafees Khan all remained at the settlement of Tashghurghan , who later on and after about an years period, returned to Hunza.

When Mir Safdar Khan and Wazir Dara Beg, both, were dispatched to Urumchi (Urumqi) by the "Amban" of Kashghar on the instructions of "Dotai" of Kashghar. They were interned at the locality of Yamol. Hence after necessary investigations, the "Dotai of Urumqi" declared Safdar Khan as the main culprit and offender and awarded him the punishment of "under house arrest for life" at the location of "Kuchaar". However Wazir Dado, after necessary investigations, was cleared of all the charges and he was recommended for the grant of a suitable high-ranking military appointment. However orders were issued for him to be appointment as "Ambaan" for the lime being, till a suitable appointment was given to him in due course of time. In view of this preferential treatment to Wazir Dado and his appointment, Safdar Khan became extremely jealous of Dado and indulged in acts and intrigues which annoyed, disturbed and perturbed Wazir Dado. It has been narrated that in view of this jealousy and hostile altitude of Safdar: Khan and his intrigue, Wazir Dado Darn Beg became extremely disappointed, mentally aggrieved and highly depressed and as an extreme measure committed suicide by taking a heavy dose of opium. However, according to the statement and narration of one Mr. Gul Muhammad Gulmittee, who was a servant of Safdar Khan , Wazir Dado was given this opium, through a plot, by Safdar Khan because of his intense sense of jealousy and resulting hostility for Wazir Dado. God knows better! However Mr. Hassan son of Mst. Aarzoo and Mr., Gul Muhammad Gulmiltee who had later on returned to Hunza, is said to have narrated about the last will of Wazir Dado according to which Wazir Dado had left behind a "will" before his death that his body be buried temporarily (in Sariqool) as he wanted it to be taken back to Hunza by his brothers so that he was buried in his ancestral graveyard at Baltit. However this could not be implemented as either: Humayun Beg or Muhammad Reza Beg did not get this information well In time and were not informed of the "will of Wazir Dado soon after his death.

Safdar Khan, after the orders of "Dotai" went to the town/settlement of "Kuchaar" and there he bought some agricultural lands for himself. He then planted and grew a fruit garden/orchard on those lands and planted/grew an orchard of grape-wine plants to later extract and prepare grape-wine for his own consumption. He also got married to another lady. It has been narrated that he had two sons from this wife, both of whom are reported to have died In their youth without having any offspring.

Safdar Khan, during the initial period of his "house arrest" at Kuchaar, is reported to have had fled from Kuchaar, and reached Yarkand to see his family members and children. However on the Inkling and behest of British Counsel General al Kashghar, the Khitau officials had immediately arrested him from his house at Yarkand and was soon taken back to "Kuchaar". Hence when he had spent a long period of thirty-eight years (38 years) at Kuchaar in such a deplorable and ignominious condition, he finally was able to return to Yarkand in the month of may 1930 AD on the recommendations and favorable remarks of British explorer/intelligence officer by the name of Colonel Scheomberg. Though by that time his royal wife (Rani) had already died, and his son Muzaffar Ali Khan alias Kuchak was left alone. It is narrated that his son maltreated. harmed, and annoyed Safdar Khan, so much that as a revenge Safdar Khan distributed and apportioned whole of his lands at Yarkand among his this son and daughters Half of the lands were left for his son whereas the remaining half of the whole lands was distributed among his three or four daughters i.e. Wife of Karim Beg. Wife of Syed Saddaruddin, and wife of Syed Shah Gada etc. However, these lands were later reclaimed and repossessed by Mir Muhammad Nazim Khan with the help to his trusted courtier like Mr. Mughal Khan of Altit and Muatabar Himayat Shah of Ghulkin etc through a legal claim called "Right of Pre-emption". Mir Muhammad Nazim Khan also managed to lake back possession of all those pieces of land which had been sold out by Muzaffar Khan, through the same legal right of pre-emption.

Mir Safdar Khan, after, his arrival at Yarkand from Koochaar had not yet completed eleven months of his stay when he breathed his last during the last days of March 1931 AD at Yarkand.

However according to one of the rumors regarding his death. Mir Safdar Khan was poisoned to death by his own son Muzaffar Ali Khan alias Kuchak. Yet according to another version of oral tradition, Mir Safdar Khan was poisoned to death by one Muhammad Zia on behest of Mir Muhammad Nazim Khan. This Mr. Muhammad Z13 was serving as the Head Clerk to the British Counsel General in Cheeni Bagh Kashghar, who had later on become an employee or a servant of Mir Muhammad Nazim Khan and during this tenure he used to also accompany the Elchi of Hunza to Kashghar. It is narrated that it was this Mr. Muhammad Zia who had arranged to poison to death Mir Safdar Khan al Yarkand on behest and instigation of Mr. Muhammad Nazim Khan God knows better. it is said that an apprehension and possibility existed In which it was feared that Mir Safdar Khan could have succeeded in returning to Hunza and taking over as the Mir of Hunza once again with the favours and recommendations  of British officers like Colonel Scheomber etc. This was also apprehended as many an influential men and notables living in Hunza still anxiously looked for a possible return of Mir Safdar Khan.

Muzaffar Ali Khan alias Kuchak son of Safdar Ali Khan continued to remain well and alive till late after the death of Mir Safdar Khan at Yarkand. It has been narrated that Muzaffar Ali Khan was an educated and literate man who well knew how to read and write. However he was said to be an addict of opium and indulged in heavy drinking. He has a son by the name of Hari Thum alias Hatum Khan still living in Yarkand (as of 1962 AD).

Trangfah Fazil. after the death of Safdar Khan, had returned to Hunza when by that time he had gone very old. He had also brought with him the book of "Amulets and sooth sayings or the book of Taweezat and a matchlock musket called "Sher Maar" which was in possession of Safdar Khan; and had presented both these items of ancestral value to Mir Muhammad Nazim Khan He died after two or three years of his return to Hunza at his own home in Ganish village. A few of his companions like Mr. Qalandar son of Akhund Abdullah had died prior to the death of Safdar Khan. However a few members and offspring of his servants and other such companions of Safdar Khan are still living in Yarkand. (as of 1962 AD)

221. Personality of Mir Safdar Khan

Mir Safdar Khan was the eldest son of Mir Ghazan Khan-I.  He was a highly skilled and reputed polo player. He was very fond of the sports like horsemanship, marksmanship, archery and bowman ship etc. He could not read or write (was illiterate). However he could fluently converse both in Persian and "Wakhi language". He was skilled at wood work as well and indulged in wood-carving etc. He could manufacture bows, arrows. polo sticks. and saddles of horses and did wood-carving and decoration work on wooden items and on walls, and doors. He was also capable of using lathe, He was also very fond of grape-wine and used to indulge in drinking in the best tradition of his ancestors.

222. New Settlements and Habitations Created by Mir Safdar Khan

Mir Safdar Khan, during the period of his rule had not been able to lay foundation for any sort of new 'settlements" or habitats. However he had allotted pieces of lands to a few people of Gulmit and Ghulkin at the seasonal settlements of "Reshit" and Kirmin, for their permanent settlement and habitation as the lands of these places had been under irrigation and seasonal cultivation since the period of rule to Mir Salim Khan. but the peasants did not stay at these places on a permanent basis. Hence these lands were permanently occupied and were made as settlements/villages during the era of rule of Mir Safdar Khan. He also got constructed a house or a dwelling In his own name, In the new settlement of "Result", He also got constructed a polo ground In this settlement. After the occupation of These two dwellings, a new settlement al the location of 'Spenge" also got initiated and which became a full fledged settlement later during the era of rule of Mir Muhammad Nazim Khan.

The cluster village of "Bull Das" (In Ganish) was also constructed during the period of his rule. Trangfah Khurram Shah of Ganish was a Wise man to some thoughtful and sensible conversations and was the most intelligent and worthy notable among all his contemporaries. He was the most confidential, trustee and inner most confidant/courtier. called "Mahrum" of Mir Safdar Khan and Hills locality of 'Bull Das" was founded and constructed on the Wishes and desires of this Trangfah Khurram Shah, alter necessary permission was granted by Mr. Safdar Khan. This Trangfah Khurram Shah, after the completion of construction of the local houses of this cluster· housed new village. also had laid foundations for construction of a "Mosque" in too middle to the newly constructed village. After the completion of the construction of this mosque, Khurram Shah had invited Mir Safdar Khan, as the chief guest, over the "traditional and customary feast" and food prepared on this occasion. Hence it was after the construction and creation of this new village, that the other new Villages of 'Shukunoshall, Chaboikoshall and 'Tsil Ganish" were also declared and considered as separate villages and entities, as hence-before all these smaller hamlets were counted as part and parcel of the village of "Ganish" as all the inhabitants of these outlying localities also lived inside the fortress village of Ganish prior to the creation of Bull-Das.

223. Wives and Children and of Mir Safdar Khan

Safdar Khan, when he was still a very young boy and who had not yet attained the age of puberty and maturity, was got married for the first time. to Mst. Sultan Nisab. the widow of Gushpur Bakhtawar Shah, by his father Mir Ghazan Khan, after Mst. Sultan Nisab had fallen widow. She was the sister of Mir Zafar Khan of Nagar who was first married to Gushpur Bakhtawar Shah. However in view of her mature age and the very young age of Safdar Khan, she had to be divorced. Hence this Mst. Sultan Nisab has said and sung songs and couplets describing her love and affection for young Safdar Khan and these songs are well known as the songs of Sultan Nisab.

After the divorce to the above mentioned lady (and after Safdar Khan had attained the age of puberty and maturity) , Mst. Aasman Parri daughter of Mir Fateh Ali Shah of Wakhan , who was also the daughter of sister of Mir Ghazan Khan, was brought into the wed lock of Safdar Khan. Safdar Khan had a son by the name of Muzaffar Ali Khan alias Kuchak, from the womb of this Rani. He also had three daughters from this Rani. One of them was Mst. Mehtar Nigaar alias  "Bullo Tush" who was given in marriage to Syed Gadda Muhammad of Yarkand: and who had a son by the name of Abdul Karim. The second daughter was Mst. Ghulmittee. who was married to Gushpur Nausherawan son of Raja Azur Khan of Nagar; but both had got separated from each other for a long period as a result of the unfavorable circumstances as she was left behind at Yarkand and her husband had been sent in exile to Kashmir, However after a very long period. Mst. Gulmittee was repatriated from Yarkand and sent to Kashmir with the help of government channels, through the good offices of Mir Muhammad Nazim Khan, and was sent to Kashmir, as her husband Mr. Nausherawan had requested for her repatriation. Mst. Gulmittee could not put up with her husband at Kashmir and hence she had once again returned to Hunza. She, therefore, continued to remain alive at Hunza during the period of rule of Mir Muhammad Nazim Khan and Mir Ghazan Khan-II and finally breathed her last during the era of rule of Mir Muhammad Jamal Khan. The third daughter was the foster-daughter of Trangfah Fazil who was married to Mr. Karim Beg son of Abul Hassan Beg of Sariqool and who has a son by the name of Tash Taimoor Beg, still living in Sariqool. Safdar Khan had a daughter by the name of Mst. Durre Numa, from the wife of Wazir Humayun Beg, who had remained in forced custody and possession of Safdar Khan for over five years. His daughter was married to Syed Saddruddin son of Khan Khawaja of "Wachah". She had a son by the name of Syed Sultanat Shah Muki who lives in Sariqool (as of 1962 AD).

Safdar Khan had yet another wife, this lady had arrived at Hunza from the locality of "Yor" in Wakhan along with her two brothers Mr. Rehmatoon and Mr. Dudi. According to the narration of a few other men, this lady bore the name of "Durri Numa" and she was first married to Mr. Arab Shah son of Khurram Shah of Ghulkin, but Safdar Khan had snatched her from him and had taken her as his own wife. Safdar Khan had a daughter. who was borne to this Mst. Durri Numa, just prior to the capture of Hunza by the British, and hence was left behind at Hunza with her foster parents, Later, when she had grown up and had become marriageable, she was given in marriage to Gushpur Naib Khan son of Jaafar Ali Khan of Gilgit; by Mir Muhammad Nazim Khan, This gin bore the name of Bibi Hayat and she has a son by the name of Shah Suleiman presently residing at Gilgit (as of 1962 AD).

224. Personality of Wazir Muhammad Dara Beg alias Wazir Dado

Dara Beg, was his name and he was the eldest son of Wazir Asadullah Beg from his first wife. His father Wazir Asadullah Beg gave him the name "Dara Beg" which was the name of grand father of Wazir Asadullah Beg; hence he called him as "Dado· meaning ·Grand-pa": thus he was later well known as "Wazir Dado· for being the name sack of his grand-grandfather, Wazir Muhammad Dara Beg was a brave, courageous, valiant and a bold man, He was illiterate and hence did not know how to read or write. However he could fluently converse in the languages of surrounding areas like Persian, Wakhi, Khuwar and Sheena etc. He was an excellent and a highly reputed hunter and had hunted innumerable Ibexes/Markhors and other big game. He was a skilled horseman and an expert polo player of great reputation and was an outstanding marksman and an expert sharp shooter.

He held the most coveted and lucrative appointment of "Treasurer" (Faraj) of Mir Ghazan Khan, during the Wazirship of his father, and was better known as "Farash" (Faraj). His house always remained hustling and bustling round the year, and always presented like the scene of a house busy in a marriage ceremony. The entire revenues in kind and cash, of whole of Hunza state were collected through his hands. He was a very generous and bountiful man. Hence his generosity had become proverbial, and any other generous persons would be compared with him and metaphored with his name. However in spite of all these good qualities, he was vicious. stiff neck, proud, arrogant, haughty, ambitious and merciless. He was not God fearing and was a pervert, and impudent.

However, Captain Young Husband, in his book "Wonders of the Himalaya" has written his impressions about the personality of Wazir Dado, and has given his frank opinion and has written that Wazir Dado's personality had all the good Qualities of a great leader and that he possessed the total capabilities and was "like a wild and dominating lion among tamed timid domesticated animals. Young Husband also has written that he considered him to be more capable than all the Wazirs of hundred and twenty Native India Princely States of British India of that era whom he had encountered. Some of the excerpts from his book are as follows:-

"Quote":……………. Wazir Dado was the distinctly more impressive of them.

And comparing him with many of the highly educated ministers i afterwards met

in the Native States of India -or Indian States, as they are now called -I am not at

all sure that Wazir Dado was not more capable than them all. There was between

him and them all the difference that there is between a wild animal and a tamed

animal ……….

……………..... Wazir Dado had for me the interest of the wild animal. He had all his wits about him. He had the assurance of achieved success. He was in a position of great influence and authority. But he could only retain it by unflagging vigilance ..

A small man would crumble up under such conditions. But Dado was not a small man. He was a really big man, and he rejoiced in the risk and the power. It was a pleasure to have to do with a man of this kind. ................... ........ What surprised me most about him was his cheery geniality He had plenty of dignity, but it sat easily and naturally on him and was not stiff and stilted. ............... He was fond of sport, too, and of polo, which is a national game of Hunza And I had the same feeling for him that I have for hawks. They at any rate have to keep themselves at the highest pitch of perfection, with every faculty keen and alert or they wilt starve "Unquote".

Wazir Dado had many wives. His first wife was Mst. Fizza daughter of Yarfah Daulato. He had two sons, Sarwar Khan and Akbar Khan and four daughters, Mst. Feroze, Mst. Gul Andam, Mst. Bibi Najaf and Mst. Ferozah, from the womb of this wife. Mst. Feroze was married to Mr. Daulat Shah son of Wakil Fazal. Mst. Gul Andam to Trangfah Fazal son of Mr. Naseero of Ganish. Mst. Bibi Najaf to Mr. Dado son of Akhund Abdullah and Mst. Ferozah was first married to Mr. Khano son of Mr. Hubbe Ali and later when she had become widowed was remarried to Mr. Ibadat son of Mr., Hanif.

His second wife was Mst. Gul Nisaab daughter of Muhammad son of Faqir Ali. She was his most favorite and dearest wife amongst all his Wives and she was also his most trusted counselor and advisor. He had three sons: Mr. Khalrullah Beg, Mr. Gul Bahar and Mr. Meherbanullah Beg and three daughters, Mst. Khairun Nissa, Mst. Jabeeli and Mst. Sultani, from the womb of his second wife. Mst. Nissa was married to Mr. Kabul son of Yarfah Qadeero of Altit. Mst. Jabeeli was married to Mr. Budin of Garelt and Mst. Sultani was married to Aman Ali Shah son of Wakil Fazal of Ali Abad

His third wife was Mst. Hameedah daughter of Mr. Puyaar. This lady was first married to his brother Faizullah Beg who had divorced her and it was after she was divorced that Wazir Dado had brought her into his own marriage However he also had divorced her after she had given birth to a daughter by the name of Hussaina

His fourth wife was Mst. Rozah daughter of Mr. Haji who had first fallen Widow as a result of the death of her husband Faizullah Beg. his own brother. during an action in Sariqool. He (Wazir Dado) had a son Mr. Hashim Shah, who was the youngest. From the womb of this wife.

Many thanks to almighty Allah for the "History of (Ancient Era) Hunza State" is completed by the feeble pen of Haji Qudratullah Beg.

                                                                                                                          Baltit Hunza

                                                                                                                  05 July 1973 A D.

And many more thanks to the Creator of the Universe, as the English translation of this precious book is completed at the less literate hands of Lt. Col. (R) Saadullah Beg TI(M) psc, FF son of Qudratullah Beg at Rawalpindi.

Date: 8th  May, 2006                                                                Lt. Col. (R) (Saadullah Beg)

House No. SO-217,

Askari-XI, Cobb Lines,

Qasim Market Road.

Rawalpindi Cantt,


Phone 051-5110348 (Res)

Cell:  0300-8501355

Bibliography and Reference Books

Muhammad Reza Beg as well as Hajj Qudratullah Beg, both did not have the luxury of access to a library or collection of books of history of any kind as Hunza State during that era was still grouping in the ancient era dark ages, still cut off and  isolated from the rest of the then developed world. However Haji Qudratullah had the opportunity to reach out into the subcontinent and Kashmir Hence the two co-authors have and specially the later has quoted the following few books in support of his this book of History of Hunza, which is primarily based on oral tradition:-

a. Handwritten manuscript/draft History of Ancient Era Hunza State", by Mir Ghazanfar Khan (Mir of Hunza 1823-1863-4). This draft/manuscript written in Dari (Persian) was seen and read only by Faraj Muhammad Reza Beg as this precious document had been lost during the fateful days of last week of December 1891, as it was taken away by the fleeing Mir Munshi of Mir Safdar Khan towards Yarqand,

b. "Tareektre-Jammu" (Urdu) by Alhaaj Maulavi Hashmatullah Lakhnavi, a Civil servant/bureaucrat of Maharaja of Kashmir, who had al least two tenures of his service in Gilgit, the second being that of Wazir-e-Wazarat of Province of Gilgit. Thus it is an authentic source of the Inside history of Jammu and Kashmir. This book was seen, read and studied by Haji Qudratullah Beg as this book was first published in 1935-36 AD.

c. “Where Three Empires Meet" 1894 by the British war correspondent E.F. Knight, who had personally participated in the Hunza-Nagar Expedition 1891 of Col Durand and seen the whole campaign as participant This book may also have been seen and read by Hajj Qudratullah Beg only. Re-print of this book. by Sanq-e-Meel Publications, Lahore, Pakistan, is readily available from the reputed book shops In Lahore. Rawalpindi. Islamabad and Gilgit, Skardu etc.

d. "The Wonder of the Himalayas” 1924, by Captain Young Husband. This book is not available in Pakistan. This was also seen/read by Haji Qudratullah Beg as it had not been made available in Northern Areas and even in subcontinent time very late, hence Muhammad Reza Beg could not even have knowledge of this book: though he had personally met Captain Young Husband on his arrival to Hunza in the year 1889-90.

e. Original official documents and official letters available and preserved in the library of Mir Muhammad Jamal Khan (the last Mir to Hunza) some to the official correspondence dates back to Mir Ghazanfar Khan sera (1823-1863).

f. letters and documents of Wazir Humayun Beg, mostly, now in possession of the co-author of this book (Wazir Humayun).

g. Official documents and records/letters available in the following offices/libraries:

(1) Municipal Library, Gilgit.

(2) Archive ~ General Headquarters Pakistan Army and Indian Army.

(3) India Office Records library Simla, India.

(4) India Office Records Library London-UK

(5) Archives Royal Geographic Society, London-UK

(6) School of Oriental and African Studies - London-UK

Reference Books:

Following books written by some outstanding British officers who actively took part as the scouts, eyes and ears and vanguard, in the Great Game of their motherland. in this region (Northern Areas, Turkistan, Afghanistan and Wakhan, Sariqool and Pamirs etc) contain some immense knowledge and information including historic, about Hunza, Gilgit, Chitral, Yasin, Kashmir and Sariqool/Turkistan and Badakhshan/Wakhan etc. Many an events and oral tradition of Hunza have a mentioned in most of these books. Hence can be collaborated with the contents of this book of "History of Ancient Era Hunza State":-

1. "The Jammu & Kashmir Territories 1875 by Capt. F. Drew, London-UK.

2. "Tribes of the Hindukush" 1881 by Colonel John Biddulph (Reprinted by Sang-e-Meel Publications, Lahore-Pakistan).

3. "Dardistan in 1866, 1886 and 1893 The Hunza and Nagar Handbook" by G.W. Leitner first published in 1889.

4. "Travels in Kashmir" (Vol I and II) by G T Vingne, Esq, F.G.S. first published in 1844 (reprinted by Indus Publications Karachi. Pakistan).

5. "The Making of a Frontier" by Colonel Algernon Durand, first published in 1899, London, UK.

6. "The Gilgit Mission 1885-6” by Colonel W.S.A. Lockhart and R.G. Woodthorpe, 1889.

7. "Between the Oxus and the Indus” by Colonel R.C.F. schomberg

8. Peaks and Plains of Central Asia” by Colonel R.C.F. Schomberg.

9 "Unknown Karakoram" by R.C.F. Schomberg (first published 1936 in UK)

10. "Indian Frontier Warfare" by Walter H James - (first published 1897-98 in UK).

11 “A Gazettere of Kashmir" by Charles Ellison Bates - first published in 1873 in Calcutta.

12. "The Relief of Chitral" by Captain G.J . Young Husband and Col Sir Francis Young Husband .

13 "Horned Moon" by Ian Stephens first published in 1953

14. "Kim" by Rudyard Kipling first published in 1901 in UK.

15. "The Great Game on Secret Service in High Asia· by Peter Hopkirk,

16. "The Burushaski Language” Vol I, II, III by Lt. Col. D.C.R Lorimer (1935-UK).

17. "The Heart of Continent”----- 1886 by Sir Francis Young Husband.

18 "The Light of Experience"---1927 by Sir Francis Young Husband,

19 ·Bayonets to Lhasa" - 1961, by Peter Fleming.

20. ·High Road to Hunza· - 1958, by B. Mons.

21. "Thousand of KUI and Chitral" 1928m by E. Sherson, London.

22. ·Twenty Years in the Himalayas· 1910, by C.G. Bruce.

23 “Chitral, the Story of a Minor Siege· 1898 by Sir G.S. Robertson

24 "The Chitral Campaign" 1895 by H.C. Thomson-London.

25. 'With Kelly to Chitral 1896 by W.G. L. Beynon-London.

26. "The Pamirs and the Sources of oxus" 1896 by G.N. Curzon.

27 "The Sepoy and the Cossack" 1971 by P.G. Fredericks-London.

28. · British India's Northern Frontier 1865-96· 1963 by G. J Alder-London.

29. "Kashmir and Kashgar" 1875 by HW. Bellew-London

30. "Russia in Central Asia" 1889 by G. N. Curzon-London.

31. “Climbing In the Karakoram Himalaya" 1894 by W.M. Conway-London.

32. "Playing the Great Game” 1975, by M. Edwardes-London.

33 "The Roof of the World" 1876 by T.E. Gordon.

34 "Where Four Worlds Meet" 1964 by F Mairaini-London.

35. "Russia’s Advance towards India” 1882 by C Marvin-London.

36. "Visits to High Tartary, Yarkand and Kashgar" 1871 by R. Shaw

37. "In and Beyond the Himalayas" 1896 by S J. Stone-London

38. “Journey to the Source of the Oxus” 1872 Second Edition, by J -Wood- London.

39. "Lahore to Yarkand" 1873 by G. Henderson and Allan Octavian Hume (Founder of the Indian Congress Party}-London.

40 "Yakoob Beg" 1878 by D.C. Boulger-London.

41 . "Life and Letters of H.M. Durand" 1883, by Sir H.M. Durand-London

42. "A varied Life" 1906 by T.E. Gordon-London.

43 "Discovery of Chinese Turkistan" 1963 by J.A. Dabbs _ The Hague.

44. 'The Great Game in Asia, 1800-44" 1926 by HW.C. Davis-London

45. "Jammoo and Kashmir Territories" 1875 by Capt F. Drew-London.

46 "British and Chinese Central Asia" 1960 by A Lamb--London,

47. "Abode of Snow" 1955 by K. Mason-London.

48. "Historical Records of Survey of India" 1945 by RH. Phillimore-Dehra Dun-Indian

49. "Abode of snow” 1876 by A. Wilson-London.

50. “On  the Glaciers of the Mustakh Range" 1864 Report in JRGS, by Godwin Austen-London

51 "languages and Races of Dardistan" 1877 by GW. Leitner Lahore (Pakistan)

52. "Indus Civilization - Supplementary Volume to the Cambridge History of India" 19SO, by Sir Motimer Wheeler· London.

53. "Indus and its Provinces. Their Political and Commercial importance"        1857, by W P. Andrew - Reprint by Indus Publications. Karachi, Pakistan.

54. 'The Lion river The Indus" 1973, by Jean Fairly, Reprinted in Pakistan in 1993-Lahore.

55. "lbn-e-Battuta-Travels In Asia and Africa 1325-1354”, 1929 Translated and Selected by  .A.R. Gibb, Reprinted by Indus Publications Karachi, Pakistan.

56. "The Mughul Empire" 1866, by Henry George Keene of the Bengal Civil Service, Reprinted 1999 by Sang-e-Meel Publications, Lahore. Pakistan.

57. "A History of the Mughuls of Central Asia - Being the Tarikh-e-Rsshidi of Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat" (Written in Persian in 1545 to 1546) an English translation and version by N Elias - 1895. 1898 and 1972 (new Impression) Curzon Press Ltd, London and Dublin.

58. "The Sinkiang Story" 1977, by Jack Chen. New York, USA,

59. "The Voice of the Nightingale" 1996. By Sabine Felmy – Oxford University Press, Karachi, New Yom, Delhi.

60. "Foreign Devils On the Silk Road ~ The Search for The Lost Treasures of central Asia" 1980, by Peter Hopkirk.

61. "Trespassers on the Roof of the World" by Peter Hopkril.

62. "The Gilgit Rebellion-1947" by Major W.A. Brown.

63. "On Secret Service East of Constantinople".

64. "Danziger's Travels - Beyond Forbidden Frontiers" 1987 by Nick Danziger, London.

65. "The Gilgit Game" 1979. By John Keay--- London Published in Pakistan in 1990.

66. ·When Men and Mountain Meet 1977, by John Keay - UK

67. "Foot Pnnt - Northern Pakistan" (a Tourist Guide Book), 1" Edition by Dave WInter.

68. “Travels In Kashmir and The Punjab" by Baron Charles Von Hugel, 1845, london- Latest edition with an Introduction by Tony Ballantyne printed in 2003 by Mehran Printers, Karachi.

69 "Kashmir a Disputed Legacy, 1846to999" 1991 , by Alastair Lamb, UK.

70 "The Autobiography of Sir Mohammad Nazim Khan, K.C I F Mir of Hunza 1935 by Gushpur Mohammad Jamal Khan (Later Mir Muhammad Jamal Khan, Mir of Hunza 1945-1976), this book (manuscript/draft) was written in Urdu by Gushpur Muhammad Jamal Khan, translated into Persian by Qudratullah Beg and was roughly.

71 . "History of Jammu and Kashmir Rifles (1820-1956)" March 1988, by Major K Brahma Singh (Retd), Jammu - India.

72   "History to Northern Areas of Pakistan" 1989, by Professor Emeritus Dr, Ahmad Hassan Dani, Islamabad, Pakistan.

73. "Pervez Khan's Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh" Kashmir-2004, by Parvez Dewan, IAS Government of Jammu and Kashmir, Manas Publications, New Dehli, India.

74. "In the Wonderland of Asia, Gilgit and Baltistan-2004" by LI Col (Retd) Sikandar Khan Baloch, Sang-e-Meel Publications, Lahore, Pakistan.

75. "The Indus Saga" from Patalipura to Partition - 1996, by Barister Aitzaz Ahsan, Oxford University Press, Lahore, Pakistan.

76. "Hindu Kush _ Study series Volume one and two" 1994, 1997, by Rehmat Karim Baig. Chitral.

77. "History of the World" 1928, 1976. 80, 83, 87, 88, 90, 92 and 1993 by J.M Roberts (John Morris Roberts, Oxford, England.

78. He Times Complete History of the World" The ultimate work of historical Reference. Sixth Edition 2004, edited by Richard Overy first published in 2004 by Times Books -London.

79. "Hunza" 1955 by John Clark.

80. "Power Struggle” in the Hindukush.

81. "The Pathans" 1958, by Sir Olaf Carse, London. UK, Fourteenth impression, 2005.

82. He World Book Encyclopaedia" 1990, USA.

Following are some Urdu Books, written on the Northern Areas, by some local writers of Northern Areas and of Pakistan.

83. “Tareekh-e-Gilgit", manuscript/draft by Subedar Shah Raees Khan Gilgit, but compiled by Professor Emeritus Dr. Ahmad Hassan Dani, 1987.

84. "Burusho Qabayil aur Burusha'al", 2006 by Syed Muhammad Yahya Shah, AI-Hussain of Nagar.

85. "Pakistan ka Saqafati Encyclopaedia Jild Awwal- Shumali illaqah Jaat”, 2006 by Lok Virsa Islamabad, Urdu Uxi-Mufi

86. "Gilgit 1947 Sey Pehley” by Brigadier Ghansara Singh. Urdu translation by Sher Baz Ali Khan Barcha.

87. "Gilgit - Nazria aur Aazadi”, by Professor Usman Ali.

88. "Jilwai Shumaal, 1999 Compiled by Alhaj Muhammad Ibrahim Zayir. Skardu Baltistan.

89. "Aaeenah-e-Diamir", 1992 by Mr. Sartaj Khan, Chilas. Diamir

90. "Wadi-e--Hunza Kay Qadeem Tehwar aur Rasoom-e-Rewaj”, by Mr. Abdullah Jan, 2002.

91. "Hunza Ki Loak Kahaniyaan", by Mr. Abdullah Jan

92. "Riasati Hunza - Tareekh-o-Saqafat Key Aainey Mein”, by Aali Jah Fida Ali _ Eisaar

93. "Khit-tah-e- Karakorum, Zubanain aur Muaashra”, 1996 By Professor Usman Ali.

94. "Karakuram Key Qabail”, by Professor Usman Ali.