Manual by Andre Bernet, based on OpenTX r2940, last updated 14.04.27. Commercial use forbidden without explicit authorization of the authors and translators. We don't bite, but like to know what's going on, so just ask :)
So as everybody probably knows now, FrSky have chosen OpenTX as the operating system for their new Taranis radio :)
This page is intended to describe the OpenTX firmware installed on the Taranis, and offer some explanations about the philosophy of the firmware and how to set up models. We'll start with an overview of menu contents, and then go into more details about how to set up models. The Taranis version of OpenTX has all of the features from the 9x version, includes the additions of the sky9x version (audio/speech, SD card for model/audio files/logs storage, USB access to card and settings/model memory), sees the UI adapted to the larger screen and different button layout, and finally adds support for the Taranis' extra hardware capabilities.
The FrSky Taranis is a ground-breaking radio because it's the first time a renowned player in the R/C industry and the creators of an open-source radio control firmware collaborate closely to improve both the hardware and software sides of a product, and come up with an open-source radio targeting the mainstream market. This means that while the Taranis is a low cost radio, it is free of the usual "marketing-driven" limitations that most manufacturers place on their offerings, and as such offers features that match and even exceed those of the highest end radios in the industry.
It is also future-proof, as both teams are always there to respond to questions and suggestions. Things can evolve quickly to follow the needs of the various users! And should you have some programming experience - the entire source code of the firmware is available for you to play with and change to your liking.
The radio has a relatively standard design and control layout, namely:
When selecting a switch position to activate functions, it is referred to as the switch name followed by the physical position (SAup, SC-, SFdown). A ! before the name means NOT, so !SBdown would mean that the function is active when SB is NOT down, i.e. when SB is either up or in the middle.
A swiveling antenna is installed for the internal RF module, and a speech-capable speaker is located under the round grill. The large backlit, grayscale LCD and 6 edit keys take most of the lower part.
The back of the radio shows the JR-compatible module slot, along with a JR-style jack trainer port, USB connector and earphone jack. The battery bay houses a microSD card slot, a serial port and of course the battery connection.
The supplied battery is a 6-cell NiMH, but the plug will also accept a JST-style balance plug for a 2s Li-Po battery. Battery compartment dimensions are 108x31x28mm. Voltage range is 5.5-13V for the internal components, but be aware that external modules might require up to 12V, so observe your module's requirements when using one and choose the appropriate battery.
The right side of the radio sports the charger input plug, with the charging LED next to it on the back of the radio. When you connect the supplied power supply the LED will turn on, and shut off when the battery is charged (2-3 hours charge time for an empty battery).
PLEASE NOTE: The radio has an integrated Ni-MH charge circuitry designed to charge the supplied 6-cell battery.
The gimbals have adjustable length and tension, and each of the vertical axes is fitted with a spring disable feature as well as a ratchet and brake. This means that there is no need to swap parts to change modes, and that if you want to you can have either both or none of the vertical axes spring-loaded.
On the inside, the gimbals have 3 different types of screws:
It is good to note that if you like having weak stick tension, it is easy to get inconsistent centering when the spring tension screws are too loose. Just tighten them enough for centering to be good enough, and recalibrate.
Also, if you encounter a situation where your throttle stick does not “stay” at the ends when you release it, it is likely that that the spring disable screw (green) is simply not tightened all the way. Tightening it completely should solve your problem.
Now might be the time to put the battery on charge, so that after reading this section you can directly have a go at putting what you learned in practice!
The Taranis has 6 input keys: a standard set of +/-/ENTER/EXIT, plus 2 contextual MENU and PAGE keys.
On the main views, the PAGE key will switch between the different views described in the next section. A LONG press of the PAGE key will bring up the telemetry display. A SHORT press of the MENU key will call the model menu, while a LONG press will call the radio settings menu. In those 2 menus, a SHORT press of the PAGE key goes to the next page, while a LONG press goes back to the previous one. EXIT goes back to the main views. In all model menu pages a long press of the MENU key will bring up a channel monitor to allow quickly checking the influence of a change in settings on the outputs.
The navigation in a menu is simple: The +/- keys will navigate up/down between editable fields, or lines of fields depending on the screen.
ENTER will enter the line of fields when applicable, then edit mode. In edit mode, +/- will change the value, ENTER or EXIT will validate the input and return to navigation. EXIT always goes back to the previous navigation level.
In edit mode, we have four 2-key shortcuts available:
Another handy feature is the auto selection of physical inputs in the relevant fields. Instead of choosing a source or switch with the + and - keys, just move the pot or flick the switch you want, and it will be recognised. For switches the position is also auto-selected, and the +/- double key combination will allow selecting the opposite position (!Sxy) in a pinch.
We have 3 main views showing the same basic information in the top part and different inputs/outputs on the lower part. On the main views a long press of the ENTER key brings up a menu where you can reset the timers, telemetry data (min/max values, altitude, GPS home...), all of those, bring up a statistics view (throttle graph, timers), or show the developer credits. As mentioned above, a short press of the PAGE key switches views.
The new title bar includes radio battery voltage, receiver signal strength (for FrSky telemetry-capable receivers), main onboard voltage (can be receiver battery, flight battery, or anything else depending on sensors the "Voltage" parameter in the telemetry settings), status icons (SD present, USB connected, trainer port mode, logging in progress), audio volume and time.
The other "always present" items are model name, flight mode, and trim/pot positions. The logo is of course customisable, you'll be able to load your model's photo there! See this thread for a great collection of models made by the community.
The first view lists the physical switch states in the bottom left zone, and the 2 timers (when enabled) on the right.
The second shows the gimbal and switches positions, and is handy to check that all the physical controls respond as intended.
The third shows again the physical switches on the left, and the states of the 32 custom (logic) switches on the right.
The last view is a channel monitor showing the servo outputs for all 32 channels (+/- change page). If channel names are defined on the SERVOS page, they will show up here instead of the numbers for convenience.
A LONG press of the PAGE key from any of the main views brings up the telemetry views. The PAGE and +/- keys will then cycle between the power status screen (voltage, current, power or A1/A2 if not set, cell voltages from an FLVS-01 sensor if connected), the min/max and GPS coordinates screen, and if defined from one to three customs screens that can hold up to 12 items each, configured in the telemetry setup menu.
A LONG press of the MENU key brings up the mostly self-explanatory radio setup menu:
A SHORT press of the PAGE key brings up the SD card browser page:
This allows you to browse the SD card contents.
On each file or folder, pressing ENTER will bring up a contextual menu with some basic file operations (copy/delete), as well as others depending on the file type.
Folders are organised as such:
The microSD card can be formatted by selecting the relevant option in the menu that appears when pressing MENU LONG. A confirmation will be required.
A SHORT press of the PAGE key calls the trainer settings page:
This page allows you to configure the trainer function for "master" use (make sure the Trainer mode in model settings is set to Master). For each of the 4 main functions you will be able to set the mode (OFF, += for Add, := for Replace), ratio and input channel.
Start by setting the mode for each function (the "standard" way is Replace i.e. when the trainer function is activated the function is fully transferred to the student, Add allows both master and student to act upon the function together). Then select the source channel accordingly to the brand/model of the student radio, and set the ratio to 100% for now. Now ensure the student radio is connected and recognised (moving the sticks of the student radio should change the 4 numbers at the bottom of the screen) make sure all its trims are neutral, all its sticks are centered (including throttle). Select the CAL field and press ENTER twice. The numbers should now be 0.0 or very close.
Now move the student radio's sticks and check the numbers vary from -100 to +100. Should they reach those values before the stick hits the end of its travel, reduce the ratio so that the throws match. Should they never reach -100 to +100 even with full stick deflection, use the Multiplier field to increase it.
Trainer input is now configured. Note that this setting is global, because it depends on the student radio regardless of the selected model. In order to use the Trainer function on a specific model you will need to assign the switch you want to the "Trainer" Custom Function for that model. More about this further.
This screen allows you to see the version of your currently loaded OpenTX firmware.
When reporting a bug, please be sure to include the revision number you see on the SVN line.
The next 2 pages are the switch and analog diagnostics, they will show you what the firmware reads from the radio's keys and potentiometers. This is the first place to go to if you run into issues with badly responding sticks / pots / switches. If things are wrong here (inconsistent stick centering or end point readings, flickering value,...) then you can be sure the problem is hardware-related and not due to wrong model setup.
The Analog page also features the battery calibration setting. It should be correct out of the box, but if not move the cursor to the field, and adjust it so that the displayed value matches the voltage you can measure on the battery terminals with a voltmeter.
This is the place where you can calibrate sticks and pots. Follow the on-screen instructions, and note that when asked to center the sticks this includes the throttle stick and the 2 sliders. S1 and S2 pots however do not need to be centered, only the extremes are calibrated.
A SHORT press of the MENU key from the main views brings up the model selection screen. There models can be selected, deleted, backed up and restored to/form SD card using the menu brought up by a LONG press on the ENTER key. They can also be copied or moved (one SHORT press on ENTER key highlights the line, +/- create and place a copy of the model on the desired slot, while two SHORT presses create a dotted outline where +/- simply move the selected model to another slot.)
A SHORT press of the PAGE key brings up the basic model setup page:
A SHORT press of the PAGE key will bring up the helicopter CCPM head mixer page. This page allows setting a swashplate type, and limiting the control authority through the Swash Ring setting.
The inputs of this mixer are the Ail and Ele sticks, plus the virtual channel selected in "Collective source". This channel would see entries added on the MIXER page for one or more pitch curves.
The outputs of the CCPM mixer are CYC1, CYC2 and CYC3, which need to be assigned on the MIXER page to the channels you will connect your servos to.
Note that the settings made here have no effect unless you are using those CYC1, CYC2 and CYC3 sources. A multirotor or flybarless helicopter which uses onboard computers/mixers will NOT use them.
Next up is the flight modes screen.
8 flight modes plus the default one are available for use. Each of them can be named, has a selectable activation switch (physical or logical), a trim selection array (R, E, T, A when shown mean the mode has its own trim setting for that control, but each can be changed to a number from 0 to 9 and thus use the same value as the specified mode), and slow up/down parameters for smooth transitions between modes.
The priority of the flight modes is such as the first FM of 1-8 that has its switch ON is the active one. When none has its switch ON, the default FM0 is active.
The next screen allows setting one or more input formatting rules to each stick axis. This is the first step of the control chain - where you define the amount of control authority you want on each stick.
As many lines as required can be assigned to each stick (LONG press ENTER brings up a popup menu to insert/delete lines), and again the first one that has its condition on (starting from the top) will be the active one. This is commonly used to create dual, triple,... rates. A name can be defined for each entry, as well as the rate and exponential ratio. A curve (built-in or custom) can also be used instead of the "simple" exponential function.
The Modes line allows to choose in which flight mode(s) (highlighted numbers) that line can be active. If the current mode is not selected, turning on the switch will not activate that formatting line.
The Side parameter limits the effect of that formatting line to only one side of the stick. A summary of the selected modes for each line is shown on the main screen.
The next page is where the actions on the controls will be mapped to servos. OpenTX does not have any predefined mixing functions that relate only to a particular model type or situation, it rather gives you a blank canvas you can build upon. The key to configuring a model on OpenTX is not to think about "activating the delta mix" like on certain radios, but rather to think about what you want your control on the model to do in response to an input on the radio's controls. The mixer is where all that "logic" gets entered.
The various channels are outputs, for example CH1 being the servo plug #1 on your receiver (with the default protocol settings). A channel without a mixer line will just center a servo that would be connected to it.
Each mixer line connects one input to the channel it's on. Inputs can be:
All inputs work on a -100% to +100% basis. Sticks, pots, channels, CYC sources, trainer inputs will vary proportionally within this range. 3-position switches will return -100%, 0% or +100%. 2-position switches (and logic ones) will return -100% or +100%. MAX is always +100%.
If you want the servo connected to the #2 plug of your receiver to be controlled by the elevator stick, you will simply create a mixer entry on CH2 with Ele as source. Easy enough!
There can be as many lines as needed on each channel, and the operation between each line can be selected. To create a new line, you would LONG press the ENTER key, and select insert before/after. By default all the lines on a same channel are added together, but a line can also multiply those before it, or replace them.
For clarity, each line that is currently active and contributing to the channel's output will have its source displayed in bold. This can be very handy when many are present and to check switch functions.
For each mixer line, several parameters are available:
As a little example, if you wanted to add some compensation on the elevator channel when you increase throttle, you would go through a simple path:
So you would simply go on CH2, and insert a new line with Thr as source. Type would be Add as the compensation needs to be added to the "normal" elevator response. As the required compensation is likely small, you will dial in a small weight, maybe 5%. On the ground with motor disconnected, you will check the elevator compensates in the correct direction. If not, you'll invert the weight to -5%.
You could then assign a switch, in order to be able to activate/deactivate it in flight to see if the amount of compensation is actually appropriate. If the correction is more complicated, you might want to assign and create a curve that matches what's required.
The SERVOS page is the interface between the setup "logic" and the real world with servos, linkages and control surfaces. Up to now, we have set up what we want our different controls to do, now is the time to adapt that to the mechanical characteristics of the model.
For each channel, we can define:
The following diagram illustrates the respective behavior of both subtrim modes and how Center adjustment compares to them:
The last line after CH32 is the "Trims to Offsets" function. It is used to take the trims of the currently selected flight mode, transfer their content to the subtrims, reset them, and adjust all other flight modes' trims. If you're close to running out of trim, instead of having to adjust every value one after the other, all it takes is to LONG press ENTER on this line and everything is done magically. Beware that you should still check if it would not be wiser to correct the problem mechanically, especially with large values, as depending on the subtrim behavior setting it might lead to either insufficient and asymmetric throws, or clipping/dead band.
Custom curves can be used either in input formatting or mixers. There are 16 of them available, and they can be of several types (3, 5, 9, 17pt, both with fixed or user-definable x coordinates). 3pt would be a 3-point curve with fixed x, 9pt' is a 9-point curve with user-defined x coordinates.
These curves are available in addition to the "built-in" curves:
The curve editor allows you to define a name for the selected curve, the type, and of course set the coordinates. When the cursor is on one of the editable coordinates, a LONG press of the ENTER key will bring up a menu where you can choose a standard preset curve, mirror the curve vertically, or reset all points.
Global variables are values that can be substituted to the usual number on every Weight, Offset, Differential or Expo setting. Their main use is to group the adjustment of several parameters that should have the same value. For example, aileron differential on a glider with 4 surfaces responding to the aileron function. When trying to find the sweet spot for the differential value, instead of having to repeatedly edit the differential value in 4 mixers, all 4 can be set to use a global variable (e.g. GV1 resp. -GV1, selected by a LONG press of the ENTER key on the Differential field). Then adjusting GV1 on this page is all it takes for all differentials to be updated.
Global variables are also flight mode specific, so instead of having to create separate mixer lines with different values depending on the flight mode one can simply use a global variable with different values for each flight mode. This can significantly help simplifying the mixer screen by avoiding many duplicate entries.
Global variables can also be adjusted in flight thanks to the Adjust GVx Custom Function that will be described later, and help adjusting those parameters that are easier to tweak in flight like D/R ratios, expos or again differential.
The Global variables screen allows setting a name for each of the 5 available variables for conveniency, and seeing/setting the value each of them will have in each of the 9 flight modes.
These are logic switches that are used to compare values and combine various conditions.
The first "operation" column lists a few arithmetical, logical and differential operations. In arithmetical ones a and b represent variables, x represents a constant. Variables can be every source, i.e. all those available in mixers, plus the 5 global variables and all telemetry values. In logical operations the available sources are all physical and other custom switches. Differential functions compare the variation of a variable since last match to another value.
Custom switches offer 3 more parameters: An extra AND condition (if selected, must be on for the custom switch to become active), a Duration parameter (the minimum time a custom switch will be active for even if its conditions become false instantly), and a delay parameter (that affects both activation and deactivation). See the title bar header to see the function of the field the cursor is on.
A long press of the ENTER key on a custom switch's label will bring up a popup menu that allows you to copy/paste/delete an entry for more convenient entry of similar settings.
This is the place where switches can be used to trigger special functions such as trainer mode, soundtrack playback, speech output of variables etc.
The first column selects the trigger, which can be any switch (physical or custom) or ON (always on). A LONG press of the ENTER key will switch to "toggle" mode (ending with t), i.e. the selected input will be turned on when the selected switch is activated, and will remain on until it is deactivated and reactivated again.
Scrolling through the list you will also find a few more options: One (triggers just once when loading a model or turning the radio on), SHdownS (short press of the momentary switch), SHdownL (long press of the momentary switch).
The available functions are:
A long press of the ENTER key on a custom function's label will bring up a popup menu that allows you to copy/paste/delete an entry for more convenient entry of similar settings.
This page groups all the basic telemetry-related settings.
Following those basic parameters are the selection lists for the 3 custom telemetry screens that can be seen by LONG pressing the PAGE key on the main views. Each screen can either show numerical parameters (9 in the main screen area and 3 in the bottom bar), or 4 bargraphs with configurable upper/lower limits.
Each field can be one of the various available parameters, of course the corresponding sensors and/or hub must be installed in the model:
The templates are currently "starting points" for model setups. When selected with ENTER LONG they will either add to or replace the current model's mixers and settings with the usual ones for the usage scenario they correspond to (best used on a newly created model). These can be used to build upon or tweak to achieve the desired result, or simply to get an idea of what's required for that model type.
Now that you've seen the basics and that your battery has some charge, what about a little bit of practice? The radio comes from the factory with the sticks already calibrated, so the first thing to do with your radio would be to configure the general settings. Get to the relevant page with MENU LONG, set time, date, sound volumes to your preference (the lower end of the volume slider is typically needed when using headphones, while the upper end is good for using with the internal speaker), play with the backlight setting, set the RF country code to your location, the default channel order to your preference, and the stick mode to match your flying style. Battery gauge and alarm are factory set for the supplied battery.
The radio will have created an empty model for you, so after having gone back to the main view you'll be able to go to the model setup screen by pressing MENU SHORT and PAGE SHORT. There you'll want to make sure you've set the RF mode that matches the receiver you want to use. When using the internal module, to bind your receiver select the "Bind" field and press the ENTER key. The radio will beep every few seconds. Now follow your receiver's instructions for binding (press and hold the F/S button then apply power for D and X receivers, connect jumper to S pins of channels 1 and 2 and apply power for V8x-II receivers). The receiver LED will flash fast to confirm binding. Press exit on the radio, Remove the jumper on the receiver if applicable, and cycle receiver power. You should now have servo control of channels 1-4 with the sticks.
Now that everything works, it's time to stop a moment for some theory about the basic operation of the OpenTX firmware.
As briefly described above, OpenTX differs from the majority of mainstream radios by its programming philosophy. Owners of Multiplex radios will however feel at home very quickly, as the principles are very similar. As opposed to common radios that offer a choice between a limited set of predefined usage scenarios (airplane, glider, helicopter), a number of functions that are commonly used with such models (delta, flaperon, camber, butterfly...), and have fixed assignations (sticks always control their respective channels), OpenTX offers a blank canvas on which you will build your setup: the mixer screen. This approach ensures maximum flexibility because whatever you do you will never have to work around what the radio expects you to do, which is a blessing for anybody having to work with "new" model types or configurations which still "don't exist" for mainstream radio manufacturers, and as such for which the built-in functions are usually useless. So you can see it that way: For some model types, usual predefined functions can allow setting up a model in seconds (just enable a function), but for others you'll spend hours trying to get around their limitations. On OpenTX everybody is more or less at the same level - it might take a little longer at the beginning to set up a seemingly simple model, but a complicated one won't take much more. As there is no existing function you can just turn on, it will require basic understanding of how your model is supposed to work, and what you want each control surface to do. This means that you might even learn something about your model in the process of setting it up!
The control order path starts from the hardware controls, goes through the STICKS screen (anything affecting control response like dual rates and exponential), continues to the mixer, and ends up being adapted to the mechanical characteristics of the model in the SERVOS screen.
We'll start with this as it is the center of the radio. The mixer screen lists the 32 output channels to which you can link one or more inputs from a long list of physical controls (sticks, pots, trims, switches), logic sources, other channels and trainer inputs. Each assignation is done with a mixer line. A new model will have 4 predefined mixer lines on channels 1,2,3 and 4 that link the 4 sticks to them according to the channel order preference you have set. These are there purely for convenience, and can of course be edited or deleted.
Let's delete them all by highlighting them, pressing ENTER LONG and choosing "Delete". Your mixer screen is now empty, which means the radio does nothing at all. Well it does, it sends out the number of channels that are defined on the model setup page to the receiver (channels 1-8 by default), but as those channels are empty in the mixer screen no servo will respond, they'll all be centered. You won't go very far with that, so you'll want to add control inputs to those channels. You'll create a mixer line on CH1 by highlighting it and pressing ENTER LONG, and will end up in the INSERT MIX page. Scroll to the "Source" field, press ENTER, and select the control you want to act on CH1. You can do it by browsing the list with the + and - keys, or take the easy route and just move the desired control (if it's a physical one, of course). Move the aileron stick, and the field will change to Ail (it might have already been there if your channel order preference set in the general settings had A for the first channel, as that's taken into account). You can leave the other parameters at their default settings, which mean:
Note that at any time in the Mixer screen and the EDIT/INSERT MIX dialogs you can press MENU LONG to bring up the channel monitor. This makes it easy to try the different parameters and see their effect on the channel's output. In addition to this, you will see that on the mixer screen each active line has its name and source displayed in bold, so it's always clear at any given time as to which lines are actively contributing to the channel output.
The description is long, but in practice if we now do it again to control CH2 with the elevator stick it will only take a couple of seconds to select CH2, press ENTER LONG, scroll to Source, press ENTER, move the Elevator stick, and press EXIT twice. Setting up the mixer for a vast number of basic models is as simple as that. In addition to the 4 basic channels, if you have a model with flaps that have their own servo and that you want to control with switch SB you'll just find a free channel to connect your servo to (let's say CH6), you'll scroll to CH6 on the mixer screen, insert a mixer line, flip the SB switch when in edit mode on the source field, and EXIT twice. If you want to adjust the up/mid/full positions, a good idea would be to set up a 3-point custom curve. In the Curve setting, select c1, exit edit mode, and still on the curve field press MENU. You will be brought to the curve editor. Select "3pt" as type, select the Y value of the first point, and adjust its position. Do the same for the other 2 points, and exit.
Now something more "complicated", if your model has retracts that you want to control with switch SA (which has 3 positions) but want only 2 possible output values (in and out) this won't work (choosing SA would give -100%, 0%, +100%). You'll then use the very convenient MAX source, that represents a fixed value. Create a mixer line on a channel (e.g. CH5) with MAX as source and +100% weight, you could name it "Gear Up". Now create a 2nd mixer line under the first one by pressing ENTER LONG on on it and selecting "Insert After". Choose MAX again as source, then set weight to -100%, for which it's time to remember the handy shortcut - enter edit mode, and press the + and - keys together. There, -100%. Scroll to the "Multpx" setting, and select "Replace". Now go to the switch setting, enter edit mode, flip SA in the UP position (flick it out of it first if it's already there), and press the + and - keys together. This will turn the "SAup" entry into "!SAup". This means the line is active whenever SA is NOT in the UP position. Name the line as "Gear Down" and you're done. What happens is: CH5 will be at 100% by default (the first mixer line is in effect), BUT when SA is either in the middle or in the down position the 2nd line will activate and replace the first one, turning the output to -100%. If you go back to the mixer screen and play with SA you'll see that when it's not in the UP position the 2nd line will turn bold as it becomes active, while the first one fades back to normal as it's been deactivated by the Replace type of the second line. Again that seems long, but takes as much as about 30 seconds when you're used to it.
Of course if you've followed you'll certainly understood that we could have set the second line to use switch "SAup", and that subsequently the role of the 2 lines would be swapped (second active when switch is up, first in the other 2 positions). But then I wouldn't have had the opportunity to explain the !, and also as a personal preference I like my switch default positions to be UP, and the first mixer line on a channel to be the default value.
A little simple one next: You have 2 ailerons with separate servos. Using a Y-cable to link them is too old-school nowadays, so let's use another channel. We already have the first aileron on CH1, CH5 and 6 are taken by gear and flaps, so let's use CH7. We have an aileron that must move with the aileron stick, which is actually just like the first one. So let's just copy the first mixer by highlighting it and pressing ENTER LONG, and selecting copy. Move it to CH7 and press ENTER. This would work just fine, but I'll throw in a personal preference again, and change its weight to -100% because "logically" that aileron is supposed to move in the opposite direction. We'll see later why this makes sense.
Next up: a little mix. I'm going to be lazy and just tell you to go back up and check the mixer screen description a bit further up for the throttle -> elevator compensation. I'm sure it will seem much more clear now!
Let's do a delta mix. Again, what kind of control surfaces do we have, and what do we want them to do?
We have 2 elevons. They must move in the same direction when the elevator stick is moved, but they must move in opposite directions when the aileron stick is moved.
So, let's pick 2 channels to connect our servos to. CH3 and 7, because... why not. Trying to make you forget about old school fixed channel assignments here ;)
CH3 must move with the elevator stick, so we create a mixer line with Ele as source on it. CH3 must also move with the aileron stick, so we create a 2nd mixer line with Ail as source. We leave multiplexing set to "Add", as that's exactly what we want to do - the 2 inputs must be added together.
Now let's discuss the weights a little. They are now set to 100%. This means that a full deflection of the aileron stick will create a full deflection of CH3, same for the elevator stick. But now as we add the 2 together, if we put the stick in the upper right corner (assuming mode 2) we have 100% + 100% = 200% output on CH3. Now, the limits defined on the SERVOS screen are set to 100% - which means that the output will be clipped. When the mixer's output for a channel goes beyond 100%, the servo won't move any further. This is not different from other radios - predefined delta mixes will usually give you ratios to enter for elevator and aileron authority, which is just the same. If you enter too high ratios some of the stick throw will be ineffective.
Now the discussion as to what to set the ratios to is probably endless - some are happy with 100% and clipping, some will like 50% so that there is never any clipping, and some like myself will like something a bit in the middle - I use 70%.
So, let's say we now have 2 mixer lines on CH3, 70% Ail and 70% Ele. As we said, CH7 must respond the same way to the elevator input, so we add a 70% Ele mixer too. It must respond to the aileron stick by the same amount, but in the opposite direction, so we'll set... -70%.
This is the reason for which I set -100% in the previous dual aileron example. Forcing yourself to enforce that logic thinking even when not really necessary will help you to get it right when it's needed. For example in the dual aileron scenario we could have set both ailerons to 100%, then used servo reverse to invert one aileron to achieve the same result on the model. BUT in the delta scenario this wouldn't work.
Now that the mixer is configured and the controls' behaviors are defined, the next step is to set up the way these orders will be carried through to the servos. At this point you'll want to actually connect your servos to your receiver, remove the control horns from the servos, the props from the motors (safety first), and connect a receiver battery. Bind the receiver if not done yet.
Center all controls (you can look at the channel monitor and aim for 0), and for each servo start by mounting the horns so that they're as close to perpendicular to the control linkage they're going to drive as possible. Murphy's law ensures that it's always right between 2 of the steps, so use the PPM center adjustment to make them perfectly perpendicular. Using this setting instead of subtrim avoids losing throw, and makes sure the outputs seen in the channel monitor are real "control" inputs. Connect your linkages so that the control surfaces are at neutral (or middle of their expected throw for things such as flaps).
Now move the radio's controls carefully to exercise the servos but being aware of possible mechanical binding. Set servo reverse where needed. Adjust the linkages in order to have a little more throw than what you'll ever need in both directions. If there is a little binding on one side to reach the appropriate side on the other and/or the throws are not symmetrical it's not a problem.
Then adjust the min and max limits. These should be set so that:
We're done for this screen. You've already named your channels of course ;)
You've probably noticed there's one thing we haven't done yet - adjust throws. That's what we'll do now.
For each stick, create a rate line. Set the weight to achieve the desired throws. Add expo if desired. This is your default rate, so don't choose a switch.
If you want multiple rates, create a new line before the default one, enter the new rate/expo, choose a switch. Repeat as many times as desired. What's important to know is that the first line that has its switch on (starting from the top) will be the active one. So if you create rates below one with no switch - it will never be active. Think about the priority if you choose switch combinations that can lead to 2 rates having their switch on - the top one will override the other. Ideally you should choose your switches so that never happens.
There, we can go and fly!
Time for a little summary. As we've seen, there's literally an infinite number of ways to do the same thing in the firmware, so let's mention a few good practices when setting up models. If you stick to them they will help you set up your model quicker, keep your setup clean, and understand what you did 6 months later. With a simple 4-channel model where each servo is controlled by only one control input, if you want to reduce aileron throw you could do it either with the aileron D/R, in the weight of the mixer line linking the Aileron stick to the aileron channel, and with the Limits for that channel. For such a simple model it won't matter much where you do it, but as soon as you'll get to more complicated models with flaperons, butterfly mixes etc, doing it in the limits for example would simply make it impossible to set up the model properly.
Now the throws are adjusted, the mixer is set for good logic and the outputs are set for good mechanical fit. As every part of the setup is clearly separated, should you need to change something any adjustment will only require intervention on one of the screens. If you crash or change something mechanically, it will be the SERVOS screen. If your throws are too big, Sticks screen. If a compensation amount or mixing ratio is wrong, mixer screen.
Remember that there are custom switches that can be set to combine various functions, for example allow activation of some mixers only if another one is active, etc.
It is also good practice to make use of the "Safety CHx" custom function to define a safety switch for the throttle channel of electric models. Select your throttle lock switch, select the correct function for your throttle channel, set the value to -100, then tick the box. While you should always set up your model without it being powered, or at least without a prop mounted, the safety box is there to avoid forcing the channel to the default value of 0 (mid throttle) while browsing the function list if your switch is active.
The "Instant Trim" custom function can be used if you expect your model could be badly out of trim on the first flight, see the Custom Functions section for a full description.
Once the flight is over, the "Trims -> Offsets" function at the bottom of the SERVOS page can be used to transfer the trim contents into the subtrim settings. Be aware that unless the servo mode is set to "=" an excessive subtrim amount can lead to dissymmetric throws and influences settings like differential.
Flight modes in OpenTX are relatively simple compared to most radios. The settings are simple: A name (displayed on the main views), a switch to activate them, a trim setting and 2 fade in/out settings. Yet they are very powerful, because the main settings are actually just located somewhere else: in the D/Rs and mixers. Each of these has a flight mode selection list, that will determine in which one(s) they are active. So (nearly) everything is done through dedicated mixers. The mixers that are controlled by a flight mode will see their activation fade in/out according to the mode's settings. As the trims can be made flight-mode specific (they are by default), using flight modes to activate things like gear or flaps allows using the separate set of trims to counter the extra drag that often causes an effect on pitch.
The following will assume your radio is loaded with a microSD card and a valid voice pack, which should be the case as it is supplied with the radio. Probably the most important telemetry value is RSSI, which is an indication of how much signal the receiver in the model is seeing from the radio, and will warn you in advance if you are at risk of losing control be it due to external interference, excessive distance, badly oriented or damaged antennas etc. The telemetry settings page gives you 2 alarm levels you can set that will be announced in clear voice ("RF signal low" and "RF signal critical"). They are set by default to levels that have been considered suitable and safe for normal line of sight flight (45 and 42), but if you want to adjust them yourself the following explanations will be useful:
RSSI on FrSky equipment is represented using a logarithmic scale (dB), not in %. This means that when RSSI is high, a small difference in distance between the transmitter and receiver will lead to a big change of the RSSI value. It is perfectly normal to see a value of about 100 when next to the model, and already down in the 70's by the time you've walked to the other end of the field. When you have a reading of 50, it will however take a lot of extra distance to reach the alarm level of 45. The basic approximation rule is that a doubling of distance between pilot and model will result in a drop of 6dB of the RSSI value, which should make the previous explanation clear: If you are 5m away from the model it only takes another 5m to reduce RSSI by 6dB, but if you are 600m away from the model it will then take another 600m to reduce the value by the "same" 6dB.
Loss of control will happen when RSSI reaches a value of about 38, so setting an alarm at 10 is useless. From the above explanation you can see that between the default critical alarm (42) and usual practical loss of control we have a margin of about 4dB, or range factor of around 1.5. The alarms are thus rather conservative, and in normal conditions even if you heard the critical alarm you would still be far from losing control (you should be at around >1000m distance, with another 500m to spare). Intermittent loss due to local fades and antenna orientation mismatches could however get more and more frequent.
As mentioned the default alarms are deemed safe for usual line of sight flight, but for example with FPV setups especially when coupled with automatic return to home systems and properly configured failsafes the safety margin can be reduced and you should be able to extract more or less double of the standard range out of the system. It is up to you to (safely!) experiment as once the margin gets reduced influence of external interference sources will start to become more noticeable, such as it is impossible to predict the behavior of a given installation in a particular model.
The Taranis also has an alarm that will warn you of the telemetry downlink being lost or recovered. The telemetry link behaves similarly to the control link and is transmitted with the same power level, so it should have essentially similar range, and the conservative alarms for the control link described above should ensure the telemetry link is always available. However, it is possible that for any reason (manufacturing tolerances resulting in slightly different range of the up and down links, local interference sources in close proximity to the radio,...) the telemetry link is lost prematurely, in which case a warning is essential as you need to be aware that any telemetry-based alarms will NOT sound anymore. Obviously, if the radio can't pick up the RSSI info from the receiver it won't be able to warn you about low RSSI. Similarly, if you are for example relying on information from an onboard voltage or current sensor to know when to land, the alarms you set for this won't sound if telemetry data is unavailable. So be aware of the "Telemetry lost" audio alert and act accordingly, whether by falling back to other sources of info or by turning back to land and investigate the reason for the loss of telemetry feed.
Note that when the radio and receiver are very close to each other (usually <1m) you may get spurious "telemetry lost" and "telemetry recovered" alarms. This is not a malfunction and will stop when the 2 devices are separated.
The rest of the telemetry subject in itself has mostly been covered already. The telemetry settings page allows you to configure the different parameters that have been explained in the menu overviews. The telemetry views will show the data as configured. If you have a microSD card in your radio, you can use the "SD Logs" custom function to record the telemetry data while in flight. It can then be played back in OpenTX companion or opened in spreadsheet programs.
One of the major features of the radio is the speech output function. Provided a microSD card (FAT12/16/32 format) loaded with the sound pack available for download from within OpenTX companion is inserted in the slot in the battery compartment, the radio will be able to play audio files in response to various events like reaching trim center/ends and activation of a switch (physical or custom), to play a background music file, and last but not least to announce every available value (telemetry, parameter, stick position) in clear voice. Custom sounds can be placed in the SOUNDS/(selected_language) folder of the card and will be available for use (name must be 8 characters at most, not counting the .wav extension, and with no special characters). Language is set in the radio general settings and can be changed on the fly as long as the pack for that language is loaded on the card.
ZIP files with the standard voice packs can be downloaded from within OpenTX companion, or here. Extract the ZIP file to the root of the SD card, and it will create the necessary subdirectories (e.g. SOUNDS/en for the English pack). If you wish to create your own files, the required format is:
The stock sounds above use the best available quality, i.e. 16bit, 32kHz and PCM.
Audio operation is relatively simple as it only consists of 5 "and a half" Custom Functions:
The following example shows a few Custom Functions set to announce what switches activate when they are, as well as SHdown triggering playback of the value of Timer 2 followed by the consumption (mAh count obtained from an FrSky FAS-100 current sensor onboard).
In addition to the sounds played by custom functions, there are a few predefined sounds that will be played automatically when an event happens if an appropriately named file is placed in the right folder.
Currently the following events are supported:
The "modelname" and "flightmodename" folder should be identical (including case) to your model's name and flight mode name respectively, with spaces replaced by underscores. Of course only the files you want and place on the card will be played, if something doesn't interest you then just don't put a file for it.
We have already mentioned how global variables could be used to group multiple adjustments in one place, and to make that adjustment flight mode specific. It was also noted that these could be adjusted in flight - this is done using the Adjust GVx custom functions. Any time the custom function's switch is ON, the value of the global variable will follow the selected input. As a reminder, there are 4 groups of inputs that can be switched between by pressing ENTER LONG on the input field, and don't forget to tick the safety box once you're done configuring and you've made sure the switch is off - again to avoid overwriting your GVAR by mistake while scrolling the source list.
This is the way to adjust values in flight. The custom function's switch serves as a "lock" to freeze the value or allow adjustment. When a variable is being updated, a popup with the variable name and new value will show up on the main views.
One of the available sources for adjusting global vars is the list of channels. This is probably the main way you'll use to adjust GVARs for a simple reason: Let's say you want to adjust a D/R ratio with the S1 pot. If you select GV1 as the weight parameter of that rate line and just use the Adjust GV1 custom function with S1 as source, you will now be adjusting your rate between -100% and +100%. Being able to disable and even reverse your rate doesn't sound terribly fun, so you'll want to limit the adjustment range. The easiest way is to use a free channel for that. Create a mixer line on say CH12, and use the weight/offset/curve parameters to make that channel's output cover a range of say +50 to +80% over the pot's throw. Then, set the Adjust GV1 source to CH12.
The power of the system now comes from the combination of the different features. Custom switches can be used to create conditions that will trigger audio playback, for example using custom switch "CS1|d|>x Alt 10" as trigger for "Play Value Alt" would result in the altitude being announced every time it has changed by 10m/ft. "CS2 a<x Spd 35" triggering "Play Track lowspd" would play the lowspd.wav file on the SD card, that could be recorded to say "Low Speed" when GPS speed got under 35km/h. If you have several parameters you want to have announced sequentially on request, you could set several Play Value Custom Functions all triggered by the SHdown momentary switch as shown above. A press of this switch will then trigger playback of all the parameters one after the other.
But as we know that custom switches can be used anywhere a switch is definable, nothing prevents you from reusing that same CS2 to trigger automatic flaps deployment once speed got below 35km/h. That's right, anything can be used to affect anything.
As we have briefly mentioned, OpenTX comes with a computer-based counterpart that runs on Windows, Mac OS and Linux, OpenTX companion.
This software will allow you to backup, edit and share your radio's settings. It can also simulate both a model's setup and the radio's own interface on the computer, so it's a great tool to try things even without a radio. When you have one, it can speed up new model setups significantly thanks to the PC interface that's not limited to a small screen and a few buttons.
OpenTX companion handles 2 main tasks:
An important thing to understand is how things are stored on the radio. We will regularly talk of 2 different types of memories, Flash and EEPROM.
OpenTX companion will thus handle 2 different types of files. Firmware files, that can be downloaded from the Preferences dialog, which are non-editable and can just be transferred to/from the radio, and EEPROM files for which OpenTX companion provides an editor that allows to change anything in the same way that would be done on the radio itself.
When creating (File->New) or opening (either by dragging it onto the main window or via the File->Open menu command) an EEPROM file, a document window will appear. Several of those windows can be open at the same time, allowing you to copy models or settings between files. Trying to open a firmware file the same way will throw an error saying the file is invalid - this doesn't mean that the firmware is invalid, but simply that it is not a settings file.
The document window consists in a "General Settings" entry on which you can double-click to access the radio settings, and a number of model slots (60 for the Taranis). The model slot that is displayed in bold is the one that is currently selected on the radio. It can be chosen in OpenTX companion by right-clicking on the model slot, and choosing "Use as default". Double-clicking on a model slot will open the editor for that model, creating one if it was empty.
Memory operations to/from the radio are handled by the different entries of the "Burn" menu:
The first thing is of course to download and install the appropriate version of OpenTX companion for your system from the OpenTX home page. Once the program is launched, you will see the main window. Open the Preferences Dialog with File->Preferences.
There are quite a few settings there:
For a Taranis radio, the first thing you would do is select "OpenTX for FrSky Taranis" in the firmware dropdown. Select your firmware language, and the voice language. The top Download button will compile and download the latest available firmware version with the selected language and options. The bottom Download button will open your web browser on a page showing you a selection of voice packs available for the selected language.
Set your flight mode and preferred channel order in the dropdowns below, and dismiss the Preferences dialog with OK for now.
You can now create a new document. A window will appear, with the first line being the radio's general settings, and the next being the model slots. You can have a look in the general settings and create a model by double-clicking in an empty slot.
There are 2 ways to simulate either a model or the whole radio.
As mentioned before, the program of your radio can be replaced, either to change the display language or to take advantage of new functions or corrections.
The first thing to do is to power your radio off and connect it to your computer's USB port.
This is only required the first time you flash your radio on a given computer. If already done you can skip this section.
Zadig will install the driver, and should report success. When done you can dismiss the message and close it.
Should none of these options work, you can download the driver here and install it manually (instructions are on the download page).
When the driver is properly installed, you should see this in the device manager: