Scholarly articles related to standards-based grading principles.

*indicates article was published in a peer-reviewed journal

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Amundson, L. (2011). How I overhauled grading as usual. Educational Leadership 69(3). [Available online]

Andrews, C., Barnes, C., & Gibbs, J. (2016). Standards-based grading: Moving toward equality of opportunity and advancement of learning for all students. (Doctoral disquisition). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (10103066).

*Beatty, I. (2013). Standards-based grading in introductory university physics. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 13(2), 1-22.  [Available online]

Blynt, R. A. (1992). The sticking place: Another look at grades and grading. English Journal, 81(6), 66-71.

*Bostic, K. (2012). Standards based grading in the middle school, International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities, 3(1), 17-23. [Available online]

Bradburd-Bailey, M. (2011). A preliminary investigation into the effect of standards-based grading on the academic performance of african-american students. (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (3511593). [Available online]

*Brilleslyper, M., Ghirst, M., Holcomb, T., Schaubroeck, B., Warner, B., & Williams, S. (2011). What’s the point? Benefits of grading without points. Problems, Resources, and Issues in Mathematics Undergraduate Studies, 22(5), 411-427. doi:10.1080/10511970.2011.571346

Brookhart, S.M. (2011). Starting the conversation about grading. Educational Leadership, 69(3), 10-14. [Available online]

*Brookhart, S.M., Guskey, T.R., Bowers, A.J., McMillan, J.H., Smith, J.K., Smith, L.F., Stevens, M.T., & Welsh, M.E. (2016). A century of grading research: Meaning and value in the most common educational measure. Review of Educational Research, 86(4), 803-848.

*Brophy, T.S. (1997). Reporting progress with developmental profiles. Music Educators Journal, 84, 24-27.

Campbell, C. (2012). Learning-centered grading practices. Leadership, 41(5), 30-33. [Available online]

*Carey, T., & Carifio, J. (2012). The minimum grading controversy: Results of a quantitative study of seven years of grading data from an urban high school. Educational Researcher, 41(6), 201-208. [Available online]

Christopher, S. (2007). Homework: A few practice arrows. Educational Leadership, 65(4), 74-75. [Available online]

Clymer, J.B., & Wiliam, D. (2006). Improving the way we grade science. Educational Leadership, 64(4), 36-42. [Available online]

Colby, S.A. (1999). Grading in a standards-based system. Educational Leadership, 56(6), 52-55.

*Cox, K. (2011). Putting classroom grading on the table: A reform in progress. American Secondary Education, 40(1), 67-87.

Dean, M. G. (2014). Grade retention rates: Impact of standards-based grading as compared to traditional grading system in 3rd and 5th grades. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

Deddeh, H., Main, E., & Fulkerson, S. (2010). Eight steps to meaningful grading. Phi Delta Kappan, 91(7), 53-58.

*Diegelaman-Parente, A. (2011). The use of mastery learning with competency-based grading in an organic chemistry course. Journal of College Science Teaching, 40(5), 50-58.

Dueck, M. (2011). How I broke my own rule and learned to give retests. Educational Leadership, 69(3), 72-75. [Available online]

*Duker, P, Gawboy, A, Hughes, B, & Shaffer, K.P. (2015). Hacking the music theory classroom: Standards-based grading, just-in-time teaching, and the inverted class. Music Theory Online, 21(2). [Available online]

*Durm, M. (1993). An A is not an A is not an A: A history of grading. The Educational Forum, 57(3), 294-297. doi: 10.1080/00131729309335429

Erickson, J.A. (2011). A call to action: Transforming grading practices. Principal Leadership, 12(1), 42-46. [Available online]

Erickson, J.A. (2010). Grading practices: The third rail. Principal Leadership, 10(7), 22-26. [Available online]

Erickson, J.A. (2011). How grading reform changed our school. Educational Leadership, 69(3), 66-70.

Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Pumpian, I. (2011). No penalties for practice. Educational Leadership, 69(3), 46-51.

Fleenor, A., Lamb, S., Anton, J., Stinson, T., & Donen, T. (2011). The grades game. Principal Leadership, 11(6), 48-52. [Available online]

*Frankin, A., Buckmiller, T., & Kruse, J. (2016). Vocal and vehement: Understanding parents’ aversion to standards-based grading. International Journal of Social Science Studies, 4(11), 19-29. [Available online]

Guskey, T.R. (2009). Bound by tradition: Teachers’ views of crucial grading and reporting issues. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA. [Available online]

Guskey, T.R.  (2013). The case against percentage grades. Educational Leadership, 71(1), 68-72.

Guskey, T.R. (2011). Five obstacles to grading reform. Educational Leadership, 69(3), 16-21. [Available online]

Guskey, T.R. (2001). Helping standards make the grade. Educational Leadership, 59(1), 20-27.

Guskey, T.R. (2006). Making high school grades meaningful. Phi Delta Kappan, 87(9), 670-675.

Guskey, T.R. (1994). Making the grade: what benefits students?. Educational Leadership, 52(2), 14-20. [Available online]

Guskey, T.R., Jung, L., & Swan, G. (2011). Grades that mean something: Kentucky develops standards-based report cards. Phi Delta Kappan, 93(2), 52-57.

Guskey, T.R., & Jung, L. (2012). Four steps in grading reform. Principal Leadership, 13(4), 22-28. [Available online]

Guskey, T.R., & Jung. L. (2006). The challenges of standards-based grading. Leadership Compass 4(2). [Available online]

*Guskey, T.R., & Jung, L. (2009). Grading and reporting in a standards-based environment: Implications for students with special needs. Theory Into Practice, 48(1), 53-62. 

*Hany, K., Proctor, M., Wollenweber, J. & Al-Bataineh (2016). Teacher perceptions of standards-based grading: Implication and effectiveness. Journal of Teaching and Education, 5(1), 749-765. [Available online]

Haptonstall, K.G. (2010). An analysis of the correlation between standards- based, non-standards-based grading systems and achievement as measured by the colorado student assessment program (CSAP). (Doctoral dissertation).  Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (3397087)

Hardegree, A. (2012). Standards-based assessment and high stakes testing: Accuracy of standards-based grading (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (3540113)

Hochbein, C. & Pollio, M. (2016). Making grades more meaningful. Phi Delta Kappan, 98(3), 49-54. doi: 10.1177/0031721716677262

*Hooper, J., & Cowell, R. (2014). Standards-based grading: History adjusted true score. Educational Assessment, 19(1), 58-76. doi: 10.1080/10627197.2014.869451

*Iamarino, D. (2014). The benefits of standards-based grading: A critical evaluation of modern grading practices. Current Issues in Education, 17(2). [Available online]

*Jung, L., & Guskey, T.R. (2007). Determining fair grades for students with special needs: A standards-based model. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL

Jung, L., & Guskey, T.R. (2011). Fair & accurate grading for exceptional learners. Principal Leadership, 12(3), 32-37. [Available online]

Jung, L., & Guskey, T.R. (2010). Grading exceptional learners. Educational Leadership, 67(5), 31-35.

Jung, L., & Guskey, T.R. (2007). Standards-based grading and reporting: A model for special education. Teaching Exceptional Children, 40(1), 48-53.

*Kalnin, J.S. (2015) Proficiency-based grading: Can we practice what they preach? AILACTE Journal, 11(1), 19-36. [Available online]

Knaack, S., Kreuz, A. & Zowlocki, E. (2012). Using standards-based grading to address students’ strengths and weaknesses. (Masters Action Research Project). [Available online]

*Lehman, P.R. (1998) Grading practices in music. Music Educators Journal, 84(5), 37-40. 

Lord, M. (2016). Made to Measure. ASEE Prism, 25(6), 32-35. [Available online]

Marbouti, F., Diefes-Dux, H. A., & Madhavan, K. (2016). Models for early prediction of at-risk students in a course using standards-based grading. Computers & Education. [Available online]

Marzano, R.J., & Heflebower, T. (2011). Grades that show what students know. Educational Leadership, 69(3), 34-39.

*Melograno, V. J. (2007). Grading and report cards for standards-based physical education. The Journal Of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 78(6), 45-53. [Available online]

Miller, J.J. (2013). A better grading system: Standards-based, student-centered assessment. English Journal, 103(1), 111-118. [Available online]

Mohnsen, B. (2006). Assessment and grading in physical education. Strategies (08924562), 20(2), 24-28.

Muñoz, M. A. & Guskey T.R. (2015). Standards-based grading and reporting will improve education. Phi Delta Kappan, 96(7), 64-68.

*Noschese, F. (2011). A better road: Improve teaching and student morale through standards-based grading. Iowa Science Teachers Journal, 38(3), 12-17. [Available online]

Norton, J. B. (2014). The impact of traditional and standards-based grading on teacher-issued grades, student achievement, and parental understanding of grades. (Doctoral dissertation). Available through ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (3582795)

O'Connor, K., & Wormeli, R. (2011). Reporting student learning. Educational Leadership, 69(3), 40-44.

O’Connor, K. (2017). A case for standards-based grading and reporting. School Administrator, 74(1), 24-28.

Paeplow, C.G. (2011). Easy as 1, 2, 3: Exploring the implementation of standards-based grading in

Wake County elementary schools (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

Pekel, K. (2013). A tale of two grades: an evaluation of Grading for Learning, a middle school grading reform (Doctoral dissertation). Retreived from

*Peters, R. & Buckmiller, T. (2014). Our grades were broken: Overcoming barriers and challenges to implementing standards-based grading. Journal of Educational Leadership in Action, 2(2), [Available online]

*Peters, R., Grundmeyer, T., & Buckmiller, T. (2016). An educational leadership program’s continuous improvement journey towards a standards-based system. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 15(18), 79-96. [Available online]

*Pollio, M. & Hochbein, C. (2015). The association between standards-based grading and standardized test scores as an element of a high school reform model. Teachers College Record, 117(11), 1-28.

Post, S.L. (2014). Standards-Based Grading in a Fluid Mechanics Course. Paper presented at the 121st ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition, Indianapolis, IL. [Available online]

*Post, S. L. (2017). Standards-based grading in a thermodynamics course. International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy, 7(1).

Proulx, C., Spencer-May, K., & Westenberg, T. (2012). Moving to standards-based grading: Lessons from Omaha. Principal Leadership, 13(4), 30-34.

Reeves, D.B. (2008). Leading to change: Effective grading practices. Educational Leadership, 65(5), 85-87. [Available online]

Reeves, D.B. (2011). Taking the grading conversation public. Educational Leadership, 69(3), 76-79.

Rosales, R.B. (2013). The effects of standards-based grading on student performance in algebra 2 (Doctoral dissertation). Retreived from

*Scott, S. (2005). What's in a grade?. General Music Today, 14(3), 17-24.

*Schinske, J., & Tanner, K. (2014). Teaching more by grading less (or differently). CBE - Life Sciences Education (13), 159-166. [Available online]

Schneider, J., Feldman, J. & French, D. (2016). The best of both worlds. Phi Delta Kappan, 98(3), 60-67. [Available online]

Scriffiny, P.L. (2008). Seven reasons for standards-based grading. Educational Leadership, 66(2), 70-74. [Available online]

*Shippy, N., Washer, B., & Perrin, B. (2013). Teaching with the end in mind: The role of standards-based grading. Journal Of Family & Consumer Sciences, 105(2), 14-16.

Souter, D.H. (2009). The nature of feedback provided to elementary students in classrooms where grading and reporting are standards-based (Doctoral dissertation). Retreived from

Stephens, S.E. (2010). 7th-12th grade english/language arts teachers and their classroom grading practices: Investigating the use of standards-based grading in Nebraska’s rural classrooms (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

*Swan, G.M., Guskey, T.R., & Jung, L.A. (2014). Parents and teachers’ perceptions of standards-based and traditional report cards. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 26(3), 289-299.

Szymczak, J. S. (2015). Transitioning to a standards-based grading model at the middle level: A case study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

Thiele, J. (2016). Grading practices and mindset development: The growth of both (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

*Tierney, R. D., Simon, M., & Charland, J. (2011). Being fair: Teachers' interpretations of principles for standards-based grading. Educational Forum, 75(3), 210-227.

Tomlinson, C. (2000). Reconcilable differences? Standards-based teaching and differentiation. Educational Leadership, 58(1), 6-11. [Available online]

Townsley, M. (2013). Redesigning grading―districtwide. Educational Leadership, 71(4), 68-71.

Townsley, M. (2017). Three lessons for schools shifting their grading. School Administrator, 74(1), 27.

Urich, L.J. (2012) Implementation of standards-based grading at the middle school level (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

Vatterott, C. (2011). Making homework central to learning. Educational Leadership, 69(3), 60-64.

*Wilcox, J. (2011). Holding ourselves to a higher standard: Using standards-based grading in science as a means to improve teaching and learning. Iowa Science Teachers Journal, 38(3), 4-11. [Available online]

Winger, T. (2005). Grading to communicate. Educational Leadership, 63(3), 61-65. [Available online]

*Wormeli, R. (2006). Accountability: Teaching through assessment and feedback, not grading. American Secondary Education, 34(3), 14-27.

Wormeli, R. (2011). Redos and retakes done right. Educational Leadership, 69(3), 22-26.

Zimmerman, T. (2017). Grading for understanding - Standards-based grading. The Physics Teacher, 55, 47-50. [Available online]