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2. Einstein, A. “The Quantum Theory of Radiation.” Physikalische Zeitschrift. March 1917.

3. Taylor, Nick. “Laser.” Simon and Shuster. Page 212. August 2000.

4. Securities and Exchange Commission Registration Statement. Ciena Corporation. Page 50, footnote 19. February 7 1997.

http://www.secinfo.com/dsvRq.89x.htm#42it 

 5. “Beneficial Owner of More Than 5%.” Ciena Corporation. Confidential Private Offering. Page 58. 1993.

 6. Anders, George. The Wall Street Journal. “With Ciena, Investors Hit a Jackpot That’s One for the Record Books.” June 5 1998.

http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB897010328374193000 

 7. “Fiber Optics and Communications.” Vol. 20, No. 4. May 1997.

8. United States Patent #5696615. “Wavelength Division Multiplexed Optical Communication Systems Employing Uniform Gain Optical Amplifiers.” (USPTO)

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https://aresu.dsi.cnrs.fr/IMG/pdf/dwdm_ciena.pdf 

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http://www.nytimes.com/1997/03/03/business/fiber-optic-technology-draws-record-stock-value.html 

14. Henry, Mary C. “Ciena Corporation: Breaking the Bandwidth Barrier.” Goldman Sachs. Page 8. July 30 1997.

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1YJ3tu_KY1QC21_V7ezN-2te4ufwr98hHsDaCdP2aXPs/pub 

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16. George Gilder. “Fiber Keeps its Promise.” Forbes ASAP. April 4 1997.

17. Ibid

18. “Sprint Announces Plans to Launch Consumer Internet Service.” Sprint. August 20 1996. https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Sprint+announces+plans+to+launch+consumer+Internet+service.-a018607156Sprint+announces+plans+to+launch+consumer+Internet+service.-a018607156 

19. Ibid

20. Hecht, Jeff. “Boom, Bubble, Bust: The Fiber Optic Mania.” Optics and Photonics News. The Optical Society. Cover story. October 2016.

21. Henry, Mary C. “Ciena Corporation: Breaking the Bandwidth Barrier.” Goldman Sachs. Page 8. July 30 1997.

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1YJ3tu_KY1QC21_V7ezN-2te4ufwr98hHsDaCdP2aXPs/pub 

22. Markoff, John. “Fiber-Optic Technology Draws Record Stock Value.” The New York Times. March 3 1997.

23. Anders, George. “For Ciena’s Investors, a Jackpot for the Record Books.” The Wall Street Journal. June 5 1998.

24. Computer History Museum. Browser War II. http://www.computerhistory.org/timeline/networking-the-web/ 

25. Cvijetic, Milorad and Djordjevic, Ivan B.

“Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks”. Artech House. January 1 2013.

26. Berners-Lee, Tim. “Public Domain CERN WWW Software.” CERN. May 7 1993. http://1997.

webhistory.org/www.lists/www-talk.1993q2/0259.html. timbl@www3.cern;www-talk.1993q3.0z59.

html

27. Hilbert, Martin and López, Priscilla. “The World’s Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information.” Science, 332(6025) p. 154. 2011.

28. IEEE Innovation Award 2012. “Steve Alexander honored by IEEE.” IEEE Communications Society.

http://www1.ciena.com/connect/blog/Ciena-

CTO-Steve-Alexander-honored-by-IEEE.html

http://www.comsoc.org/about/memberprograms/comsoc-awards/industrial-innovation/bios 

29. Grobe, Klaus and Eiselt, Michael. “Wavelength Division Multiplexing: A Practical Engineering Guide.” John T Wiley & Sons. p. 2. October 2013.

30. Hecht, Jeff. “The Bandwidth Bottleneck That is Throttling the Internet.” Bigger Pipes.  Scientific American, Nature Computing. August 10 2016.

31. Kaminow, Ivan, Li, Tingye, and Willner, Alan E. “Optical Fiber Telecommunications.” Academic Press. Volume VIB: Systems and Network. Page 1. May 2013.