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Educational Researchers to HELP Committee
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January 30, 2017

An open letter to the U.S. Senate HELP Committee:

We are writing to voice our concerns about Betsy DeVos’ nomination for the Secretary of Education. We write for ourselves as scholars and citizens, and not as representatives of our institutions.

As researchers whose work focuses on understanding and improving education in the United States, we appreciate Mrs. DeVos’ legacy of advocacy for empowering parents through school choice. We can see that her commitment and experience in this area is genuine.

But we believe that this expertise is not enough to effectively lead the Department of Education. Mrs. DeVos’ testimony suggests she regards school choice as a cure for all that ails American public schools. It is not. Over the last two decades, we and our peers have dedicated considerable energy to researching school choice as a strategy to extend educational opportunities to youth who are underserved in American schools. The resulting empirical literature is decidedly mixed. While the charter school movement has led to the creation of many excellent schools, there are also many highly ineffective charter schools. While the evidence strongly suggests that voucher programs boost parental satisfaction with their children’s schools, the evidence on whether vouchers boost student achievement remains inconclusive. Our view is that choice in and of itself is not enough to create a more effective and equitable American educational system.

We were disappointed by Mrs. DeVos’ lack of familiarity with the many other issues in the U.S. Department of Education’s portfolio. Mrs. DeVos was unable to competently answer questions from Senators Kaine, Franken, and Hassan on such fundamental issues as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and school accountability systems. Her inadequate response to these and other crucial questions raises substantial doubt in our minds as to her ability to lead a Department that coordinates efforts affecting the educational experiences of the more than 75 million students who enroll in American public and private preschools; elementary, middle, and high schools; and, colleges and universities. It is striking to consider that Mrs. DeVos would be the first Secretary in the history of the U.S. Department of Education to take the job without substantial prior career experience in education or government.

While we appreciate the tradition of local control in American schooling, we know that the federal government plays a unique and important role in our complex system of public schools. Central to the federal government’s role is holding schools, systems, and educators accountable for providing equal opportunities and for student outcomes. Historically, the role of the Secretary has entailed the ability to engage effectively with stakeholders such as school administrators, chief state school officers, teachers, state and local school board members, and leaders of the major associations representing these parties, to lead them in concert toward common national educational aspirations. Mrs. DeVos is neither particularly knowledgeable about, nor seemingly interested in, these constituencies.

Throughout her hearing, Mrs. DeVos backed away from recognizing the Department of Education’s responsibility to ensure the provision of equal opportunities for all students. But this responsibility would be central to her role in the Department. More than any other law, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 is the origin of the federal role in American schools. This law is, as our colleague Bob Pianta notes, “at its heart a civil rights law.” We believe that a qualified nominee for Secretary of Education must commit to the mission of equal opportunity and safety for all American students -- including students with disabilities, students of color, English language learners, gay and lesbian students, and student survivors of campus rape. To back away from that role would be a mistake.

American schools make important advances when policy-makers put ideological assumptions and partisan politics aside to advance empirically validated school reform strategies. There are no simple solutions for the challenges that U.S. schools face, and the project of providing an excellent education to all American youth is an ongoing one that requires hard work and collaboration between federal and state governments. We fear that Betsy DeVos will abandon this effort.

Our kids deserve better.


  1. Elisa S. Abes, Miami University
  2. Kathleen Knight Abowitz, Miami University
  3. Margaret Albers
  4. Donna Alvermann, University of Georgia
  5. Patricia Anders, university of arizona
  6. Brittany Aronson, Miami University
  7. Mikaila Mariel Lemonik Arthur, Rhode Island College
  8. Maren Aukerman, Stanford University
  9. Elizabeth Popp Berman, University at Albany, SUNY
  10. Alison K Billman, University of California, Berkeley
  11. Meghan Block, Central Michigan University
  12. Corey Bunje Bower, State University of New York at Buffalo
  13. Kathleen M. Brown, The University of North Carolina
  14. Stephanie L. Brown, Florida State University
  15. Cassie J. Brownell
  16. Katrina Bulkley, Montclair State University
  17. Kevin J. Burke, University of Georgia
  18. Leslie Hazle Bussey, Georgia Leadership Institute for School Improvement
  19. Todd Campbell, University of Connecticut
  20. Jeffrey Carpenter, Elon University
  21. Terah Venzant Chambers, Michigan State University
  22. Britte Cheng, Britte.SRI International
  23. Mikel W. Cole, Clemson University
  24. Kathleen Collins Penn State University
  25. Eric Common, University of Kansas
  26. Bradley Conrad, Capital Unviersity
  27. Siobhan Cooney, Cooney Collaborative LLC
  28. Leslie S. Cook, Appalachian State University
  29. Bryan Ripley Crandall, Fairfield University
  30. Melody Croft
  31. Pam Davis-Kean, University of Michigan
  32. Mira Debs,Yale University
  33. Elizabeth DeBray, University of Georgia
  34. Amy Devanney
  35. Lisa De La Rue, University of San Francisco
  36. Kathleen deMarrais  University of Georgia
  37. Dana N. Thompson Dorsey, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
  38. Thurston Domina, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
  39. Diane Duncan 4295 Gardner Berkley Michigan 48072 Anderson Middle School Berkley School District
  40. Nancy Edwards, Berry College
  41. Laurie Elish-Piper, Northern Illinois University
  42. Lisa Fazio, Vanderbilt University
  43. Kimberly C. Feldman, UMBC
  44. Rachel Fish, New York University
  45. Anjali J. Forber-Pratt, Vanderbilt University
  46. Angelika Foerst, PhD Arizona State University
  47. Jane M. Gangi, Mount Saint Mary College
  48. Brian Gibbs, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
  49. Victoria Gillis, University Of Wyoming
  50. Kathleen Godfrey, California State University, Fresno
  51. Joanne Golann, Vanderbilt University
  52. Leslie D. Gonzales, Michigan State University
  53. Kathleen Goodman, Miami University
  54. Amelia Wenk Gotwals, Michigan State University
  55. Peg Graham U of GA
  56. Matthew M. Green, University of Northern Iowa
  57. Heidi Hadley, University of Georgia
  58. Elyse Hambacher, University of New Hampshire
  59. Christopher Harrison, Northwestern University
  60. Nini Hayes, St. Martin’s University
  61. Carolyn Heinrich, Vanderbilt University
  62. Jacob Hibel, University of California, Davis
  63. Matthew T. Hora, University of Wisconsin-Madison
  64. Martinette Horner, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
  65. Eric A. Houck, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
  66. Derek A. Houston, University of Oklahoma
  67. Carolyn Hunt Illinois State University
  68. Naomi Hupert, Education Development Center, Inc.
  69. Scott Imberman, Michigan State University
  70. Robert Innes, Vanderbilt University
  71. Cara Jackson, Montgomery County Public Schools
  72. Laura M. Jimenez, PhD. Boston University School of Education
  73. Daniel Katz, PhD, Seton Hall University
  74. Allison Kenney, Princeton University
  75. Micheal J. Kessner, Ed.D, Mesquite ISD
  76. Alexander Kindel, Princeton University
  77. Leslie Kirby, Vanderbilt University
  78. Brian Kissel, University of North Carolina at Charlotte
  79. Joshua Klugman, Temple University
  80. Jennifer Knight University of Iowa
  81. Daniel G. Krutka, Texas Woman’s University
  82. Rachel Kuck, University of Michigan
  83. Adam M Lara, University of Washington
  84. Amy Lark, Michigan Technological University
  85. Cynthia Lewis, University of Minnesota
  86. Jamie Lewis, Georgia Gwinnett College
  87. Wayne M. Linek, Regents Professor Emeritus, Texas A&M University-Commerce
  88. Michael Little, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
  89. Jeffrey Livingston, Bentley University
  90. Allison Lombardi, PhD, University of Connecticut
  91. Patricia Maloney, Texas Tech University
  92. Christine A. Mallozzi, University of Georgia
  93. Eve Manz, Boston University
  94. Ann Mogush Mason, University of Minnesota
  95. Madeline Mavrogordato, Michigan State University
  96. Bill McDiarmid, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
  97. Colin McGinnis, University of Nebraska—Lincoln
  98. Kathy Mecoli, Miami University
  99. Carla K. Meyer Duquesne University
  100. Joel Mittleman, Princeton University
  101. Anthony Mitzel,Università di Bologna, Italy
  102. Alma Morel Montclair State University and NJ educator
  103. Lauren Moret, University of Tennessee
  104. Scott Morrison, Elon University
  105. Amy Needham, Vanderbilt University
  106. Keith Newvine, Syracuse University
  107. Susan Nordstrom, University of Memphis,
  108. W. Ian O'Byrne, Department of Teacher Education, College of Charleston
  109. Joseph Pacitti, Lehigh University
  110. Deborah Palmer, University of Colorado Boulder
  111. Kristin Papoi, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
  112. Lettice Pelotte Arizona State University
  113. Andrew Penner, University of California, Irvine
  114. Emily Penner, University of California, Irvine
  115. William R. Penuel, University of Colorado
  116. David Perez II, Miami University
  117. Andrew J. Perrin, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
  118. Kristen H. Perry University of Kentucky
  119. Claudia Persico, University of Wisconsin-Madison
  120. Bree Picower, Montclair State University
  121. Lisa Pray
  122. Courtney Preston, Florida State University
  123. LaTasha Price
  124. Johanna Quinn, University of Wisconsin-Madison
  125. Heather Ramsey Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools
  126. Maryl Randel, Rowan University
  127. Sarah Reckhow, Michigan State University
  128. Victoria J. Risko, Vanderbilt University
  129. Rosa L. Rivera-McCutchen, PhD, CUNY Lehman College
  130. Kathryn Roberts, Wayne State University
  131. David M. Rochman, Orange County Department of Education
  132. Kate Rousmaniere, Miami University
  133. James Sadler, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
  134. Andrew Saultz, Miami University
  135. Judith Scott-Clayton
  136. Tricia Seifert, Montana State University
  137. Virginia Shepherd Vanderbilt University
  138. Sharon L. Shields Peabody College of Education and Human Development of Vanderbilt University
  139. Adela Soliz, Vanderbilt University
  140. Norman A. Stahl, Northern Illinois University
  141. Kevin Stange, University of Michigan
  142. Jennifer Stone, University of Alaska Anchorage
  143. Misty Swanger, Ashland University
  144. Megan Tompkins-Stange, University of Michigan
  145. Monica Taylor, Montclair State University
  146. Daniela Torre, SRI International
  147. Chris Torres, Michigan State University
  148. Torrey Trust, Ph.D., University of Massachusetts Amherst
  149. Jessica Van Cleave, Mars Hill University
  150. Sara Wakefield School of Criminal Justice Rutgers University
  151. TEDRA WALDEN Vanderbilt University
  152. Jon M. Wargo, Wayne State University
  153. Lynne M. Watanabe, Arizona State University,
  154. Jennie M. Weiner, University of Connecticut
  155. Anna Weiss, Vanderbilt University
  156. Stephen A Wellinski Eastern Michigan University 
  157. Erik Westlund, University of Iowa
  158. Heather Wheat, Adams County Schools
  159. Erin Whitney, California State University, Chico
  160. Shelbie Witte, Oklahoma State University
  161. Sarah Woulfin, University of Connecticut
  162. Rebecca R. Norman Mount Saint Mary College
  163. Gerard Hutcherson ccbcmd
  164. Mark Warschauer, University of California, Irvine
  165. Emily Hodge, Montclair State University
  166. Barbara Lindsey, Folsom Lake College
  167. Andrew Lindner, Skidmore College
  168. Alexander Cuenca, Saint Louis University
  169. Marjorie Siegel Teachers College, Columbia University
  170. Carol Gilles, University of Missouri
  171. David Schultz, Long Island University Riverhead
  172. Eliza Braden
  173. Carmen Martinez, Teachers College, Columbia University
  174. Nathaniel Bryan, University of South Carolina
  175. Steven Greenstein, Montclair State University
  176. Christine Marmé Thompson, The Pennsylvania State University
  177. Anne Marie Marshall, Lehman College
  178. Gail Boldt, Penn State University
  179. Gwynne Ellen Ash, Texas State University
  180. Stella Beatríz Kerl-McClain, Ph.D Lewis and Clark College
  181. Jenna Christian, Penn State University
  182. Stephanie Baker, The University of Texas at Austin
  183. Charity Dacey Montclair state university
  184. Marjorie Siegel Teachers College, Columbia University
  185. Jenna Christian,Penn State University
  186. Stephanie Baker, The University of Texas at Austin
  187. Charity Dacey Montclair state university
  188. Sandy Buczynski, University of San Diego
  189. Eileen Murray, Montclair State University
  190. Janice Anderson, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
  191. Amanda Jansen, University of Delaware
  192. Joy Oslund, Madonna University
  193. Lauren Hickman, University of Michigan
  194. Corinne G. Catalano, Montclair State University
  195. Catharine Biddle University of Maine
  196. Teo Paoletti, Montclair State University
  197. Kimberly Ransom
  198. Sarah Zuckerman
  199. Cindy L. Kern Quinnipiac University.
  200. Laura L. O'Toole, Salve Regina University
  201. JoBeth Allen
  202. Phillip D. Grant, University of Georgia
  203. Catherine Compton-Lilly, University of Wisconsin Madison
  204. Lyndsie Schultz, Washington University in St. Louis
  205. Christina Cid, Oregon State University
  206. Hiller A. Spires NC State University
  207. Leigh Patel, Boston College
  208. Brian Katz, PhD, Augustana College
  209. Diane Cooper University of Georgia
  210. Michele S. Moses, University of Colorado Boulder
  211. Jennifer Job, Oklahoma State University
  212. Annie Reinish, University of Michigan
  213. Summer Pennell, Truman State University
  214. Jeanne Gilliam Fain, Lipscomb University
  215. Maia Cucchiara, Temple University
  216. Dr. Jodi Denyszyn, The University of Texas at Austin
  217. James L. Jones University of Georgia
  218. Eleanor Martin, University of Michigan
  219. Diana Kennedy, Mindspark Learning
  220. Lauren Dellaria, North Springs High School
  221. Jeannie Oakes, UCLA
  222. Bob Pianta, University of Virginia
  223. Dana L. Grisham, National University
  224. Ann Glauser University of Georgia (retired)
  225. Rebekah Cordova,University of Florida College of Education
  226. Kristin McIlhagga, Wayne State University
  227. Jacqueline Edmondson, Pennsylvania State University
  228. Joanna Masingila, Syracuse University
  229. Laura Bierema
  230. Katherine Adams The University of Georgia (MS; PHD)
  231. Andrea Cisneros, U. of Michigan
  232. Amanda Jansen, University of Delaware, School of Education
  233. Christian Ehret, McGill University,
  234. Laura Manning - University of Kentucky
  235. Meir Muller, University of South Carolina
  236. Kortney Sherbine, Framingham State University
  237. Robin Fuxa, Oklahoma State University
  238. Deryl F. Bailey University of Georgia
  239. Vanessa Svihla, University of New Mexico
  240. Mischelle Taylor Stone
  241. Rebecca A. Goldstein, Montclair State University
  242. Meg Easom Hines, Ph.D. University of Georgia
  243. Sheila Macrine, Ph.D.
  244. Laura Manning University of Kentucky
  245. Edina Renfro-Michel, PhD, LPC, ACS, Montclair State University
  246. Elizabeth Patitsas, University of Toronto
  247. Maida Finch Salisbury University
  248. Jean Aguilar-Valdez, Portland State University
  249. Cynthia Onore, Montclair State University
  250. Steven Wolk, Northeastern Illinois University
  251. Kevin Welner, CU Boulder
  252. Catherine Michener, Rowan University
  253. Thomas DeVere Wolsey, EdD, IAIE
  254. Diane Ravitch, New York University
  255. Elyse Hoffman, Montclair Public Schools,
  256. Elyse Hoffman, Montclair Public Schools
  257. Dara Nix-Stevenson, Southwest Guilford High School
  258. Janelle Scott, UC Berkeley
  259. Chinwe Williams, Argosy University-Atlanta
  260. Amy D. Rose, Northern Illinois University
  261. M. Bruce King, University of Wisconsin-Madison
  262. Lisa Smulyan, Swarthmore College
  263. debbie golos, University of Minnesota
  264. Lillian Lewis, Youngstown State University
  265. Katie Revelle, University of Michigan
  266. Clare Merlin, University of North Carolina at Charlotte
  267. Dominic J. Voge Princeton University
  268. Rebekah Cordova,University of Florida College of Education
  269. Crystal Beach, University of Georgia
  270. Amanda Godley, University of Pittsburgh
  271. Jimmy Leak, Nuru International
  272. Michelle Falter, North Carolina State University
  273. Neal Krauss,
  274. Jodi Krauss, Ralston Public Schools
  275. Karen Wood UNCC
  276. Matthew Lenard, Wake County Public School System
  277. Karen Hammerness, American Museum of Natural History
  278. Laura Nicosia, Montclair State University
  279. Sheryl Gowen Georgia State University
  280. Laura Bierema
  281. Patty Fallon, retired teacher, Brockport Central Schools
  282. Stephanie Loomis, Georgia State University
  283. Robert (Bud) Talbot, University of Colorado Denver
  284. Clarene Hight, Texas Woman's University
  285. Suzanne Arnold, University of Colorado Denver
  286. Ian Binns, UNC Charlotte
  287. Christine Fierro, Durham Public Schools
  288. Stephanie Loomis, Georgia State University
  289. Tyler Pulis, North Carolina State University
  290. LuAnn Cooley,
  291. Stephanie L. Strachan, Western Washington University
  292. Thomas C. Reeves, Ph.D., The University of Georgia
  293. Beth Dillard, Western Washington University
  294. Marsha Riddle Buly Western Washington University
  295. Mehmet Aydeniz, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville
  296. Rachel Leventhal-Weiner, Connecticut Data Collaborative
  297. Marilyn Chu Western Washington University, Associate Professor of Early Childhood Education
  298. Laura Minnigerode Austin Community College
  299. Maribeth Cassidy Schmitt, Purdue University
  300. Jill McCourt, University of Georgia
  301. David D. Timony, Ph.D., Delaware Valley University
  302. Jackie Garcia
  303. Rebecca Black, University of California, Irvine
  304. Deborah C. White, Asa C. Adams School, Orono, Maine
  305. Maria Teresa Garretón, Northeastern Illinois University
  306. Jan L. Plass, New York University
  307. javed iqbal University of Tennessee Knoxville
  308. Julie Ellison Justice, Elon University
  309. Amy Hendrickson,
  310. Mary Fahrenbruck, New Mexico State University
  311. Julian Vasquez Heilig, California State University Sacramento
  312. Kristy Makowichuk, MA
  313. Christine Andrews-Larson, Florida State University
  314. Chris Ohana Western Washington University
  315. Joanne M. Carney, Western Washington University
  316. Adam Crawley, University of Georgia
  317. Thomas C. Pedroni, Wayne State University
  318. Melisa Cahnmann, University of Georgia
  319. Dr. Matthew Miller, Western Washington University
  320. Sara Lam, University of Minnesota - Morris
  321. Sandra Yarema, Wayne State University
  322. Anita Wager University of Wisconsin Madison
  323. Mary Klehr, University of Wisconsin-Madison
  324. Mitchell Jancic, Western Washington University
  325. Rebecca Jacobsen, Michigan State University
  326. Laura Hamman, University of Wisconsin-Madison
  327. Beth Sondel, University of Pittsburgh
  328. Whitney M. Hegseth, University of Michigan
  329. Greg McClure, Appalachian State University
  330. Jennifer Lewis, Wayne State University
  331. Courtney Koestler, Ohio University
  332. Linda DeAngelo, University of Pittsburgh
  333. Lauren Gatti, Ph.D., University of Nebraska-Lincoln
  334. Deborah Loewenberg Ball, University of Michigan
  335. Dana Hagerman, Edgewood College, Madison, WI
  336. Ethan Hutt, University of Maryland, College Park
  337. Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky
  338. Mathew Felton-Koestler, Ohio University
  339. Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky,
  340. Karla I. Loya, University of Hartford
  341. Raven McCrory, Michigan State University
  342. Sarah Winchell Lenhoff, Wayne State University
  343. Brittany C. Murray, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
  344. Rachael Gabriel, University of Connecticut
  345. Hannah Carson Baggett, Auburn University
  346. Lori Delale-O'Connor, University of Pittsburgh
  347. Kamden Strunk, Auburn University
  348. Kolby Gadd, University of Michigan
  349. Sue Zhao, Orange County Department of Education
  350. Drew Gitomer, Rutgers University Graduate School of Education
  351. Mark Letcher, Lewis University
  352. Chenoa S. Woods, Florida State University
  353. Georgianna Martin, University of Georgia
  354. Mark Olson, Oakland University
  355. Angela S. Krebs, University of Michigan-Dearborn
  356. Karen Keifer-Boyd, The Pennsylvania State University
  357. Namiko Kunimoto, Ohio State University
  358. Heather Hill, Harvard Graduate School of Education
  359. Blakely Tsurusaki, University of Washington Bothell
  360. Lesley Coia, Agnes Scott College
  361. Jennifer Green, Western Washington University
  362. Davida Fischman, CSU San Bernardino
  363. Shawn Patrick, California State University San Bernardino
  364. Barbara Quarton California State University, San Bernardino
  365. Corrine Johnson, CSU San Bernardino
  366. Georgia Earnest Garcia, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
  367. Justine D'Arrigo-Patrick, Cal State University San Bernardino
  368. Kurt Squire, University of California, Irvine
  369. Stuart S. Sumida, California State University San Bernardino
  370. Todd A. Johnson, Cal State San Bernardino
  371. Ernesto Gomez Cal State San Bernardino
  372. Donna Rantz; California State University, San Bernardino
  373. Christina DeNicolo Wayne State University
  374. Sean P. Molloy, University of Redlands
  375. David M. Rhoads, CSU- San Bernardino
  376. Hannah Graham, University of Wisconsin-Madison
  377. Michelle Kwok California State University, San Bernardino
  378. Joan Lazar
  379. Jeremy Murray, CSU San Bernardino
  380. Terry L. Rizzo, CSU San Bernardino
  381. Penny Drake-Green California State University, San Bernardino
  382. Mary E. Pilgrim, Colorado State University
  383. Scott Cramer, CSU San Bernardino
  384. John Winslade, California State University San Bernardino
  385. Karolyn Tyson, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
  386. Luciene Wandermurem, the University of Texas at El Paso,
  387. Breena E. Coates, Califo. State Univ. San Bernardino
  388. Amir H. Golnabi, Montclair State University
  389. Carlee Escue Simon, Ph.D., University of Cincinnati
  390. Ariel Schindewolf, Ph.D, Santa Clara University
  391. Andrew Kwok, California State University, San Bernardino
  392. Susan Addington, California State University, San Bernardino
  393. Dana Robertson, University of Wyoming
  394. Jenna Min Shim, University of Wyoming
  395. Shawnee L. McMurran, California State University San Bernardino
  396. Cynthia Brock, University of Wyoming
  397. Wendy B. Smith California State University, San Bernardino
  398. Milagros Castillo-Montoya, University of Connecticut
  399. John Lupinacci, Washington State University
  400. Jill Merrall, California State University, San Bernardino
  401. Lisa A. W. Kensler, Auburn University
  402. Matthew Weinstein, University of Washington-Tacoma
  403. Shannon Calderone, Washington State University
  404. Kimberley R. Cousins
  405. Carey Andrzejewski, Auburn University
  406. Leslie Locke, University of Iowa
  407. Margaret Rathouz, University of Michigan-Dearborn
  408. Jeffrey S. Meyer, California State University, San Bernardino
  409. Rachel Baker, UC Irvine
  410. Aurora Wolfgang, Michigan State University
  411. Patrick Graff, University of Notre Dame
  412. Mary Ann McGuire California State University, San Bernardino, CA
  413. Omar Moran, Cal State University, San Bernardino. CA
  414. Alecia Marie Magnifico, University of New Hampshire
  415. Jade Jenkins, UC Irvine
  416. Barbara Sirotnik, California State University San Bernardino
  417. Matt Wyneken, University of Michigan-Flint
  418. Kelly Cutler, Portland State University
  419. Yvonne S. Freeman, The University of Texas Río Grande Valley
  420. Hyman Bass, University of Michigan
  421. DeShea R. Rushing, California Sate University San Bernardino
  422. Sara McGill, California State University, San Bernardino
  423. Elise Cappella, New York University
  424. Jessica Lewis Luck, California State University San Bernardino
  425. Megan Burton, Auburn University
  426. Temple Walkowiak, North Carolina State University
  427. Richard Quantz, Miami University
  428. Lauren Lauter, University of Wisconsin Madison
  429. Kathleen Malley, PhD., innovation Research and Training
  430. Melody Russell
  431. Christopher Takacs, University of Chicago
  432. Andrew K. Thompson, Cal State San Bernardino
  433. Sarah Byrne Bausell
  434. Ken Zeichner University of Washington
  435. C. R. Metts, Ph.D.California State University San Bernardino
  436. Rheta Rubenstein University of Michigan-Dearborn
  437. David Stroupe, Michigan State University
  438. Martha Adler University of Michigan-Dearborn
  439. Cassie Williams, James Madison University
  440. Diana Turk, Ph.D., New York University
  441. Marie Hansen, California State University, San Bernardino
  442. Christy Oliveri, Montana State University
  443. Erin Biddlecombe, Simon Fraser University, Canada
  444. Donna Grace, University of Hawaii at Manoa
  445. Alex Means, SUNY Buffalo State
  446. Tiffany F. Jones, CSU, San Bernardino
  447. Tara Affolter, Middlebury College
  448. Brandy Hadley, California State University San Bernardino
  449. Allison Henward Penn State University
  450. Allison Henward Penn State University
  451. Dr. Heather A. Davis, Montessori Institute of San Diego
  452. Gavin Henning, New England College
  453. Shari Stockero, Technological University
  454. Erin Stutelberg,, Salisbury University
  455. Becki Elkins
  456. Sean Lancaster, Grand Valley State University
  457. Nina White, University of Michigan
  458. Kristen Bieda, Michigan State University
  459. Kevin D.Cunningham, Central Michigan University
  460. Jeremy Aikin, CSU San Bernardino
  461. Victoria Maslow, CUNY Hunter College
  462. Sara Tolbert, University of Arizona
  463. Carol Brochin, University of Arizona
  464. Laura R. Van Zoest, Western Michigan University
  465. Heather Rowan-Kenyon, Boston College
  466. Alison Happel-Parkins, University of Memphis
  467. Rick Ezekiel, Western University & The University of Toronto
  468. Crystal G. Simmons SUNY Geneseo
  469. Elizabeth A. van Es, University of California, Irvine
  470. Rick Ezekiel, Western University / University of Toronto
  471. Erin Marie Furtak, University of Colorado Boulder
  472. Kourtney Jones, California State University, San Bernardino
  473. Katherine wildman, black hills state university
  474. Rossella Santagata University of California, Irvine
  475. Daniel Tillapaugh, California Lutheran University
  476. Miriam Sherin Northwestern University
  477. Sue Vaughn, University of California, Irvine
  478. Jason Magabo Perez, California State University at San Bernardino
  479. Blake Peterson, Brigham Young University
  480. Susan Toma-Berge
  481. Denise Cervera, M.S, California State University, San Bernardino
  482. Amanda Obery, Montana State University
  483. John Sugden
  484. Michelle Riconscente, PhD, President, Designs for Learning
  485. Glennellen Pace, Retired Emerita,Lewis & Clark College, Portland, OR
  486. Sophia Friedson-Ridenour, University of Wisconsin-Madison
  487. Anne Leak, Rochester Institute of Technology
  488. Scott McDonald, The Pennsylvania State University
  489. Kallen Tsikalas, Hunter College
  490. Meilin Chang
  491. Asli Ozgun-Koca
  492. Remi Kalir, University of Colorado Denver
  493. Brad Hinson, University of Colorado Denver
  494. Sarah Cannon, North Carolina State University
  495. Dr. Robert E. Gutsche, Jr, Florida International University, Miami
  496. Virginia Panish, UCI Director of Teacher Education Programs
  497. Scott McLeod, University of Colorado Denver
  498. Dr. Linda Searby, Auburn University
  499. Bruce Sherin, Northwestern University
  500. Tessa McCarthy, University of Pittsburgh
  501. Meilin Chang, Kennesaw State University
  502. Stephanie Reich, University of California, Irvine
  503. Felice Russell, Ithaca College
  504. Kara S. FinniganUniversity of Rochester
  505. Sarah McKagan, American Association of Physics Teachers
  506. Courtney Pierce Black Hills State University
  507. Michelle Riconscente, PhD, President, Designs for Learning
  508. Rebekah Burroway, Stony Brook University
  509. Ayush Gupta, Physics Education Research, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park
  510. Cassandra Paul, San Jose State University
  511. Kristin Hocker, University of Rochester
  512. Kerry Soo Von Esch, PhD, Seattle University
  513. Natasha Holmes, Cornell University
  514. Mary Kate Blake, PhD Candidate, University of Notre Dame
  515. Christina Krist, University of Maryland College Park
  516. Marcos Caballero, Michigan State University
  517. Ece Algan, California State University, San Bernardino
  518. Matthew Guthrie, The University of Texas
  519. April Luehmann, University of Rochester
  520. Erin Scanlon, Texas State University
  521. LaTasha Price, University of Georgia
  522. Ed Brockenbrough, University of Rochester
  523. Alice Olmstead, Western Michigan University
  524. Brandon Lunk, Texas State University
  525. Jennifer Clark, Montana State University
  526. Dr. Jamie Workman
  527. Anita Sanyal, Univ. of Maryland
  528. Marshall Styczinski, University of Washington
  529. Jeffrey W. Snyder, Ph.D, Assistant Professor of Urban Affairs, Cleveland State University.
  530. Melissa Dancy university of colorado
  531. Eugenia Etkina, Rutgers University
  532. Eric Hickok, Pacific Collegiate School
  533. Lynn Gatto University of Rochester
  534. Dimitri R. Dounas-Frazer, University of Colorado Boulder
  535. Mary Jane Curry, University of Rochester
  536. Luis Poza, University of Colorado Denver
  537. Mariana Pacheco, UW-Madison
  538. Daniel A. Collier, Western Michigan University
  539. Kri Burkander
  540. Jessica Leonard, Saint Louis University
  541. Katherine Ansell, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
  542. Tim Lensmire, University of Minnesota
  543. YeVette M. Howard, Hopkinsville Community College
  544. Betsy Maloney Leaf
  545. Jessica Dockter Tierney, University of Minnesota
  546. Jen Newton Saint Louis University
  547. Angelica Pazurek, Ph.D. University of Minneosta
  548. Ruth Harman University of Georgia
  549. Christine Franklin, University of Georgia
  550. Kendall King, University of Minnesota
  551. Lauren Arend, Lauren, Saint Louis University
  552. Mary M. Chittooran, PhD, Saint Louis University
  553. Lori Helman, University of Minnesota
  554. Joseph Hunt University of Texas
  555. Maneka Brooks
  556. Sara Kajder The University of Georgia
  557. Susan Toft Everson, Saint Louis University
  558. Jaye Johnson Thiel, University of Georgia
  559. Nina Asher, University of Minnesota
  560. Kathryn Mitchell Pierce, Saint Louis University
  561. Michael Bates University of California at Riverside
  562. Caitlin Farrell, University of Colorado Boulder
  563. Nina Asher, University of Minnesota
  564. Dr. Nikola Hobbel, Humboldt State University
  565. Paula Greathouse,
  566. Sandra Schmidt, Teachers College, Columbia University
  567. Jeff Henning-Smith, University of Minnesota
  568. Silvia Nogueron-Liu Univ of Colorado-Boulder
  569. Deborah Bieler, University of Delaware
  570. Katie Headrick Taylor, University of Washington Seattle
  571. Adam Bell, University of Washington
  572. Walter Cook, Excellent Schools Detroit
  573. Meghan Anderson
  574. Tracey Pyscher, Western Washington University
  575. Roberto S. de Roock, National Institute of Education Singapore (US Voter)
  576. Marianne Bloch Professor Emerita, University of Wisconsin-Madison
  577. Amy Wilson-Lopez Utah State University
  578. Michael Bates, University of California at Riverside
  579. Katie Stover Kelly, Furman University
  580. Bodong Chen, University of Minnesota
  581. Homeyra Sadaghiani
  582. Dr. Lettice Pelotte
  583. Elisabeth Johnson, St. Edward's University
  584. Jessica Hoehn, University of Colorado
  585. Elizabeth Bemiss, University of West Florida
  586. Jennifer Diaz
  587. Karen Wohlwend, Indiana University
  588. Hilary Hughes; University of Georgia
  589. Juan A. Toro, Elizabethtown College
  590. Frank Serafini, Arizona State University
  591. Hosun Kang, University of California Irvine
  592. Deborah Lowe Vandell, University of California, Irvine
  593. Diane DeArment, Elizabethtown College
  594. David Malinowski, Yale University
  595. Elizabeth Coyle Elizabethtown College
  596. Patricia Gallagher City College of San Francisco
  597. Natalie M. Floeh, Saint Louis University
  598. Evan Moss, UW-Madison
  599. Shane Cavanaugh, Central Michigan University
  600. Carol Booth Olson, University of California, Irvine
  601. Carlos P. Hipolito-Delgado, Univesity of Colorado Denver,
  602. Rebecca L Sorrow, PhD Psychologist
  603. Alexis Papak, University of Maryland
  604. Sara Moslener Central Michigan University
  605. Stephanie Sleeper, Ph.D., Mount Mansfield Union High School
  606. Ann M. Rule, Saint Louis University
  607. Nancy S Niemi
  608. Adrienne Traxler, Wright State University
  609. Susan K Walker, PhD, University of MInnesota
  610. Sheryl Gowen Georgia State University
  611. Gary A. Negin, California State University
  612. Theresa Horstman, University of Washington Bothell
  613. David Reinking, Clemson University
  614. John Caserta, Rhode Island School of Design
  615. Laura Fokkena, Lesley University
  616. Paula McAvoy, UW-Madison
  617. Jennifer Lee, University of California, Irvine
  618. Matthew A. Kraft, Brown University

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