Summary of source data for Code.org infographics and stats
Computing occupations make up ⅔ of all projected new jobs in STEM fields
The source for these data comes from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Employment Projections (http://www.bls.gov/emp/tables.htm). The projection for new computing jobs is 548,200 from 2014-2024. Projections for all other STEM jobs combined is 288,400 over the same period.
When comparing Employment Projections data to Computer Science graduates, only STEM and computing jobs that require a bachelor’s degree are included (i.e., jobs that require associate’s degrees or less, master’s degrees, and doctoral degrees are not included in these projection summaries). In this case, the projection for new computing jobs that require a bachelor’s degree is 413,500, versus 165,600 in all other STEM fields combined. This is a 71:29 ratio of jobs in Computing versus the rest of STEM.
For STEM occupations, we use the SOC codes that the BLS defined as STEM in the “Science, Engineering, Mathematics, and Information Technology Domain” (http://www.bls.gov/soc/Attachment_A_STEM.pdf and http://www.bls.gov/soc/Attachment_B_STEM.pdf).
For computing occupations, we use all of the occupations listed under “Computer Occupations” SOC 15-1100, as well as additional individual codes in other categories that are clearly computer science occupations. Specific codes for both classifications are listed below. Note that these codes include occupations at all degree levels.
Computer Science codes:
Computer and Information Systems Managers
Computer Hardware Engineers
Computer science teachers, postsecondary
Computer and information research scientists
Computer systems analysts
Information security analysts
Software developers, applications
Software developers, systems software
Network and computer systems administrators
Computer network architects
Computer user support specialists
Computer network support specialists
Computer occupations, all other
STEM Codes (Science, Engineering, Mathematics, and Information Technology Domain)
Computer and Information Systems Managers
Architectural and Engineering Managers
Natural Sciences Managers
Mathematical Science occupations
Surveyors, Cartographers, and Photogrammetrists
17-3000 (except 17-3011)
Drafters, Engineering Technicians, and mapping Technicians
19-3000 (except 19-3093)
Social Scientists and Related Workers
Life, Physical and Social Science Technicians
Math and Computer Teachers, Postsecondary
Engineering Teachers, Postsecondary
Life Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary
Physical Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary
Social Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary
Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing, Technical and Scientific Products
Only 8% of STEM graduates study Computer Science
The number of STEM and Computer Science graduates comes from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) IPEDS Completions Survey, obtained using the National Science Foundation (NSF) WebCASPAR tool. The table “NCES Degrees Awarded by Degree Level and Field” was formatted for 2013 (the most recent year available), bachelor’s degrees only, and public institutions or nonprofit private institutions. https://ncsesdata.nsf.gov/webcaspar/index.jsp?subHeader=WebCASPARHome. The national count of CS graduates includes the U.S territories Guam, Puerto Rico, and Virgin Islands.
The classification of STEM degrees comes from two NCES tables (http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2013/2013152.pdf and http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d14/tables/dt14_318.45.asp), and includes the following degrees:
Other Physical Sciences
Mathematics and Statistics
Other Life Sciences
Other Science and Engineering Technologies
Interdisciplinary or Other Sciences
According to these data, there were 508,399 bachelor’s degrees earned in STEM in 2013, and only 38,175 of those—7.51%—were in Computer Science.
1 in 4 U.S. schools offer C.S. classes with computer programming
The source of this data is the Gallup research study (commissioned by Google) Searching for Computer Science: Access and Barriers in K-12 Education, released in 2014 and found here: http://csedu.gallup.com/. According to this report, 3/4 of principals surveyed said that their schools do not offer courses with computer programming and coding. Of the 8811 principals who responded to the survey, 4745 said they offer computer science, 3761 said they don’t offer computer science, and 305 said they didn’t know. However, when asked about the content of these computer science courses, only about half of the 4745 principals who offer computer science said that these courses include programming- bringing the fraction of schools that offer computer science courses with programming to 1/4 (i.e., 4745 x 0.5 = 2,372 and 2,372/8,811 = 0.26). Note that we use 1/4 rather than 1/2 due to the confusion about what constitutes computer science. Programming is a critical component to include in a computer science course, and thus only those classes that have some programming should count as computer science.
91% of parents want their students to learn CS
The source of this data is the Gallup research study (commissioned by Google) Searching for Computer Science: Access and Barriers in K-12 Education, released in 2014 and found here: http://csedu.gallup.com/. According to the study, “Nine in 10 parents surveyed say that offering opportunities to learn computer science is a good use of resources at their child’s school, and just as many (91%) want their child to learn more computer science in the future” (p. 12).
High school AP exams in 2015
The data about AP computer science exams compared to other subjects, high schools offering the exam, and participation by female, Black, and Hispanic students comes from the College Board National and State Summary Reports: http://research.collegeboard.org/programs/ap/data.
We consider the following exams STEM: Biology, Calculus AB, Calculus BC, Chemistry, Computer Science A, Environmental Science, Physics 1, Physics 2, Physics C: Elec. & Magnet., Physics C: Mechanics, and Statistics.
The value of a Computer Science education
The net present value for lifetime earnings for high school graduates, college graduates, and computer science majors is from The Hamilton Project (Brookings): http://www.hamiltonproject.org/charts/career_earnings_by_college_major/
1 million open computing jobs by 2024
These data come from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Employment Projections data (http://www.bls.gov/emp/tables.htm) for 2014-2024, released in 2015. These data predict that there will be 1,208,500 job openings in computing occupations due to growth and replacement needs. For computing occupations, we use SOC codes 11-3021, 15-1100, 17-2061, and 25-1021 (see more details on these codes in the table above).
The numbers for the 2015 open computing jobs comes from the sum of the per-state jobs data from The Conference Board’s Help Wanted OnLine®service for October 2015 (see below for more details on the data from The Conference Board).
The diversity problem in tech starts in schools
The sources for this infographic are the College Board (2015 AP Computer Science A exams), the National Center for Education Statistics (college graduates by degree in 2013), and the Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Population Survey (people employed in computing occupations in 2014). From these sources, females represent 22% of AP CS A exam-takers, 17% of CS bachelor’s degrees, and 23% of people employed in computing occupations. People of color represent 13% of AP CS A exam-takers (9% Hispanic, 4% Black), 18% of CS bachelor’s degrees (9% Hispanic, 9% Black), and 14% of people employed in computing occupations (8% Black, 6% Hispanic).
Women who try AP Computer Science in high school are ten times more likely to major in it in college comes from a 2007 research study by the College Board (http://research.collegeboard.org/sites/default/files/publications/2012/7/researchreport-2007-4-ap-students-college-analysis-five-year-academic-careers.pdf).
In X out of 50 states computer science doesn’t count towards high school graduation credit
The original source of this data was the ACM Running on Empty report: http://www.acm.org/runningonempty/. However, thanks to the advocacy efforts by Code.org and sister organization Computing in the Core, the list of states that allow computer science to count towards graduation credit has increased monthly, and at this point Code.org is the definitive source of the data. The latest list of states is reflected at http://code.org/action
Computer science is the highest paid college degree
See http://www.forbes.com/pictures/mkl45kkeg/1-carnegie-mellon-school-of-computer-science/ The single best-paying degree in the USA in 2013 is a Computer Science degree from Carnegie Mellon College. Depending on what you measure or how broadly you define it, Computer Science degrees vie for the #1 spot across all universities, although in the 2013 batch of graduates they were in the #2 spot according to the NACE survey.
550,000 female software professionals in the US
According to this IDC study in 2014, or this easier to read summary, there are 11M software professionals in the world. 19.2% are in the U.S., which means 2.1M software professionals in the US. According to NCWIT, 26% of these professionals are female, which is about 550,000
67% of computing jobs are outside the tech sector
This statistic was included in the MSFT National Talent Strategy document and taken from a Georgetown University Center for Education and the Workforce Report on STEM (October 2011) by Anthony Carnevale, Nicole Smith, and Michelle Melton - see http://cew.georgetown.edu/stem/. The relevant quote is: "Computer occupations are the most widely represented across industries. For example, 9 percent are in Information Services, 12 percent are in Financial Services, 36 percent are in Professional and Business Services, 7 percent are in Government and Public Education Services, and 12 percent are in Manufacturing". (12 + 36 + 7 + 12 = 67%)
Number of Hours of Code
At Code.org, we do not count unique student IDs perfectly when tracking participation in the Hour of Code. Why? Partly because we don’t want the friction of prompting to “login / register” before a student or classroom tries learning for the first time, and partly because there are many activities we cannot track online. We do take certain steps to reduce double-counting, but without a login prompt, this can’t work perfectly. At the same time, there are MANY student activities in the Hour of Code that aren’t tracked at all. For example: (1) students who use a mobile/tablet app to try the Hour of Code are typically not counted (2) students who share a screen for pair-programming or group-programming may be counted as one (3) students trying an unplugged classroom activity cannot be counted online (4) teachers who create their own Hour of Code activities. As a result, there is some under-counting and some double-counting, and so we do not view the Hour of Code tracker to be an exact measure of usage. It is certainly directionally correct, and shows that many tens of millions of students have participated. And our “lines of code” counter tracks very real usage in our learning platforms.
59% of H1B “skilled worker” visas granted for computer science occupations
The source data is from the US Dept of Labor, Office of Foreign Labor Certification: http://www.foreignlaborcert.doleta.gov/pdf/H-1B_Selected_Statistics_FY2014_Q1.pdf.
This is how we classified the job types:
computer systems analyst
software applications developer
computer occupations other
software developers - system software
computer information system manager
network/computer system administrator
State average salary
The average salary for a computing occupation versus the average salary in the state is from the Bureau of Labor Statistics May 2014 State Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates (found at http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oessrcst.htm). For average state salary, we use “Annual mean wage” for all occupations. For average salary in computing occupations, we calculate the weighted arithmetic mean of all computing occupations (BLS codes 11-3021, 15-1100, 17-2061, and 25-1021) using the “annual mean wage” and total employment for each occupation code. That is, instead of simply finding the mean of the four occupation codes, we multiply the average salary for a given code by the number of people employed in that occupation and divide the sum of these salaries by the total number of people employed in computing occupations.
Per-state jobs data
The number of open computing jobs in each state comes from the The Conference Board’s Help Wanted OnLine®service (click here for more information about HWOL and their data collection methods). It represents the number of open jobs in the previous month (seasonally adjusted) for Bureau of Labor Statistics’ (BLS) Category SOC “15-0000 Computer and Mathematical Occupations”). This is a conservative estimate of the number of computing occupations as it excludes three BLS categories that include computing occupations: Computer and Information Systems Managers 11-3021, Computer Hardware Engineers 17-2061, and Computer Science Teachers, Postsecondary 25-1021. However, the 15-0000 SOC also includes some mathematical occupations that are not considered computing occupations. (This is due to limitations with our agreement with the Conference Board.) This data is cross-sector.
The comparison to the state average demand rate is comparing the job demand (% open jobs/of existing jobs determined in the May 2014 BLS’s OES survey) in computing occupations vs the state average.
The national jobs data is the sum of the 50 states plus D.C.
Per-state computer science graduates
The number of CS graduates in a given state and the percent female comes from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) IPEDS Completions Survey, obtained using the National Science Foundation (NSF) WebCASPAR tool. The table “NCES Degrees Awarded by Degree Level and Field” was formatted for 2013, bachelor’s degrees only, and public institutions or private institutions: nonprofit. https://ncsesdata.nsf.gov/webcaspar/index.jsp?subHeader=WebCASPARHome
Number of Hours of Code completed in a state comes from our Numbers of Hour of Code data (see above). IP addresses are used to determine the state.
The reported number of Code Studio accounts (by teacher and by student) includes all accounts that have been created and that have logged in at least once. IP addresses are used to determine the state.
Source data for prior infographics that we’re phasing out as new data is available
1mm more jobs than students in computing, $500B over 10 years:
From the 2010 - 2012 report from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, http://www.bls.gov/, across all industries we are adding 136,620 jobs per year in computing. Subtract 40,000 annual computer science graduates (see NSF data below) and you get roughly a gap of 100,000 jobs.
100,000 jobs adds up over 10 years to 1mm jobs, with an average salary of $80,000 (the average salary in computing), that results in:
first year: 100,000 x $80,000
2nd year: 200,000 x $80,000
3rd year: 300,000 x $80,000
10th year: 1,000,000 x $80,000
TOTAL SALARIES = $440,000,000,000 ($440 billion)
This is slightly below $500b, but it doesn't account for inflation over the next 10 years. on top of that, there are many studies that show that each new software job results in many more jobs in the neighborhood. The latest such study suggested a 4.3x multiplier in terms of generating supporting/neighborhood jobs. With a 4.3x multiplier, we’d be talking about 5.3mm jobs over 10 years, and much more than $440b, so to be conservative we just rounded up to $500b. Here’s a very rough back of envelope analysis that suggests that the total opportunity size in this space may actually be closer to $1T in 10 years.
Note: We use the following BLS categories represent computing occupations:
All of these positions benefit from basic exposure to computer science. The latest outlook for all these occupational categories is available at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ and most of the list above is here: http://www.bls.gov/ooh/computer-and-information-technology/home.htm. Those pages have detailed data and the most current BLS projections.
According the Conference Board, In October 2013 there were 570,000 computing job openings in the United States, making these jobs the highest demand in the US -- about 4 times more than the US average. Note that this isn't about "shortages", this is about demand and opportunity … and demand for these jobs is quite significant in every single state.
The Job/Student gap in Computer Science
The source for the job data comes from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, http://www.bls.gov/. Projections for job openings and replacements in computing jobs is 1,366,200 jobs from 2010 - 2020. Projections for all other STEM jobs combined (engineering, life sciences, physical sciences, social sciences) is 908,700 jobs over the same period. This is a 60:40 ratio of jobs in Computing vs the rest of STEM. The source for the students data comes from the College Board, surveying 2012 AP examination participation (see http://research.collegeboard.org/programs/ap/data/participation/2013), shows that of the 1,379,585 AP math and science exams taken by US high school students in 2013, only 29,555 were computer science exams. This is a 2:98 ratio of students in computer science vs the rest of STEM
Less than 2.4 % of college students graduate with a degree in computer science
National Science Foundation data on graduation rates from college, ie 2.38% of college students graduate with a degree in computer science. Source data: spreadsheet: http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind12/append/c2/at02-18.xls, which comes from this web page: http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind12/appendix.htm. In the most recent years, the average number of CS graduates. If you look at the last three years of data, annually 40,005 students graduated with CS degrees on average, out of 1,580,382 total graduates, which is 2.5%. The numbers peaked in 2004, a decade ago. They decline steadily until 2009. We are pretty certain that the number has climbed since 2009 but not yet reached the 2004 peak. To the best of our knowledge the NSF data has not been updated since 2009. CRA surveys show a clear growth in CS majors subsequently, they are based on surveys and not cumulative totals.
57% of bachelor’s degrees are earned by women, but only 12% of CS degrees
National Science Foundation 2009 source data: http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind12/append/c2/at02-18.xls, which comes from this web page: http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind12/appendix.htm shows that 57% of bachelors degrees are earned by women. The same data shows that only 18% of CS degrees are earned by women. A more recent 2012-13 CRA survey shows the CS degrees by women at an even smaller 12%: http://cra.org/uploads/documents/resources/taulbee/CRA_Taulbee_CS_Degrees_and_Enrollment_2011-12.pdf
The previous version of this document (prior to early 2015) can be found here.