ah logo.tiff

The endocrine system!

The endocrine system is controlled mainly by the small ___________ gland, centered in the ____________ of the brain.  

ah logo.tiff

The Heart!

So we are going to list a sequence of blood flow in the heart using some of our pics!  

heart 1 photo roto.jpg

Flow of blood sequence: (right side of body as seen in picture)

(1.) From superior and inferior vena cava

(2.)to _________ atrium

(3.) makes way through atrioventricular valve (tricuspid valve)

(4.)  makes its way through right _______________

(5.) through ____________________ artery

heart 1 photo roto.jpg


(6.)  ___________________ gas exchange  in the lungs

alveolar gas exchange _oxygen______________ loading  __carbon dioxide_____________ unloading

systematic gas exchange carbon dioxide _______________ loading  ____oxygen___________ unloading

From left side of heart (as in anatomical position)

second half.jpg

 (7.) Returning from ___________________ gas exchange, the ______________________ blood travels into the ____________________________ veins.  

(8.) From the veins, it travels to the AV valve, known as the __________________________ or mitral valve.  

(9.) From here, it travels to the right ________________________.  

(10.) From the ventricle, it travels to the aorta.  

second half.jpg

ah logo.tiff

Recognizing Cranial Nerves

There are __12______ (amount) cranial nerves.  These are responsible for sense of smell, taste, sight and general senses.  (They are depicted in yellow)

CN pic.tiff100_0477.JPG

Here are more photos of the cranial nerves: (in yellow) 100_0479.JPG


ah logo.tiff

The endocrine system! (part 2)

The endocrine system is controlled mainly by the small _pituitary__________ gland, centered in the ____middle________ of the brain.  

ap study guide pic .jpg


The endocrine system contributes to stress, human interaction, growth, reproduction, and assists in many of the other systems of the body.  With the body, it is important to remember that other systems tend to cross over.    

ah logo.tiff

The classification of hormones!  

  1. Steroid Hormones- derived from cholesterol
  1. Include sex hormones: progesterone, estrogen, and testosterone
  2. Include corticosteroids produced by the adrenal gland (mainly is involved in stress; such as cortisol or aldosterone)
  3. Includes Calcitriol, a calcium regulating hormone
  1. Peptide Hormones- (chains of 3 to 200 or more amino acids)
  1. oligopeptides: Oxytocin, TRH, ADH, GnRH
  2. Polypeptides: ACTH, ANF,CRH, GH, GHIH, GHRH, PRL
  3. Glycoproteins: FSH, LH, TSH
  4. Packages as any other protein
  1. preproinsulin...proinsulin
  2. Peptides act through second messenger systems, cAMP
  1. Biogenic Amines- (psychopathology)
  1. Dopamine, Serotonin, Melatonin, T4, T3
  2. MITs and DITs

ah logo.tiff

The Structure of the Nephron; Urinary System

  1. There are 4 main Nitrogenous wastes of the body:
  1. Urea
  2. Ammonia
  3. Uric Acid
  4. Creatinine
  1.  Here are their chemical structures:

4 moles.tiff

3. Here are the structures of the nitrogenous wastes, chemically.  More importantly, take a look at some of the functional groups that make up these structures.  (Carbonyls)

urea.tifffull view.tiff

4. Looking at the first picture above, we see how every type of metabolism overlaps.  We notice the urea cycle more importantly. This is what is a product of protein metabolism.  Second, we see a more in depth view of protein metabolism.  This in depth view explains how an important nitrogenous waste, Urea, is formed.  

5. To understand how these “wastes” are distributed to the urine, we must understand what a nephron is, and more importantly, that a nephron is the functional unit of a kidney.  

6. The structure of a nephron:

  1. Glomerulus
  2. PCT
  3. DCT
  4. Loop of Henle
  5. Collecting Duct

7. The phases of exchange in a nephron:

  1.  Glomerular Filtration
  2. Tubular Reabsorption ( transports from filtrate to blood, such as solutes being returned to the blood)
  3. Tubular Secretion (transports of blood returning Nitrogenous wastes to the filtrate)