Water Quality Indicators Guided Notes

Parts Per Million

  1. Most __________________ substances found in ______________ are measured in parts per million (____________) or even smaller amounts.
  2.  This means that for every ______ million parts (units) of water there is a certain number of parts of the ______________________.  
  3. Example:
  1. 8 / 1,000,000 = _______ ppm

Water Quality Indictors

  1. Alkalinity
  1. is  _________________________________ to neutralize _____________.
  2. produced by minerals such as __________________________________.
  3. _________________ sediment composed of ___________________________________________________.
  4. Water with ______________ alkalinity is usually _________________________.
  1. Ammonia
  1. produced by the ___________________ of organic matter and animal ___________________.
  2. ___________________________ to most aquatic life, especially at high ________.
  3. Bacteria readily ____________________ ammonia to _______________________.
  4. Nitrates are a plant _______________________________
  5. is a form of ___________________ and part of the ____________________________________.
  1. Bacteria
  1. Most bacteria are ___________________ in nutrient and other organic cycles.
  2. Excess ______________________ cause algal ___________________.  
  3.  As algae die and __________________, the high bacterial load rapidly __________________________ dissolved oxygen.
  4. Certain types of bacteria indicate _________________ and __________________ waste ___________________________.
  5. Escherichia coli are _________________________ bacteria found in the ____________________ of warm-blooded organisms.  Most strains are harmless but one E. coli strain can cause severe diarrhea and kidney _______________________.
  1. Dissolved Oxygen
  1. a product of _________________________________ and _____________________________.
  2. The ____________________ the water, the _________________ oxygen it can hold.
  3. Summer is often a time of oxygen ____________________ for ____________________________ organisms.
  4. Most organisms need at least _______ or _______ ppm of oxygen in order to ___________________.
  5. Even _____________ water rarely contains more than ________ ppm.
  1. Conductivity
  1. measures the water’s ability to __________________________________________________________.
  2. ___________________ water is a _________________ conductor.
  3. The addition of ______________________ solids, especially _______________, increases the __________________________ of water.
  4. _______________________________________ is measured using a conductivity _______________.
  1. Hardness
  1. refers to the ________________________ of ________________ and _________________________________ in water.
  2. Hard water has _______________ concentrations of these _________________.  
  3. Soft water has ______________ concentrations.
  4. Water hardness often originates from _______________________.
  1. Nitrate
  1. a primary plant ______________________.
  2. Nitrate is _______________ soluble and moves _______________ from surface to __________________________________.
  3. Excess nitrate causes _______________ blooms that __________________ water quality.
  4. Under normal conditions, the ________________________________ keeps the amount of available nitrogen in _____________________ with the demands.
  5. However, excessive use of ________________________ and ___________________________________ release have created a surplus of nitrate.
  6. The result is ____________________________________ from excess __________________ and ______________________ with reduced ____________________________________.
  1. Pesticides
  1. Effects on _________________ organisms – Moderately to highly ___________________ to mammals, __________________________, __________________________________, ___________________________ and _______________.
  1. pH
  1. pH is the _______________________ of the _______________________ ion (H+) concentration.
  2. The pH scale is ___________ to ___________.  
  3. Seven is ___________, below seven is ___________, and above seven is _________________ (or ______________________).
  4. Most ___________________ organisms exist within a pH range of _____________________________.
  1. Phosphate
  1. Phosphate’s concentrations in ______________ water is generally ___________; however, phosphorus is used extensively in _______________________ and other _____________________________.
  2. The primary sources of phosphates to surface water are ___________________________, _____________________________, and __________________________________________________.
  3. High levels of _____________________________ can over stimulate the growth of ________________________________ and __________________________.
  4. This in turn, will cause high DO ___________________________ and ___________________ to fish and many aquatic ______________________________.
  1. Sediment
  1. ______________________________ causes loose soil to _________________________ the waterways
  2. Suspended sediment __________________________________ to plants and _____________________________ dissolved oxygen.
  3. As sediments settle, they can __________________________ bottom (_____________________) organisms.
  1. Temperature
  1. Most aquatic organisms live within a temperature range of +32º F (+0º C) to 90º F (32º C).
  2. Rapid temperature change and temperature extremes can stress aquatic organisms.
  3. Temperature affects the oxygen-carrying capacity of water.
  1. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
  1. TDS is the measure of the material _____________________________ in ______________________.
  2. This measure is related to _________________________, ________________________ and conductivity.
  3. Hard water has _______________ TDS than ______________ water.
  1. Total Suspended Solids
  1. TSS is the measure of the ________________________ ______________________________ in the water.
  2. TSS is related to _________________________.
  3. Water with high TSS usually has high _____________________________________________ (TDS) as well.
  1. Turbidity
  1. Turbidity refers to water ________________________.
  2. _____________________________ suspended in the water _____________________ turbidity.
  3. A ______________________________________ is one type of instrument used to measure turbidity.
  1. Toxic Chemicals
  1. Toxic chemicals usually come from _____________________________ and _______________________________ production.
  2. The effects are often ___________________________ until years after they have entered the ________________________________.
  3. Toxic chemicals include heavy metals (___________________, mercury), organic compounds (_______________, PCB), inorganic substances (arsenic) and others.