Summary of source data for Code.org infographic
1mm more jobs than students in computing, $500B over 10 years:
From the 2010 - 2012 report from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, http://www.bls.gov/, across all industries we are adding 136,620 jobs per year in computing. Subtract 40,000 annual computer science graduates (see NSF data below) and you get roughly a gap of 100,000 jobs.
100,000 jobs adds up over 10 years to 1mm jobs, with an average salary of $80,000 (the average salary in computing), that results in:
first year: 100,000 x $80,000
2nd year: 200,000 x $80,000
3rd year: 300,000 x $80,000
10th year: 1,000,000 x $80,000
TOTAL SALARIES = $440,000,000,000 ($440 billion)
This is slightly below $500b, but it doesn't account for inflation over the next 10 years. on top of that, there are many studies that show that each new software job results in many more jobs in the neighborhood. The latest such study suggested a 4.3x multiplier in terms of generating supporting/neighborhood jobs. With a 4.3x multiplier, we’d be talking about 5.3mm jobs over 10 years, and much more than $440b, so to be conservative we just rounded up to $500b. Here’s a very rough back of envelope analysis that suggests that the total opportunity size in this space may actually be closer to $1T in 10 years.
Note: We use the following BLS categories represent computing occupations:
All of these positions benefit from basic exposure to computer science. The latest outlook for all these occupational categories is available at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ and most of the list above is here: http://www.bls.gov/ooh/computer-and-information-technology/home.htm. Those pages have detailed data and the most current BLS projections.
According the Conference Board, In October 2013 there were 570,000 computing job openings in the United States, making these jobs the highest demand in the US -- about 4 times more than the US average. Note that this isn't about "shortages", this is about demand and opportunity … and demand for these jobs is quite significant in every single state.
Computer science is the highest paid college degree
See http://www.forbes.com/pictures/mkl45kkeg/1-carnegie-mellon-school-of-computer-science/ The single best-paying degree in the USA in 2013 is a Computer Science degree from Carnegie Mellon College. Depending on what you measure or how broadly you define it, Computer Science degrees vie for the #1 spot across all universities, although in the 2013 batch of graduates they were in the #2 spot according to the NACE survey.
The Job/Student gap in Computer Science
The source for the job data comes from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, http://www.bls.gov/. Projections for job openings and replacements in computing jobs is 1,366,200 jobs from 2010 - 2020. Projections for all other STEM jobs combined (engineering, life sciences, physical sciences, social sciences) is 908,700 jobs over the same period. This is a 60:40 ratio of jobs in Computing vs the rest of STEM. The source for the students data comes from the College Board, surveying 2012 AP examination participation (see http://research.collegeboard.org/programs/ap/data/participation/2013), shows that of the 1,379,585 AP math and science exams taken by US high school students in 2013, only 29,555 were computer science exams. This is a 2:98 ratio of students in computer science vs the rest of STEM
Less than 2.4 % of college students graduate with a degree in computer science
National Science Foundation data on graduation rates from college, ie 2.38% of college students graduate with a degree in computer science. Source data: spreadsheet: http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind12/append/c2/at02-18.xls, which comes from this web page: http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind12/appendix.htm. In the most recent years, the average number of CS graduates. If you look at the last three years of data, annually 40,005 students graduated with CS degrees on average, out of 1,580,382 total graduates, which is 2.5%. The numbers peaked in 2004, a decade ago. They decline steadily until 2009. We are pretty certain that the number has climbed since 2009 but not yet reached the 2004 peak. To the best of our knowledge the NSF data has not been updated since 2009. CRA surveys show a clear growth in CS majors subsequently, they are based on surveys and not cumulative totals.
High school AP enrollment in 2012
The data about enrollment in computer science compared to other fields, and participation by women, African Americans, and Hispanic Americans all come from this page: collegeboard.com/student/testing/ap/exgrd_sum/2012.html
57% of bachelors degrees are earned by women, but only 12% of CS degrees
National Science Foundation 2009 source data: http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind12/append/c2/at02-18.xls, which comes from this web page: http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind12/appendix.htm shows that 57% of bachelors degrees are earned by women. The same data shows that only 18% of CS degrees are earned by women. A more recent 2012-13 CRA survey shows the CS degrees by women at an even smaller 12%: http://cra.org/uploads/documents/resources/taulbee/CRA_Taulbee_CS_Degrees_and_Enrollment_2011-12.pdf
9 out of 10 US K-12 schools don’t offer computer programming classes
Source: Code.org database of local computer programming schools, sourced by a combination of data from the College Board, the Computer Science Teachers Association, and individual teacher submissions. Code.org database is here: http://code.org/learn/local. (Note that the Computer Science Teachers Association claims a membership of 13,000 internationally, compared to more than 130,000 K-12 schools in the US.
Note: this data is NOT yet counting the thousands of schools who are offering new Computer Science instruction based on the Code.org online K-8 Intro to Computer Science course that was released in Dec 2013.
In X out of 50 states computer science doesn’t count towards high school graduation credit
The original source of this data was the ACM Running on Empty report: http://www.acm.org/runningonempty/. However, thanks to the advocacy efforts by Code.org and sister organization Computing in the Core, the list of states that allow computer science to count towards graduation credit has increased monthly, and at this point Code.org is the definitive source of the data. The latest list of states is reflected at http://code.org/action
550,000 female software professionals in the US
According to this IDC study in 2014, or this easier to read summary, there are 11M software professionals in the world. 19.2% are in the US, which means 2.1M software professionals in the US. According to NCWIT, 26% of these professionals are female, which is about 550,000
67% of Computing jobs are outside the tech sector:
This statistic was included in the MSFT National Talent Strategy document and taken from a Georgetown University Center for Education and the Workforce Report on STEM (October 2011) by Anthony Carnevale, Nicole Smith, and Michelle Melton - see http://cew.georgetown.edu/stem/. The relevant quote "Computer occupations are the most widely represented across industries. For example, 9 percent are in Information Services, 12 percent are in Financial Services, 36 percent are in Professional and Business Services, 7 percent are in Government and Public Education Services, and 12 percent are in Manufacturing". (12 + 36 + 7 + 12 = 67%)
Per-state Jobs and Students and Schools data
Comparisons between Computer Science and other STEM fields
In charts that show comparisons of the job gap in computing and CS compared to other STEM categories, we have used data from the Bureau and Labor Statistics 2010-2020 job projections, and grouping according to the following job types per STEM category:
Architecture and Engineering
Architectural and Engineering Managers
Architecture and Engineering Occupations
Computer Hardware Engineers
Computer Science and Mathematics
Computer and Information Systems Managers
Computer and Mathematical Occupations
Computer Hardware Engineers
Natural Sciences Managers
Agricultural and Food Science Technicians
Environmental Science and Protection Technicians, Including Health
Forest and Conservation Technicians
Geological and Petroleum Technicians
Forensic Science Technicians
Social and Community Service Managers
Social Scientists and Related Workers
Social Science Research Assistants
Life, Physical, and Social Science Technicians, All Other
Number of Hours of Code
At Code.org, we do not count unique student IDs perfectly when tracking participation in the Hour of Code. Why? Partly because we don’t want the friction of prompting to “login / register” before a student or classroom tries learning for the first time, and partly because there are may activities we cannot track online. We do take certain steps to reduce double-counting, but without a login prompt, this can’t work perfectly. At the same time, there are MANY student activities in the Hour of Code that aren’t tracked at all. For example: (1) students who use a mobile/tablet app to try the Hour of Code are typically not counted (2) students who share a screen for pair-programming or group-programming may be counted as one (3) students trying an unplugged classroom activity cannot be counted online (4) teachers who create their own Hour of Code activities. As a result, there is some under-counting and some double-counting, and so we do not view the Hour of Code tracker to be an exact measure of usage. It is certainly directionally correct, and shows that many tens of millions of students have participated. And our “lines of code” counter tracks very real usage in our learning platforms.