8.P.1.1:  Vocabulary

Word

Definition

1.Filtering

A substance that allows only certain things to pass through.

2. Mixtures

Two or more substances that are mixed together and not chemically combined.

3. Homogeneous

A mixture in which substances are evenly distributed throughout the mixture.

4. Heterogeneous

A mixture in which pure substances are unevenly distributed throughout the mixture.

5. Sifting

Separate out from one thing to another

6. Evaporation

The process by which molecules at the surface of a liquid absorb enough energy to change to the gaseous state.

7. States of Matter

One of the distinct forms that matter takes on.

8. Solid

A state of matter that has a definite shape and a definite volume.

9. Liquid

A state of matter that has no definite shape but has a definite volume.

10. Gas

A state of matter with no definite shape or volume

11. Molecule

A particle made of two or more atoms bonded together.

12. Crystal Pattern

Atoms, molecules are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating three-dimensional pattern.

13. Matter

Anything that has mass and occupies space.

14. Atoms

The basic particle from which all elements are made.

15. Proton

A positively charged particle that is part of an atom’s nucleus

16. Electron

A negatively charged particle that orbits the nucleus of an atom

17. Neutron

A small particle in the nucleus of the atom, with no electrical charge.

18. Electron Cloud

A sphere shaped region surrounding the nucleus where electrons move.

19. Nucleus

The central core of an atom containing protons and usually neutrons.

20. Element

A pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical or physical means.

21. Density

The mass of a substance contained in a unit of volume.

22. Volume

The amount of space an object takes up.

23. Mass

A measure of how much matter is in an object.

24. Compounds

A pure substance made of two or more elements chemically combined.

8.P.1.2 - Vocabulary

1. Periodic Table

A chart of the elements showing the repeating pattern of their properties.

2. Element

A pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical or physical means.

3. Model

A systematic description of an object or phenomenon that shares important characteristics with the object or phenomenon. Scientific models can be material, visual, mathematical, or computational and are often used in the construction of scientific theories.

4. Pattern

The regular and repeated way in which something is done.

Patterns found on the periodic table would include:

5. Valence Electron

The number of electrons found in the outer shell.

-These electrons can be gained, lost, or shared during a chemical reaction.

6. Isotope

An atom with the same number of protons and a different number of neutrons from other atoms of the same element.

7. Atomic Number

The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.

8. Atomic Mass

The average mass of all the isotopes of an element.

9. Vertical Column- Group/Family

Elements in the same vertical column of the periodic table.

18 Columns

10. Horizontal Row- Period

A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table.

7 Rows

11. Physical Property

A characteristic of a pure substance that can be observed without changing it into another substance.

12. Malleability

A term used to describe a material that can be pounded into shapes.

13. Conductivity

The ability of an object to transfer heat or electricity to another object.

14. Reactive

The ease and speed with which an element combines, or reacts, with other elements and compounds.

15. Ductility

A term used to describe a material that can be pulled out into a long wire.

8.P.1.3 - Vocabulary

1. Physical Changes

A change in a substance that does not change its identity.

2. Properties

A quality, attribute, or distinctive feature of anything, a characteristic

3. Boiling Point

The temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas.

4. Melting Point

The temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid.

5. Density

The mass of a substance contained in a unit of volume.

6. Solubility

A measure of how much solute can dissolve in a given solvent at a given temperature.

 7. Solvent

A substance that dissolves another substance

8. Solute

The part of a solution present in a lesser amount and dissolved by the solvent.

9. pH scale

A range of values used to express the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution.

 10. Aciditiy

Reacts with metals and carbonates

 11. Basicity

The extent to which a substance is basic.

12. Combustibility

A reaction between oxygen and fuel that results in a fire.

13.  Reactivity

The ease and speed with which an element combines, or reacts, with other elements and compounds.

14. Chemical changes

A change is which one or more substances combine or break apart to form new substances.

15.  Reactions

The action of two things acting together.

16. Chemical Bonds

The force that holds tow atoms together.

17.  Precipitate

A solid that forms from a solution during a chemical reaction.

8.P.1.4:  Law of Conservation of Mass

1. Law of Conservation of Mass

Total amount of matter is neither created nor destroyed during any chemical or physical change.

2. Chemical Equation

Uses chemical formulas and other symbols instead of words to summarize a reaction.

2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O

3. Closed System

A system in which no matter is allowed to enter or leave.

4. Open System

A system in which matter can enter from or escape to the surroundings.

5. Products

A substance that is formed as a result of a chemical reaction.

2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O

6.  Reactants

A substance that enters into a chemical reaction.

2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O

7. Coefficient

A number in front of a chemical formula in an equation that indicates how many molecules or atoms of each reactant and product are involved in a reaction.

2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O

8.  Subscript

A specific number of atoms of the element found in the substance.

2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O

9. Catalyst

A material that increases the rate of a reaction by lowering the activation energy.