Operating Municipal Website
Walk Through on
Content Management and
Document Version 1.0
In Nepal, municipal governance is being exercised through 58 municipalities including a metropolitan (Kathmandu) and three sub metropolitans (Lalitpur, Pokhara and Biratnagar). The Government of Nepal has recently declared 72 additional municipalities. Hence, there are a total 130 municipalities. And also GoN is preparing to declare 50 other additional 50 municipalities. The organizational structures of the municipalities i.e. power, functions and financial sources, planning responsibilities, administrative structures, human resource management systems and relationship with the government of Nepal are as provisioned in the Local Self Governance ACT 1999 (LSGA), the Local Self Governance Rules, 1999 (LSGR) and so on. The constitution of Nepal 2006, (Article 27) has ensured- "every citizen shall have the right to demand information on any matters of his/her own or of public importance. Likewise, Right to Information Act, 2007 (Section 2. e) explains the rights to ask for information of public importance.
In this context, websites are the main medium to deliver government related information. IGD together with MoFALD/LGCDP intends to carry out this task as a model and standard website design for 20 Municipalities as a pilot. MoFALD through LGCDP intends to carry out designing and developing of websites for Municipalities. The new website should be completely redesigned with the basic objective that includes standardization of design, improved performance, manageability, look and feel, security and scalability as well as replicable for other municipalities.
Syntegrate team have prepared the website using a standard Content Management System for managing articles and publishing information in the website; the website is built using Drupal 7 in multi-site environment. Drupal is an open source content management platform powering millions of websites and applications. It’s built, used, and supported by an active and diverse community of people around the world.
Drupal is open source software maintained and developed by a community of over 1,000,000 users and developers. It's distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License (or "GPL"), which means anyone is free to download it and share it with others. This open development model means that people are constantly working to make sure Drupal is a cutting-edge platform that supports the latest technologies that the Web has to offer. The Drupal project's principles encourage modularity, standards, collaboration, ease-of-use, and more.
The framework allows defining multiple levels of user groups as required. Here in the framework as standard there two core level of user groups: Administrator, ICT Volunteers and Information Officers. Administrator will be able to assign the roles and privileges for any user or user groups for the operation of the website. This document as user manual is intended to give Webmaster user group to use the various functionality within the framework and publish the content over the website.
Administrator is a top most user level of the website and will have privilege of accessing the complete features and functionalities provided by the framework. The major roles of the administrator would be accessing all the privileges of ICT Volunteers and Information Officers (IO), modules, updates and configuration of the website.
There are number of sections those need to be checked and updated while taking the website live and also regularly check to update it. Below is the list of checklist that could be followed to maintain the website and take it live. Below list functionalities are all available after login as administrator only.
The purpose of this module is to secure drupal backend by overriding admin path.
It's will rename path like '/admin/...' to '/something/...' or path '/user/..'
to '/something else/..'. This module can be effective against registration spam
bots or malicious people.
It's just implements hook_outbound_alter and hook_inbound_alter to rename paths.
Configuration > System > Backup and Migrate > Setting
Setting up Destination FTP and Server Directory are highly recommended.
Configuration > System > Google Analytics
Just fill up the Web Property ID provided by Google Analytics would complete the linking between the website and google analytics. There are other Tracking scopes provided by the module which can be configured with the sufficient knowledge of Google Analytics and it’s dimensions.
There are list of features available of use in the framework. And, are explained in detail below headings.
The Advanced help system is a pluggable system that provides advanced help facilities for Drupal and its modules. Although the advanced help does not provide general help by itself, it provides a powerful and easy framework that modules may use to provide their own help.
Once login to the administrator panel you would be able to access Advanced help menu at the top bar.
This section is grouped with the main driving of content management system of the Drupal framework. It groups the functionalities from the placement of the content to structure of the content.
Any themes implemented on Drupal have to be built up with enabling regions. And, administrator of the website would have privilege to assign the block to the regions as needed and required in the website frontend.
Blocks can be moved to different regions by drag drop functionality, which is by default provided by Drupal core. Note: If the Move icon is not show in the block list you can look for Hide row weights link at the top right of the list of the blocks table, it is used to toggle the Move icons from the list.
Structure > Blocks
There would be two types of multiple types of block possible to link with Drupal like
You can understand the content type via below example:
One way to think of content types is to visualize the contacts on your mobile phone. If you were to duplicate this on a Drupal site you would create a Content Type. You would name your new Content Type (e.g. Contacts), define the information that you wanted to store about each contact (called Fields in Drupal), and then add those Fields (e.g. First name, last name, and mobile phone number, etc.) to that Content Type. You would then use this "Contacts" Content Type to enter the information for each of the contacts you had in your contacts list. You would use a View (as described above) to display your Contacts in a list similar to that which you see on your mobile phone.
As content type is a core and complex Drupal maintains it detail and updated help at the URL https://www.drupal.org/documentation/modules/field-ui
For the use in this website there are 8 content types available
To create the custom content type please follow the steps give in URL
Context allows you to manage contextual conditions and reactions for different portions of your site. You can think of each context as representing a "section" of your site. For each context, you can choose the conditions that trigger this context to be active and choose different aspects of Drupal that should react to this active context.
Structure > Context
Context allows administrator to display the blocks in multiple positions where blocks section limits this functionality. Context allows import and export of the different context to and from the website when required. Context works with the logic and display setup configured as Conditions and Reactions.
Menus are a collection of links (menu items) used to navigate a website. The Menu module provides an interface to control and customize the powerful menu system that comes with Drupal. Menus are primarily displayed as a hierarchical list of links using Drupal's highly flexible blocks feature. Each menu automatically creates a block of the same name. By default, new menu items are placed inside a built-in menu labeled Navigation, but administrators can also create custom menus.
The taxonomy module allows you to categorize your Drupal content. It is very flexible and allows you to use the classification scheme that is most suitable for your site. The terms that you use can be specified by an administrator, they can be applied ad hoc by users (free tagging) or they can be a combination of both free tagging and administrator-selected terms.
This section is used to maintain the users of the website, their roles and permission. Below steps will explain to maintain these functionalities.
It allow administrator to create the users for the website. Note: If there would be any new user required for the website the user would need to request to administrator of the website to create the user for them. There are different Roles of the websites Users. User Roles: Administrator, ICT Officer, Information Officer, Authenticated Users, Anonymous Users. User roles are not required frequent access during the maintaining and management of the website because the roles are very much fix upon structuring up the website.
Menu to create new user can be accessed via below menu path.
People > Add user
It is a user permission assignment matrix to manage the privilege to the users to access various modules, features and functionalities of the website. Permission is assigned to the user roles and assigning the roles creates users. Thus, the permission assigned to the user roles are inherited to the users.
Warning: Give to trusted roles only; this permission has security implications.
There is some functionality that is marked with above warning messages. Be very sure while assigning this privilege any user role because these are core and would have implication on the functionalities of the website.
There are basic website information like, site name, slogan and email addresses are maintained using Site information section of the Site Configuration. This feature is not frequently use and mostly is changes once thus it being assigned to administrator only.
As the site is in multi-language environment (English and Nepal) thus the site information and slogan can also be maintained in both the language in the same section. You can access the section by doing to below menu path.
Configuration > System > Site Information
This is the core functionality of Drupal for adding or removing extensions to the Drupal Core Engine.
Modules > Install new modules
Modules > Update
Modules > Uninstall
As Drupal is open source and supported by community thus regular development and upgrade on Drupal core and modules are regularly release depending on their bugs or issues reported. Thus, updated modules and issues have to be upgraded at this package as well. During updating the modules there are steps defined by Drupal itself thus have to very careful on following them and achieve the secure and updated website framework.
Information Officers (IO)
As a standard there are basic roles and privilege being setup for the operation and accessing of the features like, webmaster will be able to delete the articles being created by themselves and also will be able to access the document or images uploaded by them only.
Webmaster will have access to below features and functionality
Note: More features and functionalities could be assigned to the Webmaster user group and controlled by the Administrator user group.
Articles representation various level of contents (Content Category or in the website framework context it is termed as Taxonomy) to be published in the websites. Namely,
Note: Administrator will have privilege add new Article Taxonomy as required through their administrator panel.
Steps to Add New Article
By properly following below steps Webmaster will be able to add new article in the website.
The strips contents below links:
Once Article link is clicked you will find Create Article page with form fields. Fill in the details asked in from elements like Title, Body, Tags, Images, Language, and Supporting Documents.
Form element marked with * refer as Mandatory field.
Documents content type is used to manage all the downloadable documents to general public in specific category. It can be also terms as E-Library.
Steps to add new documents
This section is use to upload the information of offices/ institutions/ organization within the Municipality. The Offices/ Branch can also be categories or grouped by this same section.
This section have limited information to capture like Title, Language, Services, Ward Number, If Municipal Branch or not, If Municipal Branch fill Branch Head, and if there are any other information then in Body section.
The information uploaded in this section will be displayed under कार्यक्रम, कार्यालय र शाखा/ Municipal Offices & Branches. It is something similar to address book.
Steps to add new Offices/ Institutions
The information will be listed in table format grouped by ward numbers as displayed below screenshot. Note: Administrator will have privilege
This section is use to display information of the officials and staffs in the website with their respective contact details.
Steps of creating new Officials
In frontend of the website the information about staffs and elected one are displayed in separate pages in tabular format. Note: Administrators have privilege to control the format of displaying in the pages.
This section will allow use to upload pictures galleries in the website. Photo Gallery could have multiple pictures.
Follow the same setups as of adding articles; the only difference is you can upload multiple pictures in the article.
Steps for creating new photo gallery
A poll is a question with a set of possible responses. A poll, once created, automatically provides a simple running count of the number of votes received for each response. It could be used to collect quick responses from the visitors of the websites on any poll questions.
It is used to create form in the website with specific uses like questionnaire, survey and other. The collected data will be stored in the database and could be used by administrator by exporting to PDF and Excel.
For more practical example please refer below URL to check the tutorial for building up the webform:
Whenever an image is attached with any Articles uploaded in the CMS it will be displayed in the slider. There is by default 5 latest articles with images are displayed in the slider. Note: Administrator will have privilege to change the number of articles with images to be displayed in the Slider. Slider automatically scale and crop the uploaded image to fit in the slider but still it is recommended to upload the images with landscape view than portrait because the slider in homepage is in landscape perspective and it will crop minimum amount of image to display in the slider. The exact dimension of the image displayed in the full desktop view is 555 x 356px.
Fill in the details and click Save button at the bottom of the page.
MoFALD: User Manual for Operating Content Management of Municipal Websites