ICS Calendar Title:  Philosophy and Education: The Formation of Persons

ICS Course Code: ICS 2400AC W14

Instructors: Doug Blomberg (convenor), Nik Ansell, Rebekah Smick

Term and Year: Winter 2014 (Wednesdays, 9:30am-12:30 pm)

Last Updated: 26 January 2014

1. Course Description

2. Reading Schedule

3. Course Requirements

4. Description and Weighting of Elements to be Evaluated

5. Required Readings

6. Recommended Readings

1. Course Description

Philosophy has often been construed as more than an intellectual undertaking: Pierre Hadot, among others, considers it as a way of life or a spiritual exercise. It is thus a process of formation, a concern with (self-)education. This may often be an implicit theme for philosophers, in their concern for the meaning of humanness and the proper goals of life, and the nature of the larger world and our relations with it (how we come to know and value being primary interests).  Whereas these matters are of evident significance for conceptions of education, since early times philosophers have also reflected explicitly on the conduct of institutionalised and informal education, long before specialist philosophers of education emerged as a distinct guild.

Education is itself forming in(to) a way of life and educational practitioners have from time to time reflected philosophically on it. Paulo Freire is one prominent example, his influential ruminations being rooted in the very practical  and as he emphasises, also political project of helping oppressed people achieve literacy. Obviously, Isocrates, Socrates and many other philosophers since were also teachers first and foremost. Like philosophy, education is similarly concerned with preparing people to live a particular kind of life, thus depending on the ways in which life’s primary purposes are construed.

This course will thus include philosophical reflections that emerge from both starting points.

We will explore the parallels and intersections between philosophy and education, by examining influential texts on education by those usually renowned as philosophers in the general sense (Locke, Rousseau, Wollstonecraft) and those known more for their focus on education (Castiglione, Freire, Noddings).

Most of the authors we will study assume a form of Christian faith. We will be particularly interested in the ways all authors see their fundamental convictions playing out in the context of education, and how well these convictions and implications comport with participants’ understandings of a biblically-informed perspective on the purpose of life and correlative conceptions of the educational task.

2. Reading Schedule

  1. Introduction
  2. Castiglione, Courtier, Book 1
  3. Castiglione, Courtier, Book 4
  4. Locke, Some Thoughts, “Dedication” and Sections 1-128 (pp. 22-101, Dover ed.)
  5. Locke, Some Thoughts, Sections 129-216 (pp. 101-179, Dover ed.)
  6. Locke, Of the Conduct of the Understanding (pp. 181-265, Dover ed.)
  7. Rousseau, Émile, Books I and II
  8. Rousseau, Émile, Books III and IV
  9. Rousseau, Émile, Book V
  10. Groups
  1. Wollstonecraft, Thoughts on the Education of Daughters
  2. Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Part 1 (c. pp. 1-65)
  3. Noddings, Caring, pp. 7-78
  1. Groups
  1. Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, pp. 71-190
  2. Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Part 2 (c. pp. 66-130)
  3. Noddings, Caring, pp. 79-147
  1. Groups
  1. Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, pp. 191-283.
  2. Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Part 3 (c. pp. 131-198)
  3. Noddings, Caring, pp. 148-208
  1. Conclusion

3. Course Requirements

Total reading: 1250 pages (including research for final paper), of which approximately 60 pages per week must be completed in preparation for class.

Seminar leadership: In order to structure class discussion in a way that is both meaningful to junior members as well as guided by a close reading of the assigned texts, in most weeks junior members will introduce the readings for that class, preparing a brief paper for this purpose. The goal for these presentations is not to summarise the assigned text but to introduce the most pressing questions that it raises.

In more detail:

Each presentation will introduce one half of the seminar and will include a supporting paper of approximately 2,000 words. This word limit means that the paper should not exceed 20 minutes in total presentation time. However, it does not need to be presented in class as a single piece: the period of the seminar in which the presentation is made may be organised according to the presenter’s plan, drawing on successive sections of the paper. It is helpful, however, it two or more questions are explicitly stated in the paper. Copies of the paper should be distributed to the class.

Although the major responsibility for the conduct of a session rests with the presenter, a Senior Member will function as chair of the seminar overall, and may from time to time suggest ways in which the class could better proceed. The presentation and paper should be clearly grounded in the text, perhaps by focusing on one brief passage in which a significant concern is concentrated or by linking a number of citations that illustrate the development of a theme.

The presentation will keep clearly in view the seminar’s focus on what the text affirms (and denies) about an understanding of what it means to be a mature person and how people may be guided toward such maturity (a flourishing or abundant life). Explicit attention should also be given to how this view comports with a Christian understanding of mature humanness and how it should be nurtured.

Presenters will receive feedback from instructors in the form of consolidated comments. A grade and percentage will be recorded for tabulation at the conclusion of the course.

Course paper:  A paper for which the theme arises from assigned reading and discussion and engages substantively with these sites.

Length: 4,000–6,000 words (MA); 5,000–7,000 words (PhD).  

A paper proposal, including tentative thesis statement (50-100 words), outline, and proposed extra reading is due on Friday, March 21, 2014. The paper is due on Friday, May 23, 2014.

4. Description and Weighting of Elements to be Evaluated

ICS Students

Class Participation: 10%; Seminar Leadership: 30%; Paper: 60%

TST Students

Class Participation: 20%; Seminar Leadership: 30%; Paper: 50%.

5. Required Readings

Castiglione, Baldesar. (2004). Book of the Courtier. Penguin Classics. (selections) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BJ1604 .C313 2003 ; 1967 ed. BJ1602 .C573]

Freire, P. (1972). Pedagogy of the oppressed (M. B. Ramos, Trans.). Harmondsworth: Penguin. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf (1970 ed.): LB880 .F7313 1970]

Locke, John. (2007). Some Thoughts Concerning Education (including Of the Conduct of Education). Mineola, NY: Dover. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: LB 475 .L6 L63 2007]

Noddings, Nel. (2013). Caring: A Relational Approach to Ethics and Moral Education. 2nd ed., updated. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: HQ 1221 .N63 2013]

Rousseau, Jean Jacques. Émile, or On Education. (selections) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: LB512 .E5 F69 2007]

Rousseau, Jean Jacques. Julie, or La Nouvelle Heloise. (selections) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: PQ2039 .A1 1987]

Wollstonecraft, Mary. (2010). Thoughts on the Education of Daughters: With Reflections on Female Conduct, in the More Important Duties of Life. Gale Ecco. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: HQ1229 .W85 1787a]

6. Recommended Readings

Aldrich, R. (1994). John Locke (1632-1704). PROSPECTS: the quarterly review of comparative education, 24(1/2), 61-76. [OISE Library: PER]

Ashcraft, Richard (Ed.) (1991). John Locke: critical assessments. London; New York: Routledge. 0415008476 [Robarts Library: JC153 .L87 J62 1991 v.1-4]

Baldwin, Bird T. (1913). John Locke's contributions to education. The Sewanee Review, 21(20), 177-187. http://www.jstor.org.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/stable/27532614

Blits, J. H. (1991). The depersonalized-self: Rousseau's Emile. Educational Theory, 41(4), 397-405. [UofT electronic journal: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/7704673]

Blomberg, D. G. (1998). The practice of wisdom: knowing when. Journal of Education and Christian Belief 2(1), 7-26. [ICS Library: PER]

Blomberg, D. G. (1999). A problem-posing pedagogy: ‘paths of pleasantness and peace’. Journal of Education and Christian Belief 3(2), 97-113. [ICS Library: PER]

Blomberg, D. G. (1999). An ‘epistemology’ of teaching. Philosophia Reformata 64, 1-14. [ICS Library: PER]

Blomberg, D. G. (2006). The formation of character: spirituality seeking justice. In D. I. Smith, J. Shortt & J. Sullivan (Eds.), Spirituality, justice and pedagogy (pp. 91-110). Nottingham, UK: The Stapleford Centre. [ICS Library: PER (Journal of education and Christian belief; v. 10, no. 2)]

Blomberg, D. G. (2007). Wisdom and curriculum: Christian schooling after postmodernity. Sioux Center, IA: Dordt College Press. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BV1475.3 .B56 2007]

Blomberg, D. G. (2008). Whose spirituality? Which rationality? A narrational locus for learning. Journal of Education & Christian Belief, 13(2), 113-124. [ICS Library: PER]

Blomberg, D. G. (2009). Multiple intelligences, judgment, and realization of value. Ethics and Education, 4(2), 163-175. [UofT online journal: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/7706639]

Blomberg, D. G. (2013). ‘The Heart has Reasons that Reason cannot Know’: Thinking, Feeling, and Willing in Learning. Journal of Education & Christian Belief, 17(1), 61-77. [ICS Library: PER]

Blomberg, D. G. Educating for Truthfulness. In Lambert Zuidervaart et al. (eds.), Truth Matters: Knowledge, Politics, Ethics, Religion. McGill-Queen’s University Press, pp. 225-242 (in press). [ICS Library: ON ORDER]

Coffee, A. (2013). Mary Wollstonecraft, freedom and the enduring power of social domination. European Journal of Political Theory, 12 (2), 116-135. [UofT online journal: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/7707144]

Collins, Peter M. (1976). Rousseau's philosophy (or philosophies?) of education. The Irish Journal of Education / Irish Eireannach an Oideachais, 10(2), 51-80. [UofT online journal: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/7720909]

Crittenden, P. (1990). Learning to be moral: philosophical thoughts about moral development. Atlantic Highlands, NJ/London, UK: Humanities Press International. [Robarts Library: BF723 .M54 C75 1990]

Darling, John and M. Van De Pijpekamp (1994). Rousseau on the Education, Domination and Violation of Women. British Journal of Educational Studies, 42(2), 115-132. [UofT online journal: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/7691276]

Gerhardt, H.-P. (1993). Paulo Freire (1921-97). PROSPECTS: the quarterly review of comparative education, XXIII(3/4), 439-458. [OISE Library: PER]

Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: psychological theory and women's development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.[ICS Library Reserve Shelf: HQ1206 .G58 1982]

Gilligan, C., Lyons, N. P., & Hanmer, T. J. (Eds.). (1990). Making connections: the relational worlds of adolescent girls at Emma Willard school. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. [OISE Library: 373.1409713 L664M]

Gregoriou, Z., & Papastephanou, M. (2013). The utopianism of John Locke's natural learning. Ethics and Education, 8(1), 18-30. [UofT online journal: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/7706639]

Hull, John E. (2003) “Aiming for Christian Education, Settling for Christians Educating: The Christian School’s Replication of a Public School Paradigm. Christian Scholar’s Review. 32(2), 203-224. [ICS Library: PER]

Hull, John E. (2009) “Education for Discipleship: A Curriculum Orientation for Christian Educators,” Journal of Education & Christian Belief. 13(2), 155-168. [ICS Library: PER]

Jeffreys, M.V.C. (1967). John Locke: prophet of common sense. London: Methuen. [Robars Library: LB475 .L7 J4 1967]

Joldersma, Clarence W. (2011) Ernst Von Glaserfeld’s Radical Constructivism and Truth as Disclosure. Educational Theory 61(3), 275–293. [UofT Online journal: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/7704673]

McLaren, Peter and P. Leonard (Eds.). (1995). Paulo Freire: a critical encounter. London: Routledge. [UofT online monograph: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/8024737]

Michaud, Olivier. (2012), Thinking about the nature and role of authority in democratic education with Rousseau’s Emile. Educational Theory, 62(3), 287-304. [UofT Online journal: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/7704673]

Moseley, Alexander. (2007) John Locke. London; New York : Continuum. 0826484050, 9780826484055 [OISE Library: 370.1 C762 v.6]

Noddings, Nel. (1992). The challenge to care in schools: an alternative approach to education. New York: Teachers College Press. [OISE Library: 370.114 N761C]

Oelkers, Jürgen. (2002). Rousseau and the image of 'modern education'. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 34(6), 679-698. [UofT Online journal: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/7723866]

Passmore, John.  (1965)."The Malleability of Man in Eighteenth-Century Thought." In Aspects of the Eighteenth Century, edited by E. R. Wasserman, 21-46. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press. [Robarts Library: CB411 .W3]

Pearson, Samuel C. (1978). The religion of John Locke and the character of his thought." Journal of Religion, 58(3), 244-62. [UofT Online journal: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/7726990]

Popiel, Jennifer J. (2008). Rousseau’s Daughters: Domesticity, Education, and Autonomy in Modern France. University of New Hampshire Press. [Robarts Library: HQ759 .P642 2008X]

Röhrs, H. (1994). Maria Montessori (1870-1952). PROSPECTS: the quarterly review of comparative education, XXIV(1/2), 169-183. [OISE Library: PER]

Schipani, D. S. (1984). Conscientization and creativity: Paulo Freire and Christian Education. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: LB880.F732 S34 1984]

Smith, David I. (1998). ‘Knowing as Wisdom in Blomberg and Comenius.’ Journal of Education and Christian Belief 2:1 (1998): 27-37. [ICS Library: PER]

Smith, David I. (2000). ‘Spirituality and Teaching Methods: Uneasy Bedfellows?’ in R. Best (ed.) Education for Spiritual, Moral, Social and Cultural Development. London: Continuum, 52-67. [not available at UofT]

Smith, David I. (2002). The Bible and the Task of Teaching. Nottingham: The Stapleford Centre. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BV1471.2 .S65 2002]

Smith, David I. (2007). ‘Biblical Imagery and Educational Imagination: Comenius and the Garden of Delight’ in David Lyle Jeffrey and C. Stephen Evans (eds). The Bible and the University (Scripture and Hermeneutics Series 8) Milton Keynes/Grand Rapids: Paternoster/Zondervan, 188-215. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BS538.7 .B575 2007]

Smith, David I. (2008). ‘On Viewing Learners as Spiritual Beings: Implications for Language Educators’, Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages 9, 34-48. [Online journal: http://www.nacfla.net/UP_JournalFiles/JCFL%202008%2034-48%20Smith.pdf]

Smith, David I. and Barbara Carvill. (2000).The Gift of the Stranger: Faith, Hospitality and Foreign Language Learning. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: P53.76 .S66 2000]

Smith, David I. and James K. A. Smith (Eds.). (2011). Teaching and Christian practices: Reshaping faith and learning. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BV1610 .T43 2011]

Smith, David I. Learning from the Stranger: Christian Faith and Cultural Diversity. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans (2009). [Robarts Library: BR115 .C8 S5838 2009X]

Smith, James K. A. (2009). Desiring the kingdom: worship, worldview, and cultural formation. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BV178 .S63 2009]

Smith, James K. A. (2013) Imagining the Kingdom: how worship works. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BV15.S485 2013]

Snook, I. A. (1970). John Locke's Theory of Moral Education. Educational Theory, 20(4), 364-367. [UofT Online journal: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/7704673]

Soëtard, M. (1994). Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-78). PROSPECTS: the quarterly review of comparative education, XXIV(3/4), 423-438. [OISE Library: PER]

Stronks, Gloria G., & Doug Blomberg (Eds.). (1993). A vision with a task: Christian schooling for responsive discipleship. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BV1464 .V57]

Van Brummelen, Harro W. (2002). Steppingstones to curriculum: a Biblical path. 2nd ed. Colorado Springs, CO: Purposeful Design Publications. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: LB1570 .V34 2002]

Van Brummelen, Harro W. (2009). Walking with God in the classroom: Christian approaches to teaching and learning. 3rd ed. Colorado Springs, CO: Purposeful Design Publications. [not available on UofT Campus]

Van Dyk, J. (2000). The craft of Christian teaching: a classroom journey. Sioux Center, IA: Dordt Press. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: LB1027.2 .V36 2000]

Warmath, Thomas Lawrence. (2007).The beginnings, ends, and aims of a gentleman’s education: an exegesis of Locke’s Some thoughts concerning education. Baylor University, Dissertation. http://hdl.handle.net/2104/5093

White, Richard, (2008). Rousseau and the education of compassion. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 42(1), 35-48. [UofT Online journal: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/7726594]

Willey, Basil. (1972). The Seventeenth Century Background: Studies in the Thought of the Age in Relation to Poetry and Religion. Harmondsworth: Penguin. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: B1131 .W5]

Wollstonecraft, Mary. (1994). A Vindication of the Rights of Men; A Vindication of the Rights of Woman; An Historical and Moral View of the French Revolution. Oxford/New York: Oxford UP. 1994. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: JC571 .W869 1994]

Wolterstorff, Nicholas P. (2002). Educating for life: Reflections on Christian teaching and learning. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BV1464 .W65 2002]

Wolterstorff, Nicholas P. (2004). Educating for shalom: essays on Christian higher education. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BV1464 .W66 2004]

Yamashita, Masano. (2012). Love as habituation in Rousseau. Esprit Createur, 52, 54-66. [UofT Online journal: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/7706451]

Zimmer, Markus Bernhard. (1980). The education of John Locke: A philosophical and historical analysis. Harvard University, ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing. 8100374. [not available at UofT]

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