Besides derivation by means of combining roots or attaching affixes, there is a more internal way of extending the meaning of words. This method involves a partial reduplication of  the initial syllable of a word. This partial reduplication involves the initial consonant, stripped of an eventual glide following it, and only the initial vowel: 

 Word

 

Intensive form

 ka

->

kaka

 denu

->

dedenu

 chempe

->

chechempe

Words with the syllabic structure CVN instead of prefixing this reduplication to the word root, add the reduplication to the end of the word:

 Word

 

Intensive form

 dun

->

dundu

 ban

->

bamba

 jam

->

janja

Words with the syllabic structure CVV add the reduplication to the end of the word as well:

 Word

 

Intensive form

 jai

->

jajai

 toi

->

totoi

 koi

->

kokoi

 

Verbs

Intensive verb forms express a certain kind of intensity in an action:

 Word

Translation

Intensive form

Translation

 nu

to go, motion

nunu

to move

 si

little, few

sisi

only, just

 pim

to hang

pimpi

to dangle

 

Other intensive verbs have a more repetitive, habitual or continuative nature, meaning something is happening over and over again:

 

Iterative

Iterative verbs express the repetition of an action:

 Verb

Translation

Intensive form

Translation

 pya

to jump

papya

to hop

 che

to hit

cheche

to beat (up)

 pim

to hang

pimpi

to dangle

 

Habituative

Habituative verbs denote actions that are carried out regularly or habitually. Compare:

 Verb

Translation

Intensive form

Translation

 de

to go

dede

to attend, go to

 ka

to say

kaka

to call

 jam

to do

janja

to have the custom of

 

Continuative

Continuative verbs express an action is of a perpetual nature:

 Word

Translation

Intensive form

Translation

 nuda

to spin

nunuda

to rotate

 din

light

dindi

to shine

 fi

to play

fifi

to be playful

 

Nouns

Some intensive forms are nouns. Many of those express an occupation ("someone habitually carrying out an action"):

 Verb

Translation

Intensive noun

Translation

 muno

to drive

mumuno

driver

 zu

to cook

zuzu

cook

 ko

writing

koko

writer

Note this practice is not compulsory. Many professions are expressed by words that are no intensive forms:

umukwan - teacher

udaiche - percussionist

urenka - judge

 

Inalienables

Another class of nouns describing inalienable things like family members and body parts too is characterized by reduplication:

mama - mommy

baba - daddy

memea - sister

bamba - heart

sese - muscle

titi - head

 Root

Translation

Intensive noun

Translation

 uma

mother

mama

mommy

 ban

central, core

bamba

heart

 ti

up, above

titi

head

Kinship terms expressed by a reduplication are informal terms expressing a personal relationship caracterized by endearment. Compare:

 Noun

Translation

Inalienable

Translation

 uma

mother

mama

mommy

 uba

father

baba

daddy

 mea

sister

memea

sis

 bua

brother

bubua

bro

The basic roots used in the words above also occur in formal speech as honorifics:

ba - mister

ma - miss, mrs.,ms.

bua - young man, used for male children

mea - young woman, used for female children