PHL 121  LOGIC  Syllabus Fall 2017

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PHL 121 Logic
Fall 2017

Instructor

Michel Legault, legaultmsa@hotmail.com, (860 632 3082)

1. COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course provides a philosophical investigation of the human knowledge about the human way of expressing his mind. The course wants to answer the following questions:

What are the operations of the human mind?

What is simple apprehension?

How terms and concepts express our thought?

What is the definition of a term?

What tools do we use to build a definition?

What is judging?

How a proposition can express a judgment?

What is reasoning?

What are the laws of reasoning?

How can we distinguish a valid reasoning from a fallacy?

The program to be covered is the following:

1. a philosophical investigation of the three acts of the human intellect: simple apprehension, judgment and reasoning from an Aristotelian perspective.

2. the first operation of the human mind, the simple apprehension, through the notions of concepts and words, signs in definition, universals, categories, and predicables;

3. the second operation of the human mind, judgment, through the study conversion, obversion and opposition of propositions

4. the third operation of the human mind, reasoning, through the discovery of the nature of categorical and hypothetical syllogisms, induction and deduction, elements of symbolic logic, and fallacies.


2. ENVISIONED LEARNING OUTCOMES

3. COURSE SCHEDULE

Lecture 1: Introduction to Philosophy

Nature of philosophy? Its role in human life and history.  Philosophy and the other sciences. Philosophy as a preparation to theology. Christian philosophy? Scholastic philosophy.

Readings:

William W. WALLACE, O.P., The Elements of Philosophy, A Compendium of Philosophy for Philosophers and Theologians, ch. 1; Commentary by Fr. Michel Legault, document ad hoc.

http://www.saintaquinas.com/primer.html

http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13548a.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scholasticism

        

Lecture 2: Introduction to Logic 

Nature of Logic. The method of Logic: The priority of seeing the problem. The outline of logical thinking. Logic is an art.

Readings:

Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, p. 1-11.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristotelian_logic

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-logic/

http://www.iep.utm.edu/aris-log/

Lecture 3: The First Act of the Mind: Simple Apprehension

The grasping of simple realities. The human being’s knowledge of reality. Inductive process. The grasping of the universal.  Concepts and words.  Clarified concepts: definition.

Readings:

Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 2, p. 15-22.

Assignments

Exercises in Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 2, p. 185, ex. 1.

Lecture 4: Words and Concepts; Signs in Definition

Notion of sign. Various kinds of signs.  Univocity, equivocity and analogy. Universality of the concept.

Readings

Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 3, p. 23-29.

http://definitionsinsemantics.blogspot.ca/2012/03/univocal-equivocal-and-analogous-terms.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sign

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/analogy

http://examples.yourdictionary.com/analogy-ex.html

Assignments

Exercises in Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 3, p. 186-187, ex. 2-3.

Lecture 5: Categories or Predicaments. What is said in the definition (First part)

The ultimate classification of being. The ten categories: substance and accidents. Quantity and quality.

Readings

Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 4, p. 30-34.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Categories_(Aristotle)

Lecture 6: Categories or Predicaments. What is said in the definition (Second part)

Relation. Action and Passion. Where, Position and When. Possession. Rules for the Categories.

Readings

Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 4, p. 35-41.

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-categories/

Assignments

Exercises in Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 4, p. 188-192, ex. 1-5.

Lecture 7: The Predicables, Modes in Definition (First part)

The natural use of predicables. Definition of predicables.

Readings

Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 5, p. 42-45.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Predicable

http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/predicable

Lecture 8: The Predicables, Modes in Definition (Second part)

Predicables describing the essence. Predicables deriving from or adhering in essence. The purpose of predicables.

Readings

Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 5, p. 45-49.

Assignments

Exercises in Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 5, p. 193-196, ex. 1-4.

Lecture 9: Definition, The Method for Definition

The method of division. The method of composition. The importance of direct perception

Readings

Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 6, p. 50-58

Assignments

Exercises in Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 6, p. 197, ex. 1.

Lecture 10: Definition: a Statement of Causes

The meaning of the four causes. The causes as found in the definition. Basic rules for definition. Undefined terms.

Readings

Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 7, p. 59-67.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_causes

http://faculty.washington.edu/smcohen/320/4causes.htm

Assignments

Exercises in Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 7 p. 198-199, ex. 1-2.

Lecture 11: Exercises on simple apprehension and review

Assignments

Take-Home  

Lecture 12: Examination of Simple apprehension

Written exam

Lecture 13: The Second Act of the Mind: Judgment:

Definition of judgment. Elements of Judgment.

Readings

Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 8, p. 71-74.

http://philo1notes.blogspot.ca/2011/10/judgment-and-proposition.html

Lecture 14: The Second Act of the Mind: Judgment and Proposition

Characteristics of the proposition. Affirmation or Denial. Simple proposition. Types of propositions.

Readings

Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 8, p. 74-82.

Assignments

Exercises in Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 8, p. 200-205, ex. 1-6.

Lecture 15: Proposition: Conversion and Obversion of Propositions

Conversion. The extension of terms. The rules for conversion

Readings

Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 9, p. 83-89.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contraposition_(traditional_logic)

Assignments

Exercises in Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 9, p. 206-212, ex. 1-7.

Lecture 16: Proposition: Opposition of Propositions

The square of opposition. Rules for truth and falsity.

Readings

Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 10, p. 90-97.

http://www.comfsm.fm/~dleeling/geometry/categorical_propositions.xhtml

Assignments

Exercises in Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 10, p. 213-216, ex. 1-3.

Lecture 17: Exercises on Judgment and Proposition

Assignments

Take-Home  


Lecture 18: EXAM on Judgment and Proposition

Written exam

Lecture 19: The Third Act of the Mind: Reasoning: Categorical syllogism (First part)

Act of reasoning. Structure of the syllogism.

Readings

Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 11, p. 99-106.

http://web.cn.edu/kwheeler/documents/Syllogisms.pdf

Assignments

Exercises in Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 11, p. 213-216, ex. 1-3.

Lecture 20: Reasoning (continued): Categorical syllogism (2nd part)

Rules for the syllogism. Procedure for a valid syllogism.

Readings

Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 10, p. 106-113.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syllogism

http://homepage.usask.ca/~wiebeb/Syllogism.html

Assignments

Exercises in Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 10, p. 213-216,  ex. 1-3.

Lecture 21: Hypothetical syllogism

Definition. Rules of hypothetical syllogism.

Readings

Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 11, p. 114-119.

Assignments

Exercises in Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 11, p. 217-227,  ex. 1-3.

Lecture 22: Hypothetical syllogism in symbolic logic[1], Disjunctive syllogism

Elements of symbolic logic. Disjunctive syllogism

Readings

Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 12, p. 120-123.

http://homepage.usask.ca/~wiebeb/Propositional.html

Assignments

Exercises in Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 12, p. 228-229,  ex. 1.

Lecture 23: Other forms of syllogism

Enthymeme. Dilemma, Polysyllogism. Sorites. Complex reasoning.

Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 12, p. 123-125.

Document ad hoc, p. 87-90C.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enthymeme

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dilemma

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polysyllogism

Assignments

Exercises in Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 12, p. 230-234-, ex. 2-6.

Lecture 24: Apparent Reasoning: Fallacies (First part)

Fallacy in general. Fallacies dependent on language.

Readings

Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 13, p. 126-131.

http://www.iep.utm.edu/fallacy/

http://web.gccaz.edu/~kshinema/FALLACIES.HTM

Assignments

Exercises in Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 13, p. 235-238, ex. 1-2.

Lecture 25: Ch. 13 Apparent Reasoning: Fallacies (Second Part)

Fallacies independent of language.

Readings

Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 13, p. 131-137.

Assignments

Exercises in Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach, chapter 13, p. 239-244, ex. 3-5.

Lecture 26: The main division of reasoning: deduction-induction

Deduction. Induction.

Readings

Document ad hoc (Summary p. 81-92B

http://www.differencebetween.com/difference-between-induction-and-vs-deduction/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deductive_reasoning

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inductive_reasoning

Lecture 27: Exercises on Syllogism

Assignments

Take-Home  

Lecture 28: FINAL EXAM (First Part)

Written exam (without books and notes)

Lecture 29: FINAL EXAM (Second Part)

Written exam (with books and notes)

The program to be covered is the following:

The First Act of the Mind: Simple Apprehension

Words and Concepts: Signs in Definition

The Categories: What is said in Definition

The Predicables: Modes in Definition

The Method for Definition

Definition: a Statement of Causes

The Second Act of the Mind: Judgment

The Proposition: the Result of Judgment

Conversion and Obversion of Propositions

Opposition of Propositions

The Third act of the Mind: Reasoning

The Categorical Syllogism

The Hypothetical Syllogism

Elements of Symbolic Logic

Variations in the Syllogism

Apparent Reasonings: Fallacies

Plagiarism

Plagiarism is using and passing off as one’s own the ideas or writings of another. Holy Apostles College and Seminary frowns upon plagiarism and anyone who plagiarizes will suffer the consequences: these may be severe.  The source of any work which is not your own must be acknowledged.

Disability Accommodations

Students in this course seeking accommodations to disabilities must first consult with the Disabilities Resource Center in the Registrar’s Office and follow the instructions of that office for obtaining accommodations.

Textbook:

Mary Michael Spangler, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach.  New York, University Press of America, 1993. 276 p.  ISBN 0-8191-8967-7; $29.50. The student should contact the librarian of the College before buying this text book on line; she can give him useful suggestion how to get it.

Books for consultation in the Library

Jacques Maritain, Formal Logic, translated by Imelda Choquette. New York, Sheed and Ward, 1946, 300 pages.

Jacques Maritain, An Introduction to Logic, New York, Sheed and Ward, 1937,

300 pages.

Celestine N. Bittle, O.F.M.Cap., The Science of Correct Thinking, Logic. Milwaukee, The Bruce Publishing Company, 1953. 419 pages.

Kenneth F. Doughterty, S.A., Logic, an Introduction to Aristotelian Formal Logic, Graymoor Press, Peekskill, N.Y., 1956, 158 p.

Sylvester J. Hartman, C.PP.S. Fundamentals of Logic.  St. Louis, MO, B. Herder Book Co. 1949. 271 p.

Raymond J. McCall, Basic Logic, The Fundamental Principles of formal Deductive Reasoning, College Outline Series, 2nd Ed., Barnes and Noble Books, 1952, 235 p.

Vincent Edward Smith, The Elements of Logic.  Milwaukee, The Bruce Publishing Company, 1957. 298 p.

William A. Wallace, O.P. The Elements of Philosophy, A Compendium for Philosophers and Theologians.  New York, Alba House, 1977. 338 p.

7. EVALUATION

1) 10% Class attendance and active participation in the course during the semester, including exercises and short tests.

2) 25% Exam on Apprehension.

3) 30% Exam on Judgment.

4) 35% Exam on Reasoning

GRADING SCALE:

A 94-100; A- 90-93; B+ 87-89; B 84-86; B- 80-83; C+ 77-79; C 74-76; C- 70-73 60-69; F 59 and below

Grading Rubric for the oral exams and personal reflection

CONTENT

1 (F)

2 (D)

3 (C)

4 (B)

5 (A)

Absence of Understanding

Posting shows no awareness of the concepts addressed in the topic by shifting off-topic

Misunderstanding

Posting demonstrates a misunderstanding of the basic concepts addressed in the topic through an inability to re-explain them

Adequate Understanding

Posting demonstrates an adequate understanding of the basic concepts addressed in the topic by a re-explanation of them

Solid understanding

Posting demonstrates an understanding of the basic concepts addressed in the topic and uses that understanding effectively in the examples it provides

Insightful understanding

Posting demonstrates an understanding of the basic concepts of the topic through the use of examples and by making connections to other concepts

8. ACADEMIC HONESTY POLICY

Students at Holy Apostles College & Seminary are expected to practice academic honesty.

Avoiding Plagiarism

In its broadest sense, plagiarism is using someone else's work or ideas, presented or claimed as your own.  At this stage in your academic career, you should be fully conscious of what it means to plagiarize. This is an inherently unethical activity because it entails the uncredited use of someone else's expression of ideas for another's personal advancement; that is, it entails the use of a person merely as a means to another person’s ends.

Students, where applicable:

Consequences of Academic Dishonesty:

Because of the nature of this class, academic dishonesty is taken very seriously.  Students participating in academic dishonesty may be removed from the course and from the program.

9. ATTENDANCE POLICY

Even though you are not required to be logged in at any precise time or day, you are expected to login several times during each week. Because this class is being taught entirely in a technology-mediated forum, it is important to actively participate each week in the course. In a traditional classroom setting for a 3-credit course, students would be required to be in class 3 hours a week and prepare for class discussions 4.5 hours a week. Expect to devote at least 7 quality hours a week to this course. A failure on the student’s part to actively participate in the life of the course may result in a reduction of the final grade.

10. INCOMPLETE POLICY

An Incomplete is a temporary grade assigned at the discretion of the faculty member. It is typically allowed in situations in which the student has satisfactorily completed major components of the course and has the ability to finish the remaining work without re-enrolling, but has encountered extenuating circumstances, such as illness, that prevent his or her doing so prior to the last day of class.

To request an incomplete, distance-learning students must first download a copy of the Incomplete Request Form. This document is located within the Shared folder of the Files tab in Populi. Secondly, students must fill in any necessary information directly within the PDF document. Lastly, students must send their form to their professor via email for approval. “Approval” should be understood as the professor responding to the student’s email in favor of granting the “Incomplete” status of the student.

Students receiving an Incomplete must submit the missing course work by the end of the sixth week following the semester in which they were enrolled. An incomplete grade (I) automatically turns into the grade of “F” if the course work is not completed.

Students who have completed little or no work are ineligible for an incomplete. Students who feel they are in danger of failing the course due to an inability to complete course assignments should withdraw from the course.

A “W” (Withdrawal) will appear on the student’s permanent record for any course dropped after the end of the first week of a semester to the end of the third week. A “WF” (Withdrawal/Fail) will appear on the student’s permanent record for any course dropped after the end of the third week of a semester and on or before the Friday before the last week of the semester.

11. ABOUT YOUR PROFESSOR

D:\Michel Legault\My Pictures 20120403\Michel 20130617\DSCN4782.JPG

Father Michel Legault, priest of the Society of the Missionaries of the Holy Apostles

Life and activities

Born in Montreal in 1935, Fr. Michel Legault studied first to become a teacher in the Province of Quebec, Canada. He taught 13 years as a Brother of Christian Instruction in public primary schools (1954-1958) and private secondary schools (1958-1964) [physics, chemistry, mathematics, Latin, Philosophy and music].

From 1964 to 1967, he taught philosophy at  Normal School (College). In 1967,  he entered the Society of the Holy Apostles and studied theology at St. Paul University in Ottawa. While studying theology, he taught General Ethics and Social Ethics at Ottawa University. He was elected as representative of the students on the Senate of Saint Paul University.

In 1970-1971, he spent one year at the Institut d’Études sociales de  Institut Catholique de Paris. He was ordained a priest on July 10, 1971. Then he taught philosophy, sciences and music while being dean of studies at Holy Apostles Seminary, in Otele, Cameroon (1971-1982).

From 1982 to 1984, he completed his doctoral dissertation (The Philosophy of Education of UNESCO) at Institut Catholique de Paris. In August 1984, he was elected on the general council of this religious family. During his sojourn in Montreal he taught philosophy at Saint John Vianney College and was the director of the Vocational Residence (students discerning for priesthood and religious life). From 1984 to 1988, he was member of the General Council of the Society of the Holy Apostles.

He returned to Cameroon from 1988 to 1997. He was rector of Holy Apostles Seminary in Otele. He founded a Major Seminary of Philosophy for the religious of Central Africa, Institut de Philosophie Saint-Joseph-Mukasa. He organized the propaedeutic year of spiritual formation before the Major Seminary for the Ecclesiastical Province of Yaoundé. He was one of the first teachers of philosophy who opened the Faculty of philosophy at Catholic University of Central Africa (Yaounde, Cameroon), and he initiated the teaching of Philosophy of Education and Pedagogy at the same University.

Since 1998, Fr. Michel teaches philosophy at Holy Apostles College and Seminary, in Cromwell, Connecticut.

Studies

Baccalaureate of Arts (University of Montreal)

Baccalaureate in Education (University of Montreal)

Baccalaureate in Theology (University St. Paul, Ottawa)

Licentiate in Philosophy (University of Ottawa)

Master in Philosophy (Institut Catholique de Paris)

Master in Divinity (Holy Apostles College and Seminary)

Doctorate in Philosophy (Institut Catholique de Paris)

Studies in Sociology (Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C. and Institut d’Études sociales, Paris)  

Doctorate Honoris Causa from Holy Apostles College and Seinary.

Publications

  1. La conception démocratique de l'éducation : John Dewey dans Démocratie et éducation]

Yaoundé, Cameroun : Presses de l'Université catholique d'Afrique centrale, [2002]

Pour une philosophie de l’éducation, Cahiers Jacques Maritain, no 14, Déc. 1986, pages 5-58

Une éducation libérale pour la démocratie: Jacques Maritain : pour une philosophie de l'éducation, Presses de l’Université catholique de l’Afrique centrale (Yaoundé, Cameroun), 2002, 62 pages

Communication at the symposium on Jacques Maritain, Montréal, 1988, Métaphysique et éducation http://maritain.nd.edu/ama/Knasas/Knasas14.pdf


CALENDAR

Lectures

1

Aug. 28

Introduction to Philosophy

2

Aug. 30

Introduction to Logic [1-14][2]

3

Sept. 6

Ch. 2 The First Act of the Mind: Simple Apprehension: [15-22]

4

Sept. 11

Ch. 3 Words and Concepts [23-29]

5

Sept. 13

Ch. 4 Categories or Predicaments (Part 1) [30-34]

6

Sept.18

Ch. 4 Categories or Predicaments Part 2) [35-41

7

Sept. 20

Ch. 5 Predicables, Modes in Definition (Part 1) [42-45]

8

Sept. 25

Ch. 5 Predicables, Modes in Definition (Part 2) [42-49]

9

Sept. 27

Ch. 6 Definition (Part 1) The Method in Definition [50-58]

10

Oct. 2

Ch. 6 Definition (Part 2) A Statement of Causes [59-67]

11

Oct. 4

Exercises on Simple Apprehension and Review

12

Oct. 9

EXAM on Simple Apprehension

13

Oct. 11

Ch. 8 The Second Act of the Mind: Judgment (Part 1) [71-74]

14

Oct. 16

Ch. 8 Judgment: Judgment and proposition (Part 2) [74-82]

15

Oct. 18

Ch. 9 Proposition: Conversion et obversion de propositions [83-89]

16

Oct. 23

Ch. 10 Opposition of propositions   [90-99]

17

Oct. 25

Exercises on Judgment and Propositions

18

Oct. 30

EXAM  on Judgment

19

Nov. 1

Ch. 11 The Third Act of the Mind: Reasoning

Categorical Syllogism (Part 1) Structure of the Syllogism [99-106]

20

Nov. 6

Ch. 11 Categorical syllogism (Part 2) Rules+Procedures[106-113]

21

Nov. 8

Ch. 12 Variation in the Syllogism (Part 1) Hypothetical [114-119]

22

Nov. 13

Ch. 12 Variations (Part 2) in Symbolic Logic +

Disjunctive Syllogism [120-123]

23

Nov. 15

Ch. 12 Other forms of syllogism [122-125] (Summary p. 87-90C)

24

Nov. 20

Ch. 13 Apparent Reasoning: Fallacies  (Part 1) [126-131]  

25

Nov. 22

Ch. 13 Apparent Reasoning: Fallacies  (Part 2) [131-137]  

26

Nov. 27

Main division of reasoning: deduction-induction [Doc.. ad hoc 

27

Nov. 29

[Exercises on Syllogism]

Dec. 4&6

EXAM on Reasoning, fallacies, deduction & induction

Courses Requirements and Grading

1) Class attendance and active participation in the course, including exercises

and short tests: 10%

2) Exam on Apprehension: 25%

3) Exam on Judgment: 30 %

4) Exam on Reasoning: 35%  


[1] Hypothetical syllogisms in symbolic logic as well as Aristotelian sorites and complex syllogisms will not be object of exam; they will be covered as complements of information.

[2] The pages between brackets refer to Sister Spangler’s Textbook, Logic, An Aristotelian Approach.