Reading/ELA Scope and Sequence

Key Topics in Sixth Grade Reading/ELA:

Reads Grade Level Text/ Fluency

Vocabulary

  • Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 6 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
  • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word's position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., audience, auditory, audible).
  • Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.
  • Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
  • Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
  • Interpret figures of speech (e.g., personification) in context.
  • Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., cause/effect, part/whole, item/category) to better understand each of the words.
  • Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., stingy, scrimping, economical, unwasteful, thrifty).
  • Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Comprehension Skills and Strategies

Literary Text

  • Analyze the function of stylistic elements (e.g. magic helper, rule of three) in traditional and classical literature from various cultures
  • Compare and contrast the historical and cultural settings of two literary
  • Explain how figurative language contributes to the meaning of a poem
  • Summarize the elements of plot development in various works of fiction
  • Recognize dialect and conversational voice and explain how authors use dialect to convey character
  • Identify literary language and devices used in memoirs and personal narratives and compare their characteristics with those of an autobiography
  • Explain how authors create meaning through stylistic elements and figurative language emphasizing the use of personification, hyperbole and refrains
  • Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • Determine a theme or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.
  • Describe how a particular story's or drama's plot unfolds in a series of episodes as well as how the characters respond or change as the plot moves toward a resolution.
  • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone
  • Analyze how a particular sentence, chapter, scene, or stanza fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the theme, setting, or plot.
  • Explain how an author develops the point of view of the narrator or speaker in a text.
  • Compare and contrast the experience of reading a story, drama, or poem to listening to or viewing an audio, video, or live version of the text, including contrasting what they "see" and "hear" when reading the text to what they perceive when they listen or watch.
  • Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres (e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories) in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics.

Informational Text

  • Compare and contrast the structure and viewpoints of two different authors writing for the same purpose, noting the stated claim and supporting evidence
  • Identify the simple faulty reasoning used in persuasive texts.
  • Interpret factual, quantitative, or technical information presented in maps, charts, illustrations, graphs, timelines, tables and diagrams.
  • Critique persuasive techniques (e.g., testimonials, bandwagon appeal) used in media
  • Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • Determine a central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.
  • Analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes).
  • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings.
  • Analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter, or section fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the ideas.
  • Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text and explain how it is conveyed in the text.
  • Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue.
  • Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.
  • Compare and contrast one author's presentation of events with that of another (e.g., a memoir written by and a biography on the same person).
  • By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Writing

  1. Write poems using: Poetic techniques (e.g., alliteration, onomatopoeia), figurative language (e.g., similes, metaphors), and graphic elements (e.g., capital letters, line length)
  2. Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
  3. Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons and evidence clearly.
  4. Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
  5. Use words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons.
  6. Establish and maintain a formal style.
  7. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the argument presented.
  8. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
  9. Introduce a topic; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  10. Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
  11. Use appropriate transitions to clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
  12. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
  13. Establish and maintain a formal style.
  14. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the information or explanation presented.
  15. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
  16. Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
  17. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
  18. Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another.
  19. Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to convey experiences and events.
  20. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.
  21. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.)
  22. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 6 here.)
  23. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of three pages in a single sitting.
  24. Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literature (e.g., "Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres [e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories] in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics").
  25. Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., "Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not").
  26. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Research

  • Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and refocusing the inquiry when appropriate.
  • Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources.
  • Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
  • Differentiate between primary and secondary sources
  • Convert graphic/visual data (e.g., charts, diagrams, timelines) into written notes

Reading & Writing Units: 6th Grade

Topic

Standard

Quarter

UNIT 1: Key Ideas in Text- Part I

Describing Plot

Summarize the elements of plot development in various works of fiction

1st

Citing Evidence to Make Inferences

Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

1st

Analyzing Character Development

Describe how a particular story's or drama's plot unfolds in a series of episodes as well as how the characters respond or change as the plot moves toward a resolution.

1st

Determining Theme or Central Idea

Determine a theme or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

1st

Summarizing Literary Texts

Determine a theme or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

1st

Analyzing the Structure of Stories

Analyze how a particular sentence, chapter, scene, or stanza fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the theme, setting, or plot.

1st

Determining and Explaining Point of View

Explain how an author develops the point of view of the narrator or speaker in a text.

1st

Evaluating an Argument

Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.

1st

Summarizing Informational Text

Determine a central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

1st

Summarizing Literary Texts

Determine a theme or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

1st

Writing a Narrative: Legend

  1. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
  2. Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
  3. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
  4. Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another.
  5. Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to convey experiences and events.
  6. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.

UNIT 1 Assessment

1st

UNIT 2: Key Ideas in Text- Part 2

Determining Central Idea and Details

Determine a central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

2nd

Comparing and Contrasting Texts

Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres (e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories) in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics.

2nd

Analyzing Key Ideas in a Text

Describe how a particular story's or drama's plot unfolds in a series of episodes as well as how the characters respond or change as the plot moves toward a resolution.

2nd

Analyzing Text Structures

Analyze how a particular sentence, chapter, scene, or stanza fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the theme, setting, or plot.

2nd

Comparing and Contrasting Genres

Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres (e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories) in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics.

2nd

Comparing Historical Texts

Compare and contrast the historical and cultural settings of two literary works

2nd

Writing to Inform: Article

  1. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
  2. Introduce a topic; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  3. Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
  4. Use appropriate transitions to clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
  5. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
  6. Establish and maintain a formal style.
  7. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the information or explanation presented.
  8. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources.

UNIT 2 Assessment

2nd

UNIT 3: Informational Text

Research Paper

  1. Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and refocusing the inquiry when appropriate.
  2. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources.
  3. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
  4. Differentiate between primary and secondary sources
  5. Convert graphic/visual data (e.g., charts, diagrams, timelines) into written notes

3rd

Author’s Purpose- Informational Text

Compare and contrast the structure and viewpoints of two different authors writing for the same purpose, noting the stated claim and supporting evidence

3rd

Summarizing Informational Text

Determine a central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

3rd

Persuasive Text

  1. Critique persuasive techniques (e.g., testimonials, bandwagon appeal) used in media
  2. Identify the simple faulty reasoning used in persuasive texts.

3rd

Writing to Persuade

  1. Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
  2. Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons and evidence clearly.
  3. Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
  4. Use words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons.
  5. Establish and maintain a formal style.
  6. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the argument presented.

UNIT 3 Assessment

3rd

UNIT 4: Literary Forms

Analyzing Poetry

  1. Explain how authors create meaning through stylistic elements and figurative language emphasizing the use of personification, hyperbole and refrains
  2. Explain how figurative language contributes to the meaning of a poem

4th

Writing Poetry

Write poems using: Poetic techniques (e.g., alliteration, onomatopoeia), figurative language (e.g., similes, metaphors), and graphic elements (e.g., capital letters, line length)

Analyzing Word Choice

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone

4th

Stylistic Elements

Analyze the function of stylistic elements (e.g. magic helper, rule of three) in traditional and classical literature from various cultures

4th

Dialect and Voice

Recognize dialect and conversational voice and explain how authors use dialect to convey character

4th

Memoir, Personal Narrative, and Autobiography

Identify literary language and devices used in memoirs and personal narratives and compare their characteristics with those of an autobiography

4th

UNIT 4 Assessment

4th