Group C Project Proposal (Engineering)

SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SINGAPORE

INVESTIGATIVE SKILLS IN SCIENCE

Names:

Class: S2-04_

Group Reference: C

A.    Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:

 [  X  ] Improve a product or process: Industrial and applied research

             Development of an AM Radio Transceiver

  1. Type & Category

Type of research:        6          (Write down one number from 1 to 6)


Category  –
     12      (Write down one number from 7 to 20)

Sub-category –     A       (Write down the sub-heading alphabet)  


(Refer to
http://sst2016-iss.blogspot.sg/p/l2-types-of-research-categories.html  )

Application of project relevant to SST Community, Society or the World:

 

The development of the AM Transceiver Radio will be relevant to the SST Community as a form of communication between students and staff in the SST Community. Ideas such as “Radio @ SST” may also be implemented with the development of the AM Transceiver Radio


C.    Write down your research title:

Development of an AM Transceiver Radio

D.   (a) Problem being addressed


Communication in SST can be further improved and enhanced to be more effective and quicker in passing informations/announcement. We feel that, despite having apps such as SST Announcer to pass information, this can be use as an alternative to the P.A. System or just information passing between parties.

      (b) Goals


We want to find out how to make an AM Transceiver Radio and to find out how it works. If we managed to make our AM Transceiver Radio work, this will improve and enhance communication within selected parties of the school (eg Student Councillors communication with Teachers) or as a whole student body.

(c) Specify Requirements

In particular, we wanted to  

  1. Test if it can transmit across 100m
  2. Test if it can transmit on rainy/sunny days
  3. Test if it can transmit using our handphones
  4. Test if the type of handphone affects the strength it transmits radio

(d) 3 possible Solutions

Possible Solution 1

Method 1 Diagram .jpg

FIGURE 1

FIGURE 1: The above shows a completed diagram taken from Science Buddies (2016) as a completed product. It shows a phone (as the audio playing device), the breadboard (as the transceiver device), and batteries that supply the energy.

Equipment needed for solution 1

No.

Equipment

Quantity

1

AA Battery Holder

1

2

Music Playing Device with 3.5mm audio output jack

1

3

AM Radio

1

4

Solderless Breadboard

1

5

AA Batteries

4

6

1 MHz “full can” crystal oscillator

1

7

1000 Ω to 8 Ω audio transformer

1

8

Jumper wire kit

1

9

3.5mm stereo cable

1

10

Wire stripper(s)

1

Possible Solution 2

FIGURE 2

       FIGURE 2: The above shows the completed circuit of the project that we would be doing from Instructables (2016). It has been personally labelled by us to ensure convenience of understanding the diagram. This will eventually be our prototype if the method is used.

Equipment Needed :

Item no.

Item

Quantity

No. 1

Some wire

About less than 20

No. 2

1 crystal with a frequency that is between 0.9 and 1.2 MHz

1

No. 3

1 male headphone jack

1

No. 4

Breadboard or experimental circuit board.

1

Possible Solution 3

Figure 3: The figure above shows a completed version of the Li’l 7. The parts labelled are confirmed. Parts that are unnamed are not stated

Figure 3.1: The figure above shows a the circuit diagram of the Li’l 7

Solution 3 by Antique Radio is a more complicated solution compared to other solutions. This also is the biggest in size, and most complicated to operate.

Retrieved from Philip I. Nelson (2016). Build an AM Radio Transmitter.

Parts List

Part

Description

Part No.

Quantity

Price (ea.)

C1

220pf ceramic capacitor

AES C-D220-6000

1

0.44

C2

.01mf 600v capacitor

AES C-RD01-600

1

0.59

C3, C4

22mf 160v electrolytic capacitor

AES C-ET22-160

2

0.98

C5

68pf mica capacitor

AES C-SM68

1

0.45

C6

150pf mica capacitor

AES C-SM150

1

0.51

J1

RCA quad phono jack

Radio Shack 274-322

1

1.69

J2

8-pin tube socket

AES P-ST8-209M

1

2.70

L1

RF coil

AES P-C70-RF

1

7.95

P1

12v lamp assembly

Radio Shack 272-336

1

2.59

R1

47K ohm 1/2-watt resistor

AES R-A47K

1

0.08

R2, S1

100K potentiometer & switch

Mouser 31VM501-F

1

1.72

R3

10K ohm 1/2-watt resistor

AES R-A10K

1

0.08

T1

120v/12v Power transformer

AES P-T442

1

16.95

V1

117L7 or 117M7 tube

AES 117L7

1

6.60

Misc.

120v power cord

AES S-W104

1

1.50

Misc.

Antenna wire (24 ga. enamel)

AES S-WL3-612

1

3.00

Misc.

Alignment tool kit

AES S-T9304

1

1.25

Misc.

Perforated project board

 

1

 

Possible Solution 4

Screenshot 2016-02-01 10.15.25.png

Figure 2 : Image of completed  circuit board

Key :

capacitor symbolCapacitor

resistor symbolResistor

npn transistor symbolNPN Transistor

Antenna, aerial symbolAntenna

Screenshot 2016-02-01 10.16.06.png

Figure 3: Image of completed connection with battery (power source), speaker (audio), antenna with circuit board.

Equipment List :

Item no.

Item

Quantity

No. 1

Future Kit WALKY TALKY 27 MHz CODE 711

1

No. 2

Battery Holders

2

No. 3

AA Batteries

12

(e) Choice and rationale for choice

Suggested factors for consideration:

Factors

Critical Thinking question

Weight

Is the weight suitable?

Size

Is the size suitable?

Cost to produce

Do you have the financial support to produce it?

Elegance

Is the solution simple, clever, or ingenious?

Robustness

Is the solution sturdy, resilient, and unlikely to fail?

Aesthetics

Is the solution tasteful and pleasing to look at?

Resources

Do you have or can you get the materials you need?

Time

Do have time to make the solution and debug it?

Skill Required

Do you have the skills to make the solution?

Safety

Is the solution safe to build, use, store, and dispose of?

Ease of use

Is the device easy to use?

Environmental Impact

Does the device in anyway, have a negative impact on the environment?

Table 4: List of factors for consideration in the design of the prototype

Link to Spreadsheet : https://docs.google.com/a/s2015.sst.edu.sg/spreadsheets/d/1idDKYm-_2oP1aAL8hrNrKl-x2QiKfNixVWjbEqCS1NE/edit?usp=sharing 

Table 1: Decision and Ranking Matrix

Criteria

Safety

Robustness

Size

Skill Required

Row Total

Normalised Value

Safety

3

3

3

9

0.3

Robustness

4

4

4

12

0.4

Size

1

1

1

3

0.1

Skill Required

2

2

2

6

0.2

Column Total

30

Criteria

Normalised Value

Design/ Solution Alternative 1 (AM Transmitter from Science Buddies)

Design/ Solution Alternative 2 (from Instructables.com)

Design/ Solution Alternative 3 (from antiqueradio.com)

Design/ Solution Alternative 4 (from ________)

Safety

0.3

2

0.6

3

0.9

1

0.3

3

0.9

Robustness

0.4

4

1.6

3

1.2

1

0.4

3

1.2

Size

0.1

3

0.3

2

0.2

1

0.1

4

0.4

Skill Required

0.2

4

0.8

3

0.6

2

0.4

3

0.6

Total

3.3

Total

2.9

Total

1.2

Total

3.1

Thus, We deduce that Possible Solution  is the best solution based on our decision matrix. It is the most safest among the 4, the most robust, pocket size and needs the least skill. Thus, we can deduce that solution 1 is the most effective solution to our project.

E.    Method – Description in details of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)

(a) Equipment list:
 

Item no.

Item

Quantity

No. 1

Some wire

About less than 20

No. 2

1 crystal with a frequency that is between 0.9 and 1.2 MHz

1

No. 3

1 male headphone jack

1

No. 4

Breadboard or experimental circuit board.

1

(b) Diagrams

Figure 1.1 : This is a representation of how the solderless breadboard would look like when all items needed are soldered correctly.

650x389x2011-06-16_03-01-00_673.jpg.pagespeed.gp+jp+jw+pj+js+rj+rp+rw+ri+cp+md.ic.gqVfS2pXz9.jpg

FIGURE 1.2 : Image of Wire that has already been cut

FIGURE 1.3 Representation of how the different components of the prototype are put togeher.

FIGURE 1.4 Image Representation of the circuit breadboard that is completed.

(c) Procedures for building: Detail all procedures for construction of prototype

(d) Procedures for testing: Detail all procedures for testing of prototype

Experiment 1: 100m Test (on a sunny day)

One person would hold the transmitter and another would hold the receiver on a sunny day. They would then stand 100m between each other at the soccer field. The person would then send out signals through the transmitter to the receiver to test if the signal would be received between 100m and to test if the weather affects the strength of the signal.

Experiment 2: 100m Test (on a rainy day)

One person would hold the transmitter and another would hold the receiver on a rainy day. They would then stand 100m between each other at the soccer field with an umbrella. The person would then send out signals through the transmitter to the receiver to test if the signal would be received between 100m and to test if the weather affects the strength of the signal.

Experiment 3: (iPhone)

We will test if the prototype compatible with an iPhone or Samsung. If we test using either, and is able to hear what we are supposed to hear, it is compatible.

Experiment 4:

We will test if the prototype is able to fit into our pockets.

(e) Risk, Assessment and Management: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.

Risk

Assessment

Management

Injuring ourselves while soldering

High

While soldering, We should be careful and focused so that there will be less chance to injure ourselves.

While soldering, if we are not careful when doing so, a fire may occur.

Low

We should listen to the instructions of our teacher while we are soldering and do not be fidgety and touch all the items and run around as it may cause chemicals to spill and a chance to cause fire.

The stripped audio cable or any other equipment that exposes wires may be able to electrocute us/injure us

Medium

The stripped audio cable or any other equipment that exposes wires must be handled carefully and must not come into contact with water.

Equipments may be sharp

Low

Be careful when handling equipments by wearing the appropriate safety equipments like goggles and in some occasions gloves.

Table 3: Risk Assessment and Management table

(f) Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyze the data/results that answer engineering goals

We would analyse the data using a

  1. Video recording of the experiment
  2. Table as shown by the table example below

Experiment

Tries

Success?

Details

1

A

Yes

100m test

(sunny day test)
(Iphone)

B

Yes

2

A

Yes

100m test

(rainy day test)

(Iphone)

B

Yes

3

A

Yes

100m test

(sunny day test)

(Android Phones)

B

Yes

4

A

Yes

100m test

(rainy day test)

(Android Phones)

B

Yes

F. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major sources (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order for each type of source.

(a) Books

 Graf, R., & Sheet, W. (2011). Build Your Own Low-power Transmitters. Retrieved January 14, 2016, from https://books.google.com.sg/books?id=Tc_ACUbCqqQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=AM#v=onepage&q=AM&f=false

(b) Journals

Bill, D. (2001, October 1). AM/short-wave converter. Retrieved January 14, 2016, from http://search.proquest.com.proxy.lib.sg/sciencejournals/docview/204777000/C335F8307F2E4349PQ/16?accountid=12691

(c) Websites

bmlbyes (2016). Make a simple AM transmitter. Retrieved January 14, 2016, from http://www.instructables.com/id/Make-a-simple-AM-transmitter/

Philip I. Nelson (2016). Build an AM Radio Transmitter. Retrieved January 13, 2016, from http://antiqueradio.org/transmitter.htm

Subba N. (2015, December 5). Make Your Own Low-Power AM Radio Transmitter. Retrieved January 10, 2016 from http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_ideas/Elec_p024.shtml

Subba N. (2016). Make Your Own Low-Power AM Radio Transmitter. Retrieved January 11, 2016, from http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_ideas/Elec_p024.shtml#procedure