Written language - writing

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 3

Phase 4

Phase 5

Conceptual understandings

Writing conveys meaning.

People write to tell aout their experiences, ideas, and feelings.

Everyone can express themselfves in writing.

Talking about our stories and pircures helps other people to understand and enjoy them.

People write to communicate.

The sounds of spoken language can be represented visually (letters, symbols, characters).

Consistent ways of recording words or ideas enable members of a language community to understand each other’s writing.

Written language works differently from spoken language.

We write in different ways for different purposes.

The structure of different types of texts includes identifiable features.

Applying a range of strategies helps us to express ourselves so that others can enjoy our writing.

Thinking about storybook characters and people in real life helps us to develop characters in our own stories.

When writing, the words we choose and how we choose to use them enable us to share our imaginings and ideas.

Writing and thinking work together to enable us to express ideas and convey meaning.

Asking questions of ourselves and others helps to make our writing more focused and purposeful.

The way we structure and organize our writing helps others to understand and appreciate it.

Rereading and editing our own writing enables us to express what we want to say more clearly.

Stories that people want to read are built around themes to which they can make connections.

Effective stories have a purpose and structure that help to make the author’s intention clear.

Synthesizing ideas enables us to build on what we know, reflect on different perspectives, and express new ideas.

Knowing what we aim to achieve helps us to plan and develop different forms of writing.

Through the process of planning, drafting, editing, and revising, our writing improves over time.

Learning outcomes

experiment  with writing using different writing implements and media

enjoy writing and value their own efforts

engage confidently with the process of writing

write independently and with confidence, demonstrating a personal voice as a writer

2013.09.25 Journal

write independently and with confidence, showing the development of their own voice and style 2013.11.27

choose to write as play, or in informal situations, for example, filling in forms in a pretend post office, writing a menu or wish list for a party

write informally about their own ideas, experiences, and feelings in a personal journal or diary, initially using simple sentence structures, for example, “I like …”, “I can …”, “I went to …”, “I am going to …”

write about a range of topics for a variety of purposes, using literary forms and structures modeled by the teacher and/or encountered in reading

write for a range of purposes, both creative and informative, using different types of structures and styles according to the purpose of the writing

2013.09.25 2013.11.19

write using a range of text types in order to communicate effectively, for example, narrative, instructional, persuasive


differentiate between illustrations and written text

read their own writing to the teacher and to classmates, realizing that what they have written remains unchanged

use graphic organizers to plan writing, for example, Mind Maps, storyboards,

show awareness of different audiences and adapt writing appropriately

2013.10.10 2013.11.19

adapt writing according to the audience and demonstrate the ability to engage and sustain the interest of the reader


use their own experience as a stimulus when drawing and “writing”

participate in shared and guided writing, observing the teacher’s model, asking questions, and offering suggestions

organize ideas in a logical sequence, for example, write simple narratives with a beginning, middle, and end

select vocabulary and supporting details to achieve desired effects


use appropriate paragraphing to organize ideas


show curiosity and ask questions about written language

write to communicate a message to a particular audience, for example, a news story, instructions, a fantasy story

use appropriate writing conventions, for example, word order, as required by the language(s) of instruction

organize ideas in a logical sequence

2013.10.10 2013.12.10

use a range of vocabulary and relevant supporting details to convey meaning and create atmosphere and mood


participate in shared writing, observing the teacher’s writing and making suggestions

create illustrations to match their own written text

use familiar aspects of written language with increasing confidence and accuracy, for example, spelling patterns, high-frequency words, high-interest words

reread, edit, and revise to improve their own writing, for example, content, language, organization

2013.09.25 2013.12.20

use planning, drafting, editing, and reviewing processes independently and with increasing competence

listen and respond to shared books (enlarged texts), observing conventions of print, according to the language(s) of instruction

demonstrate an awareness of the conventions of written text, for example, sequence, spacing, directionality

use increasingly accurate grammatical constructs

respond to the writing of others sensitively 2013.11.19

critique the writing of peers sensitively; offer constructive suggestions

begin to discriminate between letters/characters, numbers, and symbols

connect written codes with the sounds of spoken language and reflect this understanding when recording ideas

write legibly, and in a consistent style

use appropriate punctuation to support meaning


vary sentence structure and length


show an awareness of sound-symbol relationships and begin to recognize the way that some familiar sounds can be recorded

form letters/characters conventionally and legibly, with an understanding as to why this is important within a language community

proofread their own writing and make some corrections and improvements

use knowledge of written code patterns to accurately spell high-frequency and familiar words 2013.11.19

demonstrate and increasing understanding of how grammar works

write their own name independently

discriminate between types of code, for example, letters, numbers, symbols, words/characters

use feedback from teachers and other students to improve their writing

use a range of strategies to record words/ideas of increasing complexity


use standard spelling for most words and use appropriate resources to check spelling

write an increasing number of frequently used words or ideas independently

use a dictionary, thesaurus, and word banks to extend their use of language

realize that writers ask questions of themselves and identify ways to improve their writing, for example, “Is this what I meant to say?”, “Is it interesting/relevant?” 2013.12.20

use a dictionary, thesaurus, spellchecker confidently and effectively to check accuracy, broaden vocabulary, and enrich their writing

illustrate their own writing and contribute to a class book or collection of published writing

keep a log of ideas to write about

check punctuation, variety of sentence starters, spelling, presentation 2013.11.27

choose to publish written work in handwritten form or in digital format independently


over time, create examples of different types of writing and store them in their own writing folder

use a dictionary and thesaurus to check accuracy, broaden vocabulary, and enrich their writing

use written language as a means of reflecting on their own learning

Independent Inquiry

participate in teacher conferences with teachers recording progress and noting new learning goals; self-monitor and take responsibility for improvement

work cooperatively with a partner to discuss and improve each other’s work, taking the roles of authors and editors

recognize and use figurative language to enhance writing, for example, similes, metaphors, idioms, alliteration

with teacher guidance, publish written work, in handwritten form or in digital format

work independently, to produce written work that is legible and well-presented, written either by hand or in digital format


identify and describe elements of a story - setting, plot, character, theme

locate, organize, synthesize, and present written information obtained from a variety of valid sources 2013.12.10

use a range of tools and techniques to produce written work that is attractively and effectively presented 2013.12.10