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Grammar - Cross-class derivation
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Cross-class derivation is a very active process in Kah in order to form new words. Most word roots in Kah occur in multiple word classes. I divided the types of derivation by their target:


To verb

The bulk of cross-class derivation results in a verb. Most of those derivations constitute of a derivation from a verb to a verb even. The following verbs act like prefixes to derive verbs:

jam-     to do, derives a basic transitive verb from a stative verb

tom-     to become, derives an intransitive active verb

we-      to be stative, in a state, derives an transitive stative verb

mun-     to cause, derives a transitive verb from an active verb



oyo  -  to ready, done

biso  -   urine

sin  -  to be small

api  -  fire

yun  -  to look

chu  -   to leave

de  -  to come

jebo  -  to understand

jamoyo  -  to complete, finish

jambiso  -  to urinate

tonsin  -  to shrink, get small

tompi  -  to combust, ignite 

weyun  -  to see

wechu  -   to originate

munde  -  to summon

munjebo  -  to explain


Then there is a prefix o- which derives a stative verb,  usually involving a resultative aspect:


Stative verbs

minza  -  to steal

momi  -   to cure

kai  -  to close

ominza  -  (to be) stolen

omomi  -  (to be) cured

okai  -  (to be) closed

To noun

When a noun is created from another word, one of the the following prefixes is used:

u-     noun expressing an animate object

a-     noun expressing an inanimate object

i-      noun expressing a state



shika  -  to instruct

Bangal  -  Bengali

fiti  -  to win

toka  -  to tell

ye  -  that, those

vuka  -   to insult

namil  -  free

lura  -  loyal

ushika  -  instructor

Ubangal  -  Bengali person

ufiti  -  winner

atoka  -  story

aye  -  that thing, those things

avuka  -   insult

inamil  -  freedom

ilura  -  loyalty


Then there are nouns which are derived by adding an prefix  u-  or  a-  to a resultative verb starting with o-, producing (u- + o-) wo- and (a- + o-) au-.

wo-  noun expressing an animate object being the result from an action

au-   noun expressing an inanimate object being a result from an action



ofono  -  accused

okwara  -   assembled

oko  -  written

okwara  -  assembled

wofono  -  the accused

wokwara  -  assembly

auko  -  text

aukwara  -  collection



To conjunction

There is a very limited set of conjuntions in Kah. Some of these are derived from other roots by means of the prefix  e-:



ano  -  direction

chu  -  to leave, from

ata  -  time

iwe  -  state, condition

eno  -  in order that

echu  -  so

eta  -  when

ewe  -  still, even then