3/15 - score: 8.6/10  good!

2/22 - score: 7/10  better progress than last time but still many big gaps and not enough daily attention.  I continue to worry about your project’s progress.  Experimenting with carbonated water is the crux of your project and you have yet to do anything with it.  That should have begun in January... it's now late february and still no hands-on with carbonated water.  you have much catch up to do... i hope you can find the internal motivation soon.

2/4/- score: 6/10  some progress, and ok visuals, but overall your design journal needs a lot more attention.  For each day, you should clearly outline what you did and what you intend to do next time.  It should read like a story, with plenty of visuals.   Take a look at Stephanie Jump’s journal to get an idea of what i expect.  You need to move quickly into the “making” phase now... less time left than you think!

1/22/13 - score: 7/10  Please include a detailed summary of your proposal. Need more detail about what you have done in these first 2 weeks, including design sketches and ideas.  pics are great, but make sure they are not just to fill space... they should be useful to you.  This should tell a story of your process

Online Journal

Title: Keep-it Fizzy Cap

Description: In my semester-long Applied Science project, I will be working on researching and creating a new way for fizzy beverages to last longer without going turning flat after a short period of time. I will be exploring the chemistry and components of the beverage (especially soda and sparkling water) and design a bottle that could keep the beverage in its fizzy state for longer.


-Water, soda bottles


-Water spray (the top spray cap)

-Hot glue


-Plastic Bags

Jan 17, 2013


-How to keep beverages fizzy?

-Change the design of the can/bottle

-Research about soda. How did water become fizzy?

-Change in components/ingredients of soda so it would last longer, gas will stay longer

1. Research of fizzy beverages





Process of carbonating water

Research about CAN:

-Modifications, innovations

-Different designs (which ones work and which ones doesn’t)

-materials: aluminum?

-Bottles vs. can

Glass vs. aluminum

Standard size:


First drawing: bottles & caps

-Research about soda



1st cap design: “suction cap”


-I found out that certain bottle caps are not recyclable.



-Which caps are recyclable and which ones are not? (try to design one with materials (plastic/aluminum) that is recyclable.

-Update description of project


-Make first prototype



-continue prototype



SodaStream Revolution?



-Continue prototype

-Design second prototype

-Get extra materials:

        1. tape

        2. Water, soda bottles

        3. Soda

        4. Straws

-Update material list on the description


-Finish first prototype

-Present in class


-Reflect on the presentation from yesterday

        1. Take comments and suggestions into account: pressure in and out of the bottle.

First prototype:

-I changed the typical bottle cap by adding a rubber in it. Adding this rubber will stop the carbon from coming out by covering the hole when we are opening the cap.

***However, when the cap is taken-off, the carbon will come out anyways. So this prototype does work well.

-Work on improvements of cap.

First prototype with second cap:

-In order to test if this design work, I did some rapid prototyping by using the spray (cap) from a soap cleaning liquid bottle.

-This prototype works really well in preventing the carbon to come out.

-Succeeded in getting the liquid out without letting carbon out.


-Work on how to get a bigger amount of liquid out instead of spraying several times.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Left for Hawaii for 1 week~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

***Will catch up ASAP


-Talked to Dave about prototype (led to new ideas)

-Ask Jamie Julin to borrow her Soda Stream

Soda Stream will carbonate the water and will save me money on soda and other carbonated drinks.

-Finish design of second prototype

-Start making second prototype

***Catch up with journals on the week that I missed school.


-Improve prototype #2

-Take pictures

Prototype #2

-In this prototype, I attached a plastic bag inside the bottle. Eventually, this plastic bag will be filled up with the carbonated drink. Under the plastic bag, I added a tap that will help push the plastic bag out in order to reduce the extra space and get the liquid out.


-Finish Resume, email to Dave when finished Saturday the latest.

-Start design #3:

Design a cap attached to a straw OR design a straw attached to the tap that pushes the liquid out from the bottom.

Note: Hi Dave, because I am having trouble updating/uploading pictures to this doc and they are part a big part of my journal, I will send them to you through e-mail. -Marissa


-Shift direction from small bottles to bigger ones

-Research about how sprays pump liquid out of bottles

Spray bottle head made up of a few parts:

-a trigger lever: activates a small pump

-pump: attached to a plastic tube

-tube: draws the liquid from the bottom of the reservoir


-nozzle: serves to focus the flowing liquid so that it forms a concentrated stream





-I am having trouble understanding the water spray mechanism (how it actually pumps the water up)

-Investigate more about spray mechanism

-Focus on big bottles rather than small ones

-Water spray similar to toy water squirt gun mechanism?

-Research about toy water squirt gun

Water Spray Mechanism


-Trigger Lever                              -Pump

-Tube                                           -Barrel

-Nozzle                                        -One-way valve


In the spray mechanism pictured above, the one-way valve between the pump and the nozzle is a sort of cup, which fits over the end of the barrel. On the upstroke, the inward pressure from the pump pulls the cup against the barrel, so air can't flow in through the nozzle. On the downstroke, the fluid pushing out lifts the cup off the barrel slightly and flows on through the nozzle. Without this second one-way valve, the pump system wouldn't be able to draw fluid up from the reservoir because there would be no suction (no drop in air pressure). The upstroke wouldn't lower the air pressure in the pump; it would only draw in more air to maintain that pressure.


-Make carbonated water with sodastream during advisory @ Jamie’s


-Draw my own pictures in my poster

Have you ever wonder why soda becomes flat after you leave it sit for a while?

First of all, carbonated water consists of CO2 trapped in H2O. Under normal conditions, because gas molecules overcome H2O bonds, it is easy for CO2 to dissolve in water. (Image 1)

However, the activity of the molecules slows down when the temperature drops. (Image 2) The hydrogen bonds became stronger. The H2O would become harder to break by CO2. 

When pressure is increased, CO2 would become crammed into the water until becoming a supersaturated mixture. H2O molecules squeeze together become “cages” trapping the CO2 molecules in it. (Image 3)

So how does carbonated water become flat?

When the pressure drops, part of the CO2 bubble ups and escape to the open area.

How can we prevent the CO2 escaping from the H20? I would try to design a model of bottle which would prevent the pressure from dropping therefore the CO2 bonds would stay in the water longer.


-Work on finishing the project poster draft


Soda has carbon dioxide gas dissolved in it.  In the closed bottle, the soda is under pressure, and so the gas cannot escape.  When you open the bottle, you release the pressure and the gas begins to escape -- you can see the bubbles rising.  That is what makes the pop-fizz sound.  If you leave the bottle open for a while, all the gas will escape and the soda goes flat.  If you seal it back up, then the pressure builds back up inside, and keeps the gas dissolved in the soda, so it stays fizzy.


-Research on pressure inside the soda can

-Research about tennis balls getting flat.


Pressure in Soda Can

Pressure can be defined as the magnitude of force (F) acting perpendicular to a surface divided by the area (A) over which the force acts (P = F/A). It can be measured in various units; the most common pascal, atmosphere, and pounds per square inche (1 atm = 101.3 kPa = 14.7 psi).


-Continue research of pressure

Carbonating your home-made beer can be a little tricky. This handy carbonation table lists PSI (Pressure per Square Inch) against keg temperature to give you a quick reference guide for carbonating you ales over a three to five day period. This slow forced-carbonation process is the best suited for having foam-free home brew. This chart is color coded to reflect low, mid, and high levels of bubbliness, according to beer type (see key below). There is a faster method for force carbonating ale, however, the quick method tends to make the beer over-foam when first tapped.

When utilizing the "Handy-Dandy Slow-Forced Carbonation Tablefeaturing Pressure vs. Temperature in Degrees Fahrenheit",        first consider the level of carbonation desired in the home brew you are making. Most brewers have a preference on either side of the standard carbonation levels, so use the lower side of PSI if you prefer a smoother ale, and the higher side if you prefer a bubblier brew. This table shows different volumes of CO2, based on the following ratio: 1 portion of beer containing 1 portion of CO2 is 1 volume CO2, and 1 portion of beer containing 3 portions of CO2 is considered 3 volumes.


-Research about water pressure, water pipes and water hoses

-Causes of high and low water pressure

High Pressure

Low Pressure


Why does water pressure increases with depth?

At sea level, Earth's atmosphere pushes down with about 14 pounds of pressure per every square inch. This is because the gasses in the atmosphere have weight. Above sea level, however, the atmosphere thins. Water is much denser than the atmosphere, and thus weighs more and will exert more pressure on anything submerged in it. As depth increases, the amount of water pushing on water increases, so at lower depths the water is actually denser and weighs more. This means that pressure increases with depth.


-How long does soda stay fizzy?

-When does soda go flat?

-Under what conditions does it stay “fizzy” longer?


-Get gas pressure sensor

-Brainstorm a list of things I need to measure

-Come up with a new design

Atmospheric pressure data from old soda

1. Pressure inside bottle 98.69 kPa w/ open pipe

2. Pressure inside bottle with closed pipe 98.75 kPa




        State                           kPa                                                

1. Shaken bottle                120.18

2. Squeeze bottle                126.50

3. Open Lid (outside         98.48



1. Atmospheric pressure raises after bottle is shaken. It keeps raising when bubbles inside pop.

2. Pressure raises when the bottle is squeezed but then soon after it goes back down.

It stops raising when bubbles stop popping.

3. The atmosphere outside in the air (outside the bottle) is lower than inside the bottle.

-After opening the lid and resealed, the pressure inside the bottle raised back to 100kPa~


What’s next?

-Measure high pressure zone

-Measure pressure in bottle when dispensing liquid

How can you increase or decrease the air pressure within a sealed bottle?

Using the equation P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2 we find there are two variables we might influence in order to change the pressure of a gas. (P=pressure, V=volume, T=temperature in degrees Kelvin)

 By increasing or decreasing the temperature of the bottle, you can increase or decrease the pressure within.

If the bottle is made of a flexible material, like plastic, you can apply pressure to the bottle. By either squeezing the bottle or increasing atmospheric pressure outside, you deform the bottle and decrease it's volume.

Since the quantity of gas inside the bottle is constant, the decrease in volume increases the pressure.

Likewise to decrease the pressure in a sealed flexible bottle, you can decrease air pressure outside.


Data for Atmospheric pressure in a sealed bottle in 1 mins.

Data for Atmospheric pressure in a sealed bottle in 10 mins.


By increasing or decreasing the temperature of the bottle, you can increase or decrease the pressure within. By either squeezing the bottle or increasing the atmospheric pressure outside, the volume within will be decreased and since the quantity of gas inside the bottle is constant, the pressure in volume increases the pressure.

As temperature increases, matter moves quicker and tht causes the pressure to increase.

I am including a styrofoam box with ice to my  second prototype in order to keep a high temperature outside the bottle so molecules within would slow down and trap CO2 inside the liquid.

Final version of poster