8 Ws

Pitts/Stripling

Research Process

Eisenberg/Berkowitz

"The Big Six"

Kuhlthau

Information Seeking

5 As

Pappas/Teppe

Pathways to Knowledge

Questioning

Raising the

information

need

Watching

Wondering

1. Choose a broad topic

2. Get an overview of the topic

1. Task definition

  1.1 Define the problem

  1.2 Identify information requirements

1. Initiation

2. Selection of General Topic

Ask

1. Appreciation

2 Pre-search

  Develop an overview; explore relationships.    

  Narrow focus

Exploring

Reading,

viewing,

listening

Webbing

3. Narrow the topic

4. Develop thesis/ purpose statement

5. Formulate questions to guide research

6. Plan for research and production

2. Information seeking strategies

  2.1 Determine range of source

  2.2 Prioritise sources

3. Location and access

  3.1 Locate sources

  3.2 Find information

4. Information use

  4.1 Engage (read, view, etc.)

3. Exploration

4. Formulation of focus

Access

2. Search

  Identify information providers; select information resources and tools; seek relevant information

Assimilation

Accepting,

incorporating

or rejecting

Wiggling

Weaving

7. Find, analyse, evaluate sources

8. Evaluate evidence; take notes, compile bibliography

4. Information use

  4.2 Extract information

5. Collection - gathering information on focused topic

6. Presentation

Analyse

3. Interpretation

  Assess usefulness of information; reflect to develop personal meaning

  Interpret information - critical thinking

Inference

Application for

solution and

meaning

Wrapping

Waving

9. Establish conclusions. Organise information in outline

10. Create and present final product

5. Synthesis

  5.1 Organise

  5.2 Present

Apply

4. Communication  

  Organise, apply and present new knowledge in format of choice

Reflection

Adjustment for

additional

questioning

Wishing

Reflection point - Is the paper/ project satisfactory?

6. Evaluation

  6.1 Judge the product

  6.2 Judge the process

7. Assessment of outcome/ process

Assess

7. Evaluation

  Thinking about process and product throughout process.

  Continuous eval. and revision.