Список обязательного словарного минимума

для интенсивного курса по методике Владислава Милашевича

Содержит около 220 уникальных слов, без списка глаголов - около 180

Числительные

one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve, hundred, thousand, first, second, third,

Артикли (“полуартикли”)

a, an, the this, these, that, those, all, any, some, no, another, other, every, each,

Местоимения

I, he, she, it, we, you, they my, his, her, its, our, your, their me, him, her, it, us, you, them

Служебные глаголы

to be: am, are, is, was, were, being, been to have: have, has, had, having, had to do: do, does, did, doing, done shall, should, will, would can (could), may (might), be able to, must, need

Союзы и предлоги

where what whereas who though (although) which because while when whether if and, but, or

by, with, without, for, as, because of, before, since, during, till (until), after, within, toward, into, out of, from, off, up, down, through, throughout, to, near, at, in, behind, below, under, on(upon), above, over, along, across, around, about, against, among, between,

Другие

thus, just, then, yet, still, than, also, rather, so, however, almost, both, always, both... and, recently, either... or, only, neither... nor, once, as well as, at least,

many, much, more, most few, little, less, least, very, such

Окончания

-s, -ing, -ed, -ly, -teen, -ty, -th.

Необходимые глаголы

believe, suppose, presume, predict, appear, turn out, prove, estimate, calculate, count, report, claim, announce,

be likely, unlikely, consider, expect, seem, assume, admit, recognize, say (said), know (knew,known), find (found), think (thought), show (showed, shown).

Ниже приведены упражнения для заучивания этих слов.


УРОК 1

I. Счет (числительные)

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12

one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve

13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 - имеют окончание-teen

thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, nineteen - обратите внимание на то, как выглядят выделенные числительные (13 и 15): они не похожи, как все остальные, на числительные из первого десятка - имейте это в виду.

20, 21, 22... 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 1000 - "десятки" имеют характерное окончание -ty

twenty, twenty one, twenty two..., thirty, forty, fifty, sixty, seventy, eighty, ninety, hundred, thousand - снова необычно выглядят 30 и 50 и отдельно запомните, как выглядят 100 и 1000. Все остальные - прямо производные от числительных первого десятка, то есть "система" уже четко просматривается.

II. Порядковые числительные

1-й, 2-й, 3-й, 4-й, 5-й и т.д.

first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth, sixteenth, seventeenth, eighteenth, nineteenth, twentieth, thirtieth, fortieth, fiftieth... - вы уже заметили, что порядковые числительные имеют окончание -th, но опять же за исключением первых трех, которые имеют свою форму.

Упражнения для перевода (уже!) :))

1). Three, four, nine, one, five, ten, eleven, two, seven, six, twelve, eight, five, seven, two, eleven, ten, five, one, nine, four, three, twelve, six, two, four, nine, one, three, eight.

2). Nine, four, two, six, twelve, three, four, seven, eleven, ten, five, one, eight, three, ten, nine, seven, six, five, two.

3). Fourteen, forty, seventy, thousand, twenty, fifteen, sixty, hundred, eighteen, ninety, thirty, thirteen, fifty, fourteen.

4). Thousand, first, twenty, twelfth, forty four, forty six, hundred, eighteen, ninety, fifth, nineteen, eightieth, second, third, sixth.

5). Eight, three, ten, six, one, four, two, nine, five, seven, four, six, three, seven, nine, two, one, ten, eight, five, ten.

6). Thirteen, seventeen, eleven, fourteen, twelve, nineteen, eighteen, fifteen, sixteen, thirteenth, eleventh, twelfth.

7). Seventy, ten, forty, ninety, fifty, twenty, sixty, eighty, thirty, hundred, thousand, seventieth, twentieth, ninetieth, two hundred and twenty, six hundred and twenty six, thirtieth, ninety, ninety seven, third, seventeenth, twentieth, three, twenty, five.


УРОК 2

a - an - the

не имеют перевода

 "полуартикли"

 

this - these, that - those

этот-эти, тот-те

all - any - some - no

все-любой-некоторый-никакой

another-other, every-each

другой-другие, каждый-каждый

many-much, more, most

многие-многое, более, наибольший

few-little, less, least

немногие-немногое, менее, наименьший

very (the very), such

очень (тот же самый), такой

 местоимения

 

I-he-she-it-we-you-they

я-он-она-оно-мы-вы-они

my-his-her-its-our-your-their

мой-его-ее-его-наш-ваш-их

me-him-her-it-us-you-them

меня-его-ее-его-нас-вас-их

"Полуартикли" (нетрадиционная терминология,  которая употребляется в данном Курсе - "полуартикли",  "подчинительные союзы" и проч.- является изобретением автора и, по его мнению, наиболее точно отражает местоположение данных служебных слов в предложении).

to be: am, are, is - was, were -

есть (являться): наст. время - прош. время

being - been

являющийся - являемый

 

 

to have: have, has - had -

иметь: имею (имеешь), имеет - имел -

having - had

имеющий - имеемый

 

 

to do: do, does - did -

делать: делаю (делаешь), делает - делал -

doing - done

делающий - делаемый

 

 

shall-should, will-would

показатели будущего времени

 

 

there is - there are - there was - there were

имеется - имеются - имелся - имелись

 

 

can (could), may (might), be able to

мочь(мог), мочь(мог), мочь (быть способным)

must, need

должен, нуждаться

that

что, который

where

где

what

что, какой

whereas

в то время, когда

who

кто, который

though (although)

хотя

which

который

because

потому что

while

в то время, когда

as, since, for

так как

when

когда

before

перед тем, как

whether

ли

after

после того, как

if

если

and, but, or

и(а), но, или

Упражнения

 

Перевести служебные слова в следующих выражениях. Если вам не знакомы слова "table"("tables") и  "time", посмотрите в англо-русском словаре. Обратите внимание, что слова во множественном числе  имеют окончание -S.

8). A table, the table, the tables, this table, these tables, that table, those tables, all tables, any table, any tables, some table, some tables, no table, no tables, another table,

other tables, every table, each table, many tables, much time, more tables, more time, most tables, most time, few tables, little time, less time, least time, very good time, the very table, such table, such tables.

 

Переведите выражения. Вместо цифр произносите слова "стол" (может быть как в единственном, так и во множественном числе) или "время" (неисчисляемое существительное -  употребляется без артикля и, как правило, в единственном числе).

9). A 1, an 2, the 3, this 4, these 5s, that 6, those 7s, all 8s, any 9, any 10s, some 11, some 12s, no 13, no 14s, another 15, other 16s, every 17, each 18, many 19s, much 20, more 21, most 22, few 23s, little 24, less 25, least 26, very good 27, the very 28, such 29, such 31s.

 

Переведите слова и выражения.

10). Many, every, another, no, all, very, the very, such, those, this, a, least, little, much, each, other, less, some, that, these, any, more, few, some, the, most, those, very, no every.

 

11). These, most, some, more, the, few, any, that, less, each, a, little, this, some, other, much, least, those, the very, all another, many, such, very, no, every, some, that, other, any.

 

12). I, he, she, it, we, you, they, she, I, we, they, you, it, he, they, I, we, she, it, you, they, he, it, she, they, we.

 

13). It-its-it, they-their-them, he-his-him, we-our-us, you-your-you, she-her-her, I-me-my.

 

14). Me, its, them, he, us, you, her, we, his, their, it, she, my, her, your, our, they, me, it-its-it, their, his, my.

 

15). It is, it was, it will be, they are, they were, they will be, it was, they are, it was, they are, it is, they were, it will be, they will be.

 

16). I am, he is, she is, it is, we are, you are, they are, I was, he was, she was, it was, we were, you were, they were, I-we shall be, he-she-it-you-they will be, I was, he is, they will be, we were, you will be, he was, you were, it is, I am.

 

17). I have, he-she-it has, we-you-they have, they had, I had, it has, you will have, they have, he has, we have.

 

18). There is, there are, there was, there were, there will be, there are, there was, there is, there were, there will be.

 

19). It will be, there was, they have, they were, it was, it is, it has, they had, it will be, there will be, they will have.

 

20). I do, he-she-it does, we-you-they do, I-he-she-it-we-you-they did, they will do, she does, it did, they do, it does.

 

21). Being, having, doing, been, had, done, been, having, done, being, had, been, doing, done, being, had, having, been, doing.

 

22). He was, he is, he will be, he has, he had, he will have, he did, he does, he will do, there are, they are, they have.

 

23). We had, you are, he was, there will be, she will have, we are, she is, I have, it does, they had, we are, we did, I do.

 

24). There will be, hundred, other, they, each, fourteen, its, a, is, three, third, there were, had, are, we, this, every, it, second, shall, some, most, their, all, those, nine, there is, that, they, first, fifty, were, another, such, no, those, very, twelve, their, no, less, does, forty, has, thousand, been, an, seventeenth, done, the very, most, have, do, been, the, that.

 

25). That, what, who, which, while, when, whether, if, where, whereas, though, although, because, as, since, before, after, where, if, whether, when, while, which, who, what, that, since, as, for, after, before, although, though, whereas, if, that, which, where, when, whether, since, while, as, for, what, because, though, after, if, whereas, although, before, that.

 

26). Can, could, may, might, be able to, must, need, may, could, must, was able to, can, need, might, can, could, must, can, may.

 

27). Before, might, though, must, could, whereas, need, if, can, because, may, which, where, is able to, when, could, before.


УРОК 3

Переведите выражения. Вместо цифр произносите слова "стол" (может быть как в единственном, так и во множественном числе) или "время" (неисчисляемое существительное - употребляется без артикля и, как правило, в единственном числе). 

9). A 1, an 2, the 3, this 4, these 5s, that 6, those 7s, all 8s, any 9, any 10s, some 11, some 12s, no 13, no 14s, another 15, other 16s, every 17, each 18, many 19s, much 20, more 21, most 22, few 23s, little 24, less 25, least 26, very good 27, the very 28, such 29, such 31s.

Не забывайте, что этом разделе вы изучаете служебные (вспомогательные) слова, которые в данном случае ставятся перед существительным.

Существительные могут иметь множественное число или нет. Вам специально дано всего два слова (одно исчисляемое, т.е. которое может иметь множественное число (стол), а другое - не исчисляемое (время) которые легко запомнить, чтобы не отвлекаться от темы. Вспомогательные слова стоят перед этими двумя словами и по ним можно определить, какое слово употребить в каждом случае. Например, если после цифры (т.е.слова) есть буква "s", то это слово "стол", а не "время" (которое не бывает во множественном числе, как "солнце", "воздух" и прочие слова, не имеющие множественного числа)

ЗАДАНИЕ 1.

Запомните местоположение предлогов на схеме (на "кубике")

 

 

УРОК 4.

ЗАДАНИЕ 2.

Назовите каждую стрелку на пустом "кубике".

ЗАДАНИЕ 3.

Назовите предлоги по-русски. Запомните, как выглядят эти  предлоги на английском языке.

Не старайтесь их произносить!

ЗАДАНИЕ 4.

Запомните местоположение нескольких новых предлогов на схеме

ЗАДАНИЕ 5.

Назовите каждую стрелку на пустой схеме

ЗАДАНИЕ 6.

Назовите предлоги по-русски. Запомните, как выглядят эти  предлоги на английском языке. По-прежнему не старайтесь их произносить!

ЗАДАНИЕ 7.

Запомните местоположение предлогов на новом "кубике" и тех, которые слева от него. Прошу прощения за не четкое написание некоторых предлогов. Но надеюсь, что с русским вариантом вы справитесь и в таком качестве :)

ЗАДАНИЕ 8.

Назовите по-русски каждую точку (предлоги) на пустом "кубике" и на рисунках слева.

ЗАДАНИЕ 9.

Назовите предлоги по-русски (т.е. переведите). Запомните, как выглядят эти  предлоги на английском языке. Не произносите их!

ЗАДАНИЯ 10-11.

Задание 10. Запомните перевод предлогов, которые не вошли на схемы:

для

for

чем

by

с

with

без

without

как

as

из-за

because of

Задание 11. Добейтесь запоминания перевода всех предлогов путем многократного повторения заданий 1-10 :)))

28). By, with, without, for, as, because of, before, since, during, till (until), after, within, because of, since, till, within, by, without, as, before, during, after, with, for, until, because of, by, as, since, till, with, without, for.

Переведите правильно одинаковые по написанию ПРЕДЛОГИ и СОЮЗЫ("предлог" стоит перед словом, а "союз" связывает две части предложения). Проговаривайте оба варианта перевода, например BEFORE - BEFORE ("перед" - предлог, "перед тем, как" - союз):

29). After-after, before-before, for-for, as-as, since-since, because-because of, with-without, that-that.

30). After, before, for, as, since, because of, with, without, toward, to, into, out of, from, off, up, down, through, throughout.

31). From, into, toward, throughout, down, off, out of, into, through, to, up, toward, from, down, off, into, to, out of.

32). Near, at, in, behind, below, under, in, on(upon), above, over, along, across, around, about, out, against, among, between.

33). Over, above, on(upon), in, under, below, behind, in, at, near, around, about, across, along, out, against, among, between.

34). Along, under, out, behind, about, upon, near, across, on, among, in, below, at, against, over, between, above, upon, on.

 

В случае совпадения ПРЕДЛОГА и СОЮЗА ("предлог" стоит перед словом, а "союз" связывает две части предложения) проговаривать оба варианта перевода, например BEFORE: "перед" - предлог, "перед тем, как" - союз.

 

35). By, with, without, for, as, because of, before, since, till(until), during, after, within, toward, to, into, out of, from, off, up, down, through, throughout, near, at, in, behind, below, under, in, on, upon, above, over, around, across, along, about, out, against, among, between.

 

36). Below, in, near, through, up, from, into, within, during, till, before, as, without, by, between, against, about, across, over, upon, in, behind, at, throughout, down, off, out of, to, after, until, since, because of, for, with, among, out, along, around, above, on, under, near, into, from, with, by, during.

 

37). Along, to, at, over, across, till, during, below, after, around, by, above, until, out, upon, about, before, within, in, with, on, among, since, off, behind, against, without, into, up, from, through, by, between, at, down, because of, for, under.

 

38). Up, in, before, upon, until, by, within, about, out, above, around, after, during, across, at, along, below, till, over, to, into, against, off, among, with, on, since, behind, without, by, from, between, down, for, under, because of, at, through, over.

 

Обзорное упражнение - по всему предыдущему материалу.

 

39). Where, the, off, thirty, do, whereas, those, toward, second, though, no, he, being, five, because, can, is, another, through, ten, as, there was, it, many, to, eighth, before, has, you, an, out of, eleven, whether, may, them, few, up, for, seventy, when, had, very, by, down, five, fifth, while, with, such, having, no, within, during, because of, first, that, will, near, upon, some, they, would, at, fourth, what, has, other, his, above, under, hundred, twelfth, been, more, least, him, fifteenth, although.


УРОК  5

Запомнить перевод  глаголов:

believe, suppose, presume, predict

полагать, предполагать

appear, turn out, prove

оказываться

estimate, calculate, count

подсчитывать

report, claim, announce

сообщать, объявлять

be likely - be unlikely

быть вероятным - маловероятным

consider

считать, рассматривать

expect

ожидать

seem

казаться

assume, admit

принимать, допускать

recognize

признавать, узнавать

say (said, said)

говорить

know (knew, known)

знать

find (found, found)

находить

think (thought, thought)

думать

show (showed, shown)

показывать

Упражнения. Переведите следующие глаголы:

40). Believe, turn out, prove, estimate, calculate, count, report, claim, announce, be likely, be unlikely, consider, seem, expect, assume, admit, recognize, say, know, find, think, show.

41). Find, say, admit, expect, count, prove, seem, be unlikely, announce, report, calculate, turn out, show, find, say, admit, think, estimate, know, recognize, assume, be likely, claim.

42). Expect, show, report, believe, seem, count, assume, think, consider, claim, calculate, turn out, find, admit, be unlikely, announce, estimate, prove, know, recognize, be likely, say.

43). Showed, thought, found, knew, said, shown, known, thought, think, know, find, show, say, found, said, knew, known, showed, thought, find, say, said, know, found, think, show, shown, said.

Проверочные упражнения по всему изученному материалу:

44). All, their, been, may, eighteen, if, about, till, recognize, more, I, doing, four, out of, into, calculate, such, fifth, an, predict, every, they, to do, need, ninth, at, up, report, she, presume, the very, few, shall, second, throughout, appear, us, to be, there is,  thousand, that, below, for, say, prove, claim.

45). That, her, shown, as, upon, while, there will be, was, off, turn out, little, will, you, am, hundred, what, under, by, for, with, found, other, may, having, eighth, although, behind, seem, every, they, to do, did, at, up, report, this, it, are, twenty, which, on, without, known, any, your, have, might, nineteen, a.

46). Be likely, because of, above, when, fifty, can, were, him, think, by, what, is, consider, during, across, whereas, have, no, its, must, because, around, within, assume, announce, do, many, into, had, most, through, against, down, toward, after, behind, another, least, would, while, first, twelfth, out of.

47). Claim. down, against, seven, do, us, each, report, up, at, to do, they, every, seem, before, behind, although, ninth, my, other, admit, after, out, though, eleventh, need, had, his, it, found, with, in, who, ten, was, us, the, thought, by, under, I, what, am, their, most, done, third, count, appear, shall, been.

48). As, upon, while, show, there is, there are, her, that, be likely, me, because of, above, when, fifty, can, were, him, these, any, has, your, might, nineteen, along, until, expect, consider, across, during, its, has, must, thirteen, around, believe, appear, because, at, up, report, about, down, we, does, did, between, suppose, for, would, least, such, few, has, be able, can, it, more, every, our, expect, out, within, without, with, said, my.


УРОК  6

Переведите следующие слова:

 

49). A, an, the, this, that, these, those, all, any, some, no, another, other, every, each, many, much, more, most, few, little, less, least, very, the very, such, I, he, she, it, we, you, they, my, his, her, its, our. your, their, me, him, her, it, us, you, them, to be, am, is, are, was, were, being, been, to have, have, has, had, having, to do, do, does, did, doing, done, shall, should, will, would, there is, there are, there will be, can, could, may, might, be able to, must, need, hundred, thousand, one, two, three, four, five, first, second, third, eleventh, twelfth.

 

50). That, what, who, which, if, while, when, whether, where, whereas, because, through, though, although, below, under, in, on, upon, above, over, about, along. across, around, out, out of, behind, at, against, among, for, between, by, with, without, as, because of, since, toll, until, during, within, after, before, up, down, toward, to, into, off, through, throughout, from, say, think, find, know, show, expect, be likely, be unlikely, recognize, consider, assume, admit, seem, report, claim, announce, estimate, calculate, count, turn out, prove, believe, suppose, presume, predict, and, but, or.

 

Запомните, как переводятся слова, не вошедшие в обязательный минимум, но которые при переводе специальных текстов необходимо знать.

Thus

таким образом

Just

как раз

Then

тогда, затем

Yet, still

еще

Than

чем (сравнение)

Also

также

Rather than

более чем

So

так, так что

However

однако

Almost

почти

Both

оба

Always

всегда

Both... and

как... так и

Recently

недавно

Either... or

либо... либо

Only

только

Neither... nor

ни... ни

The only

единственный

As many as

так много, как

Once

однажды, как только

As well as

так же, как

At least

по меньшей мере

Контрольные упражнения:

 

1). Every, they, to do, need, although, eight, report, at, up, an, there are, what, under, by, think, fifth, predict.

 

2). Another, his, had, need, eleven, though, out, after, admit, the, us, is, there was, ten, who, in, with, find, the very.

 

3). No, its, has, must, thirteen, because, around, within, that, assume, her, was, there will be, thirty, while, upon, as, very.

 

4). Those, him, were, can, fifty, when, above, because of, be likely, other, my, having, nine, behind, before, seem, them.

 

5). Consider, during, across, twelve, whereas, be able to, have, our, some, say, for, below, that, thousand, to be, them, first.

 

6). Might, to have, your, any, nineteen, where, along, until, a, expect, this, it, are, twenty, which, on, without, know, off.

 

7). Whether, sixteen, could, being, me, those, over, since, be, most, he, done, may, three, while, upon, through, count, into.

 

8). All, their, been, may, eighteen, if, about, till, much, he, did, five, when, between, to, estimate, toward, among, many.

 

9). First, them, to be, thousand, our, some, say, for, below, that, have, be able to, whereas, twelve, across, consider, it.

 

10). The very, as, upon, while, thirty, there was, are, her, assume, within, around, because, must, has, its, no, suppose.

 

11). Into, second, count, believe, through, on, while, suppose, three, may, done, most, could, those, over, since, whether.


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