Thoughtful structure guides the reader through the text like a bright


Provocative opening--enlightening conclusion

Smooth, well-crafted transitions give whole piece cohesion

Structure enhances reader's understanding/enjoyment of the piece

Paragraphing serves as a quiet but effective guide for the reader


Purposeful organization draws attention to key ideas

Strong lead and a conclusion that provides closure

Thoughtful transitions clearly connect ideas

Structure helps the reader track and process ideas

Paragraphed well


Organization works in harmony with ideas

Functional lead and conclusion

Helpful transitions often suggest connections

Structure helpful, but often predictable

Paragraphed properly


Reader must be attentive--organization is loose, or out of sync with      


Lead and/or conclusion need work

Transitions are sometimes missing or are formulaic

Structure relies too much on formula, or necessitates re-reading

Some problems with the paragraphing


Hard to follow, even with effort: "A faint light in the distance"

Lead and/or conclusion missing or formulaic and only minimally helpful

Transitions often unclear or misleading

Significant re-organization needed; the reader is often baffled

Paragraphing is incomplete or misleading


Reader is not being guided at all: "Lights are out--the path is dark"

Starts right in and just stops (no lead or conclusion)

Transitions are missing; points might not be connected

Disjointed collection of thoughts/details--no structure

No paragraphing