User Manual

Operating Municipal Website

Walk Through on

Content Management and


January 2015

Document Version 1.0 


In Nepal, municipal governance is being exercised through 58 municipalities including a metropolitan (Kathmandu) and three sub metropolitans (Lalitpur, Pokhara and Biratnagar). The Government of Nepal has recently declared 72 additional municipalities. Hence, there are a total 130 municipalities. And also GoN is preparing to declare 50 other additional 50 municipalities. The organizational structures of the municipalities i.e. power, functions and financial sources, planning responsibilities, administrative structures, human resource management systems and relationship with the government of Nepal are as provisioned in the Local Self Governance ACT 1999 (LSGA), the Local Self Governance Rules, 1999 (LSGR) and so on. The constitution of Nepal 2006, (Article 27) has ensured- "every citizen shall have the right to demand information on any matters of his/her own or of public importance. Likewise, Right to Information Act, 2007 (Section 2. e) explains the rights to ask for information of public importance.

In this context, websites are the main medium to deliver government related information. IGD together with MoFALD/LGCDP intends to carry out this task as a model and standard website design for 20 Municipalities as a pilot. MoFALD through LGCDP intends to carry out designing and developing of websites for Municipalities. The new website should be completely redesigned with the basic objective that includes standardization of design, improved performance, manageability, look and feel, security and scalability as well as replicable for other municipalities.


Syntegrate team have prepared the website using a standard Content Management System for managing articles and publishing information in the website; the website is built using Drupal 7 in multi-site environment. Drupal is an open source content management platform powering millions of websites and applications. It’s built, used, and supported by an active and diverse community of people around the world.

Drupal is open source software maintained and developed by a community of over 1,000,000 users and developers. It's distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License (or "GPL"), which means anyone is free to download it and share it with others. This open development model means that people are constantly working to make sure Drupal is a cutting-edge platform that supports the latest technologies that the Web has to offer. The Drupal project's principles encourage modularity, standards, collaboration, ease-of-use, and more.

The framework allows defining multiple levels of user groups as required. Here in the framework as standard there two core level of user groups: Administrator, ICT Volunteers and Information Officers. Administrator will be able to assign the roles and privileges for any user or user groups for the operation of the website. This document as user manual is intended to give Webmaster user group to use the various functionality within the framework and publish the content over the website.


Administrator is a top most user level of the website and will have privilege of accessing the complete features and functionalities provided by the framework. The major roles of the administrator would be accessing all the privileges of ICT Volunteers and Information Officers (IO), modules, updates and configuration of the website.


There are number of sections those need to be checked and updated while taking the website live and also regularly check to update it. Below is the list of checklist that could be followed to maintain the website and take it live. Below list functionalities are all available after login as administrator only.

  1. Setting up email id of administrator user account: Currently the user account administrator haven’t been given a proper email id. It is important to give proper email id for administrator for password recovery incase of password lost. Thus, once logged in with the provided username and password of administrator you will find edit button the page of user account. Click Edit and provide the valid email address in edit member page and Save.

  1. Rename admin path: by default the there will be path to access drupal admin login URL http://<>/user but with the installation of a module called Rename admin path it allows administrator to change the administrator of the website. Thus, you can access the administration for this section by going http://< By default Rename user path is enabled and Rename admin path is not enabled. You can provide the name of the path to access the login page and administrator path.



The purpose of this module is to secure drupal backend by overriding admin path.

It's will rename path like '/admin/...' to '/something/...' or path '/user/..'

to '/something else/..'. This module can be effective against registration spam

bots or malicious people.

It's just implements hook_outbound_alter and hook_inbound_alter to rename paths.

  1. Backup and Migration: this functionality allows to administrator of the website to schedule the backup of the website and also do manual backup of the website as needed. There are some setting parameters to fit in to start using this functionality effectively. You can access the setting of Backup and Migration via http://<>/admin/config/system/backup_migrate/settings

Configuration > System > Backup and Migrate > Setting

Setting up Destination FTP and Server Directory are highly recommended.        

  1. Google Analytics: configuring this parameters allows tracking of the website activities through Google Analytics. http://<>/admin/config/system/googleanalytics

Configuration > System > Google Analytics

Just fill up the Web Property ID provided by Google Analytics would complete the linking between the website and google analytics. There are other Tracking scopes provided by the module which can be configured with the sufficient knowledge of Google Analytics and it’s dimensions.

  1. SEO Checklist: it is a advance module which allows setting up the website for better presented on search engines. It doesn’t performs the SEO operations but allows the administrator to perform the checklist walk-through for checking the modules installed and other functionalities properly used for SEO friendly website.

  1. People: it is important to create the users in different roles once the website is ready to go live.

There are list of features available of use in the framework. And, are explained in detail below headings.

Advanced help

The Advanced help system is a pluggable system that provides advanced help facilities for Drupal and its modules. Although the advanced help does not provide general help by itself, it provides a powerful and easy framework that modules may use to provide their own help.

Once login to the administrator panel you would be able to access Advanced help menu at the top bar.


This section is grouped with the main driving of content management system of the Drupal framework. It groups the functionalities from the placement of the content to structure of the content.


Any themes implemented on Drupal have to be built up with enabling regions. And, administrator of the website would have privilege to assign the block to the regions as needed and required in the website frontend.

Blocks can be moved to different regions by drag drop functionality, which is by default provided by Drupal core. Note: If the Move icon is not show in the block list you can look for Hide row weights link at the top right of the list of the blocks table, it is used to toggle the Move icons from the list.

Structure > Blocks

There would be two types of multiple types of block possible to link with Drupal like

  1. A custom content block where you can click on Add block link and create one.
  2. Some created using views where block are dynamically created and the block is used to display the logical content generated by the conditions applied in the views.
  3. Some automatically created during the installation of the modules and are defined to do specific task where as few of them as possibility of configuration to give some control to the uses.

Content type

You can understand the content type via below example:

One way to think of content types is to visualize the contacts on your mobile phone. If you were to duplicate this on a Drupal site you would create a Content Type. You would name your new Content Type (e.g. Contacts), define the information that you wanted to store about each contact (called Fields in Drupal), and then add those Fields (e.g. First name, last name, and mobile phone number, etc.) to that Content Type. You would then use this "Contacts" Content Type to enter the information for each of the contacts you had in your contacts list. You would use a View (as described above) to display your Contacts in a list similar to that which you see on your mobile phone.

As content type is a core and complex Drupal maintains it detail and updated help at the URL

For the use in this website there are 8 content types available

To create the custom content type please follow the steps give in URL 


Context allows you to manage contextual conditions and reactions for different portions of your site. You can think of each context as representing a "section" of your site. For each context, you can choose the conditions that trigger this context to be active and choose different aspects of Drupal that should react to this active context.

Structure > Context

Context allows administrator to display the blocks in multiple positions where blocks section limits this functionality. Context allows import and export of the different context to and from the website when required. Context works with the logic and display setup configured as Conditions and Reactions.


Menus are a collection of links (menu items) used to navigate a website. The Menu module provides an interface to control and customize the powerful menu system that comes with Drupal. Menus are primarily displayed as a hierarchical list of links using Drupal's highly flexible blocks feature. Each menu automatically creates a block of the same name. By default, new menu items are placed inside a built-in menu labeled Navigation, but administrators can also create custom menus. 


The taxonomy module allows you to categorize your Drupal content. It is very flexible and allows you to use the classification scheme that is most suitable for your site. The terms that you use can be specified by an administrator, they can be applied ad hoc by users (free tagging) or they can be a combination of both free tagging and administrator-selected terms. 



This section is used to maintain the users of the website, their roles and permission. Below steps will explain to maintain these functionalities.

Add User

It allow administrator to create the users for the website. Note: If there would be any new user required for the website the user would need to request to administrator of the website to create the user for them. There are different Roles of the websites Users. User Roles: Administrator, ICT Officer, Information Officer, Authenticated Users, Anonymous Users. User roles are not required frequent access during the maintaining and management of the website because the roles are very much fix upon structuring up the website.

Menu to create new user can be accessed via below menu path.

People > Add user


It is a user permission assignment matrix to manage the privilege to the users to access various modules, features and functionalities of the website. Permission is assigned to the user roles and assigning the roles creates users. Thus, the permission assigned to the user roles are inherited to the users.


Warning: Give to trusted roles only; this permission has security implications.

There is some functionality that is marked with above warning messages. Be very sure while assigning this privilege any user role because these are core and would have implication on the functionalities of the website.

Site Configuration

There are basic website information like, site name, slogan and email addresses are maintained using Site information section of the Site Configuration. This feature is not frequently use and mostly is changes once thus it being assigned to administrator only.

As the site is in multi-language environment (English and Nepal) thus the site information and slogan can also be maintained in both the language in the same section. You can access the section by doing to below menu path.

Configuration > System > Site Information


This is the core functionality of Drupal for adding or removing extensions to the Drupal Core Engine.

Modules >

Modules > Install new modules

Modules > Update

Modules > Uninstall

As Drupal is open source and supported by community thus regular development and upgrade on Drupal core and modules are regularly release depending on their bugs or issues reported. Thus, updated modules and issues have to be upgraded at this package as well. During updating the modules there are steps defined by Drupal itself thus have to very careful on following them and achieve the secure and updated website framework.

Information Officers (IO)

As a standard there are basic roles and privilege being setup for the operation and accessing of the features like, webmaster will be able to delete the articles being created by themselves and also will be able to access the document or images uploaded by them only.

Webmaster will have access to below features and functionality

  1. Article
  2. Documents
  3. Offices/ Institutions
  4. Officials
  5. Photo Gallery
  6. Poll
  7. Webforms

Note: More features and functionalities could be assigned to the Webmaster user group and controlled by the Administrator user group.


Articles representation various level of contents (Content Category or in the website framework context it is termed as Taxonomy) to be published in the websites. Namely,

Note: Administrator will have privilege add new Article Taxonomy as required through their administrator panel.

Steps to Add New Article

By properly following below steps Webmaster will be able to add new article in the website.

  1. Login to administrator panel using valid username and password provided by Administrator, you can find the login window from the URL http://WebsiteAddress/member [If you have any problem while login into the administrator you can either try Request new password]

  1. Once you able login you will find Black & Gray strip at the top of the website

The strips contents below links:

Once Article link is clicked you will find Create Article page with form fields. Fill in the details asked in from elements like Title, Body, Tags, Images, Language, and Supporting Documents.

Form element marked with * refer as Mandatory field.

  1. There could be possibility of publishing the article in multiple Tags. You can choose multiple Tags by selecting CTRL + Click (Windows) or Command + Click (Mac).

  1. Although Tag and Language are not marked as Mandatory it is highly recommended to select them before saving the article. Selecting the article to be publishing with Tag will assign that article with the relative Tag. And it will be displayed in the website homepage or other respective pages filtered accordingly to the Tag. For example, if the articles need to be published under News & Events (समाचार) then you would have to select News & Event/समाचार from the Tag.
  2. Similarly, as the website is in Multi-language enabled you can have the article in Nepali & English both. Thus, choosing the article you are writing need to choose one language. If there is an article that need to be shown in the website without any change you can choose Language neutral from Language Dropdown box.
  3. Whichever article you will be publishing could have document to be attached with it. You can choose Supporting Document option to upload the document and attach it with the Article.
  4. While uploading the document you would have to choose the document by clicking Choose File and select the file you would like to attach with the article. Once you choose the document click on Upload button to link it with the article.


  1. At the bottom of the page you will find Save and Preview buttons. If you would like to view the text you have entered before Save the article click on Preview button else click Save and confirm you article.
  2. Once the article is saved successfully it will redirect to the website and open the article you just created. Now, you would need to translate the article for another language. At the bottom of the article you will find translate button.

  1. Click on Translate button
  2. It will take you to the Translations page with the list of languages being configured in the website. You can see Nepali & English languages are configured in below language. While creating an article it was created in Nepali language thus click on add translation link to add translation information text for English language.

  1. It will open the same article page with form field and options selected, change the text/ content for the article to translate and click on Save.


Documents content type is used to manage all the downloadable documents to general public in specific category. It can be also terms as E-Library.

Steps to add new documents

  1. Login to administrator panel with your valid username and password.
  2. Click Documents link
  3. Create Documents page will open.
  4. Fill in all the required form element details.
  5. Upload the document from Document section. You can upload multiple documents and attach with single document article. Click Choose File and Upload the document one by one if you have multiple documents.

  1. Select the Document Type for the Document Article. You can choose multiple Document types for a document as it is in Tags for Article.

  1. You can click Save button at the bottom of the page and publish the document in the website. If you wanted to Preview the document before you save click Preview button and then click Save if you are satisfied with the document article.
  2. Follow same steps as for Translation of the Document Article as of Article Section [Refer Article (9)].

Offices/ Institutions

This section is use to upload the information of offices/ institutions/ organization within the Municipality. The Offices/ Branch can also be categories or grouped by this same section.

This section have limited information to capture like Title, Language, Services, Ward Number, If Municipal Branch or not, If Municipal Branch fill Branch Head, and if there are any other information then in Body section.

The information uploaded in this section will be displayed under कार्यक्रम, कार्यालय  शाखा/ Municipal Offices & Branches. It is something similar to address book.

Steps to add new Offices/ Institutions

  1. Login to administrator panel with you valid username and password.
  2. Click Office/ Institutions link
  3. Create Office/ Institutions page will open.
  4. Fill in the details Title, Language, Services, Ward Number, Municipal Branch, Branch Head and Body (Detail).
  5. You can click Save button at the bottom of the page and publish the Information in the website. If you wanted to Preview the Information before you save click Preview button and then click Save if you are satisfied with the information.
  6. Follow same steps as for Translation of the Document Article as of Article Section [Refer Article (9)].

The information will be listed in table format grouped by ward numbers as displayed below screenshot. Note: Administrator will have privilege


This section is use to display information of the officials and staffs in the website with their respective contact details.

Steps of creating new Officials

  1. Login to administrator panel
  2. Click Officials link
  3. Fill in the details where * refer as mandatory fields.
  4. Elected or Staff option refer as the Official is elected or staff of Municipal office.
  5. Designation is the post of the officials. Note: administrator will have privilege to add more designation from Taxonomy.
  6. If “Display the checked profile in homepage block.” Is checked it will be displayed in the homepage. Note: administrator will have privilege to control the number of pictures to display and the way it can be displayed in the homepage.
  7. Once all the relevant information are filled click on the Save button at the bottom of the page and publish it in the website.
  8. For translation follow the same process as of Articles [Refer Article (9)].

In frontend of the website the information about staffs and elected one are displayed in separate pages in tabular format. Note: Administrators have privilege to control the format of displaying in the pages.

Photo Gallery

This section will allow use to upload pictures galleries in the website. Photo Gallery could have multiple pictures.

Follow the same setups as of adding articles; the only difference is you can upload multiple pictures in the article.

Steps for creating new photo gallery

  1. Login to administrator panel
  2. Click Photo Gallery link
  3. Fill in the details Title, Language and Body
  4. Upload multiple pictures using below section

  1. Follow same setups of Translation to translate the photo gallery article.


A poll is a question with a set of possible responses. A poll, once created, automatically provides a simple running count of the number of votes received for each response. It could be used to collect quick responses from the visitors of the websites on any poll questions.



It is used to create form in the website with specific uses like questionnaire, survey and other. The collected data will be stored in the database and could be used by administrator by exporting to PDF and Excel.


  1. Login to administrator panel
  2. Click on Content > Add Content
  3. Click on Webform
  4. Fill in the Webform Name and click Continue.
  5. Create the components (Form Elements like TextField, TextArea, Select, etc)
  6. While creating each component you can assign their parameters of collecting data and their default values.
  7. You can sort the form elements created by selecting the move icon at the front of each created components.
  8. Once the form elements are created you can click on form settings and provide the required parameters. It also allows filled information to be email to the setup email id in form settings.

For more practical example please refer below URL to check the tutorial for building up the webform: 

Other Functionality

Whenever an image is attached with any Articles uploaded in the CMS it will be displayed in the slider. There is by default 5 latest articles with images are displayed in the slider. Note: Administrator will have privilege to change the number of articles with images to be displayed in the Slider. Slider automatically scale and crop the uploaded image to fit in the slider but still it is recommended to upload the images with landscape view than portrait because the slider in homepage is in landscape perspective and it will crop minimum amount of image to display in the slider. The exact dimension of the image displayed in the full desktop view is 555 x 356px.

Fill in the details and click Save button at the bottom of the page.


MoFALD: User Manual for Operating Content Management of Municipal Websites