Timeline of Canadian History

  1. Eric the Red and Leif Ericson: 1000- 1400 A.D.
  1. During this time period- 200,000 Inuit and Amerindians lived in the Americas.
  2. Eric and father exiled from Norway to Iceland – Eric’s father killed a guy.
  1. Eric was further exiled from Iceland – murder again – consequently, he sets up colonies in Greenland

-Why “Green” land?  Eric wanted to attract people to Greenland.  However, the island was covered with ice.  Call it Greenland and people might think it is great place to live.

  1. His son Leif leads an expedition to mainland America to a place called Vinland.

  1. John Cabot: 1497
  1. Born in Italy- goes to England- “I’ll find a faster way to China!”
  2. Explored Canadian coastline- Did not go far inland- believed he was in China
  3. Returns to England and tells everyone about massive schools of fish!
  4. Contingent nature- Britain becomes involved in North America.

  1. Jacques Cartier: 1535
  1. Sailed for France in search of gold.
  1. Sails up St. Lawrence river and establishes French Stronghold for French
  2. He names the fort Mount Real→ a.k.a. Montreal
  3. By 1600- no competition exists from other European countries → the area is called New France

  1. Samuel de Champlain: 1608
  1. Sailed many times to the New World
  1. Establish first French Colony at Quebec
  2. Goal: find the NW passage – an all-water route through North America.  The NW passage does not exist.
  3. Ended up establishing fur trade with native Americans
  4. Spent the remainder of his life in Quebec

  1. French and Indian War (Treaty of Paris): 1763
  1. A.k.a. Seven Year War
  1. Fight for control of the Ohio River Valley
  1. The area was occupied by French forts→ Fight over fur trade? Religion?
  1. Contingent nature of George Washington – 21 year old British General.  He was the spark starting the F & I War which led to the French Revolution and eventually the American Revolution.
  2. British capture Quebec- French sign Treaty of Paris and give up most of their land

  1. Quebec Act: 1774
  1. The French became hostile after the F & I war- Catholics vs. Protestant Nation
  2. To bring peace to the region- British government passed the Quebec Act to give civil rights to the French establishing Quebec as a very large territory
  3. Became part of the Intolerable Acts- Colonists did not like this!

  1. The Canada Act: 1791
  1. British N.A. divided into upper Canada (Ontario) and lower Canada (Quebec)
  2. Loyalists migrate to Canada following the Revolutionary War

  1. Act of Union: 1840- 1841
  1. Two patriots rebel- William Maclemtic and Louis Papineal
  1. Stopped→ they wanted more representation
  2. Upper and lower Canada were reunited and called the Province of Canada

  1. British North America Act (renamed Constitution Act): 1867
  1. Gives political power to Canadian Provinces (4)
  1. Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia
  1. Creates a house of commons and Prime Minister
  1. More autonomy but no independence

  1. Metis Rebellion (Louis Reil- Metis patriot- hung for treason): 1869- 1870
  1. Metis- mix of whites (French) and Natives
  1. Feared the migration of whites into their territory on the Western Frontier→ wanted representation
  1. Set up on government- treason- fighting broke out- rebellion stopped
  2. Support given by empathetic French politicians

  1. Canadian Pacific Railway: 1885
  1. Transcontinental RR (Manifest Destiny)
  2. Purpose: Extend Canadian Territory, unite, and communicate
  3. Security: Created Royal Canadian Mounted Police

  1. Statute of Westminster: 1931
  1. Independence?
  1. Autonomous nations with “common allegiance” to the crown
  2. End of British Imperialism?

  1. The Question of Quebec Session: late 1900’s
  1. A nation with in a nation?