8.L.1.1 Vocabulary

Vocabulary

Definition

Microbiology

The study of microscopic organisms

Virus

A small, nonliving particle that invades and then reproduces inside a living cell.

Bacteria

Single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus; prokaryotes

  • Cocci (plural)

Coccus- a round or spherical shaped bacterium

  • Bacilli (plural)

Bacillus- a rod-shaped bacterium

  • Spirilla (plural)

Spirillum- a bacterium that has a spiral shape

Fungi

Eukaryotic organisms that have cell walls, use spores to reproduce, and are heterotrophs that feed by absorbing food.

Parasite

An organism that lives on or in a host and causes harm to the host

Disease

Unicellular

Host Cell

An organism that provides a sources of energy or a suitable environment for a virus or for another organism to live

Antibiotics

A chemical that can kill bacteria without harming a person’s cells

Passive Immunity

Immunity in which antibodies are given to a person rather than produced within the person’s own body

Active Immunity

Immunity that occurs when a person’s own immune system produces antibodies in response to the presence of a pathogen

Vaccine

A substance introduced into the body to stimulate the production of chemicals that destroy specific viruses, bacteria, or other disease-causing organisms

Vaccination-The process by which harmless antigens are deliberately introduced into a person’s body to produce active immunity

Infectious disease

A disease caused by the presence of a living thing in the body

Noninfectious disease

A disease that is not caused by a pathogen

Carcinogens

A substance or a factor in the environment that can cause cancer

8.L.1.2 Vocabulary

Vocabulary

Definition

Epidemic

An outbreak of a disease that affects many people in an area

Pandemic

An epidemic that spreads over a large area, or throughout the world

Vectors

An organism that transmits a disease.  The organism does not cause the disease itself, but spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another.  Example-Mosquitoes are vectors for the deadly disease Malaria.

Pathogens

An organism that causes disease

Microbe (microorganism)

A living thing that cannot be seen without a microscope

Antimicrobial

An agent, like a drug, that is destructive to or prevents the growth of microorganisms