This summary of assessment and screening  instruments was prepared to inform users of the growing pool of diagnostics appropriate for grades PreK-12 that meet psychometric standards. This chart is not a statement of endorsement but is designed to provide guidance information in the selection of tests for assessing for dyslexia. A separate table is provided specifically for Pre-K and Kindergarten assessment and screening instruments.

Commonly Used Standardized Measures/Screening Tests of Reading and Rate

Test

Age/Grade Range

Abilities Measured

Publisher

Administration Time

Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills, 6th Edition (DIBELS-6)

PK-3

Measures initial sound fluency, letter naming fluency, phoneme segmentation fluency, nonsense word fluency, retell fluency, and oral reading fluency

University of Oregon

10 minutes

Fluency Formula

K-8

Measures oral reading rate, accuracy, prosody

Scholastic

varies

Gray Oral Reading Tests, 5th Edition (GORT-5)

6-0 to 18-11

Measures oral reading rate, accuracy, fluency, comprehension

PRO-ED

20-30 minutes

Gray Silent Reading Tests (GSRT)

7-0 to 25-0

Measures silent reading comprehension ability

PRO-ED

15-30 minutes

Gray Diagnostic Reading Tests, 2nd. Edition (GDRT-2)

6-0 to 13-11

Assesses students who have difficulty reading continuous print and who require an evaluation of specific abilities and weaknesses. Comprises four subtests: Letter/Word Identification, Phonetic Analysis, Reading Vocabulary, and Meaningful Reading

PRO-ED

45-60 minutes

Nelson-Denny Reading Test

HS to 4 year college

Measures vocabulary, comprehension, reading rate

PRO-ED

35-56 minutes

Qualitative Reading Inventory, 4th Edition (QRI-4)

K-12

Measures oral reading, silent reading, listening comprehension

Pearson

varies

Reading Fluency Indicator

K-12

Assesses word recognition and comprehension

Pearson

5-10 minutes

Test of Irregular Word Reading Efficiency (TIWRE)

3-0 to 94

Assesses reading vocabulary by using the pronunciation of phonetically irregular words to measure reading comprehension

Academic Therapy Publications

5 minutes

Test of Silent Reading Efficiency and Comprehension (TOSREC)

Grades 1-12

Assesses silent reading of connected text for comprehension

PRO-ED

3 minutes

Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency -2 (TOSWRF-2)

6-3 to 24-11

Measures a student's ability to recognize printed words (word recognition) accurately and efficiently

PRO-ED

and Academic Therapy Publications

3-10 minutes

Test of Word Reading Efficiency-2 (TOWRE-2)

6-0 to 24-11

Assesses the number of printed real words and nonwords that can be accurately read in 45 second increments

PRO-ED

 

5-10 minutes

WJ III Diagnostic Reading Battery (WDRB)

2-0 to 80+

Measures phonological awareness, phonics knowledge, fluency, vocabulary, and reading comprehension

Riverside Publishing

5-10 minutes

 per test

Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests III

(WRMT-III)

4-6 to 75+

An individual assessment of reading skills including phonological awareness, listening comprehension, letter identification, word identification, rapid automatic naming, oral reading fluency, word attack, word comprehension, and passage comprehension

Pearson

15-45 minutes

Test of Early Reading Ability, Third edition (TERA-3)

3-6 to 8-6

Measures the reading ability of young children. Assesses the knowledge of contextual meaning, alphabet, and conventions.

PRO-ED

varies

Decoding Skills Test (DST)

Kindergarten  through Adult

Measures ability to recognize words, decode words using letter-sound correspondence, effect of context on decoding skills, comprehension, reading rate, and error rate of children and adults reading at a 1st - 5th grade reading level.

Academic Therapy Publications

15-30 minutes

Test of Reading Comprehension-4

(TORC-4)

7-0 to 17-11

Assesses silent reading comprehension (vocabulary, syntax, paragraph reading, sentence sequencing) with five subtests: Relational Vocabulary, Sentence Completion, Paragraph Construction, Text Comprehension, and Contextual Fluency

Academic Therapy Publications

varies

Commonly Used Standardized Measures of Orthographic Awareness

Test Name

Age/Grade Range

Abilities Tested

Publisher

Administration Time

Test of Orthographic Competence (TOC)

6-0 to 17-11

Assesses aspects of the writing system that are integral to proficient reading and writing including letters, spelling, punctuation, abbreviations, and special symbols

PRO-ED

30-45 minutes

Diagnostic Assessments of Reading, Second Edition (DAR-2)

5-0 through adult

Assesses reading achievement in nine skill areas including  print awareness, phonological awareness, letters and sounds, word recognition, word analysis, oral reading (accuracy/fluency), silent reading (comprehension), spelling, and word meaning

Academic Therapy Publications

30 minutes

Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills, Sixth Edition (DIBELS-6)

PreK-3

   Oral reading fluency subtest

University of Oregon

5 minutes

Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Third edition (ITPA-3)

5-0 to 12-11

Assesses  oral language, writing, reading, and spelling

PRO-ED

45-60 minutes

Process Assessment of the Learner II: Test Battery for Reading and Writing (PAL II)

K-6

Assists in diagnosis of dysgraphia, dyslexia, oral and written language disability

Pearson

varies

Star Early Literacy Computer - Adaptive Diagnostic Assessment

PreK-3

Assesses early literacy skills including print concepts, phonological awareness, phonics and word recognition, fluency, vocabulary acquisition and use

Renaissance Learning

varies

Test of Irregular Word Reading Efficiency (TIWRE)

3-0 to 94

Assesses reading vocabulary by using the pronunciation of phonetically irregular words to measure reading comprehension

Academic Therapy Publications

5 minutes

Commonly Used Standardized Measures of Language: Spoken and Written

Test

Age/Grade Range

Abilities Measured

Publisher

Administration

Time

Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-4 (CELF-4)

5 to 21

Measures receptive and expressive language abilities and provides  composite scores for Language Structure, Language Content, Language Content and Memory, and Working Memory.

Pearson

30-60 minutes

Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language (CASL)

3 to 21

Fifteen tests measure language processing skills (comprehension, expression, and retrieval) in four language structure categories including Lexical/Semantic, Syntactic, Supralinguistic, and Pragmatic skills

Pearson

30-45 minutes

Test of Auditory Comprehension of Language-3 (TACL-3)

3.0 to 9.11

Measures receptive spoken grammar and syntax skills through an auditory comprehension task. Assesses auditory comprehension of word classes, word relations, grammatical morphemes, and elaborated sentence constructions

PRO-ED

10-15 minutes

Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test- Fourth edition (PPVT-4)

2.6 to 90+

Measures receptive single-word vocabulary

Pearson

10-15 minutes

Expressive Vocabulary Test- Second edition (EVT-2)

2.6 to 90+

Measures expressive single-word vocabulary and word retrieval skills

Pearson

10-20 minutes

Oral and Written Language Scales-II: Written Expression (OWLS-II Written Expression)

5.0 to 21.11

Measures use of conventions,  linguistic forms,  and the ability to communicate meaningfully in writing  

Pearson

10-40 minutes

Test of Auditory Processing Skills - 3rd edition(TAPS-3)

4.0 to 18.11

Measures phonological, auditory memory, auditory cohesion skills

Academic Therapy Publications

60 minutes

Test of Early Written Language 2

(TEWL 2)

3 to 10

Measures emerging (basic and contextual) written language skills

Pearson

30-45 minutes

Test of Written Language, Third Edition (TOWL-3)

7-0 to  17-11

Uses essay analysis and traditional test formats to assess various aspects of written language

PRO-ED

90 minutes

Test of Written Spelling, Fifth Edition (TWS-5)

6 to 18

Assesses student's ability to spell words whose spellings are readily predictable in sound-letter patterns, words whose spellings are less predictable, and both types of words considered together

PRO-ED

20 minutes

Test of Adolescent and Adult Language (TOAL)

12.0 to 24.11

Ten composites yield scores in listening, speaking, reading, writing, spoken language, written, language, receptive/expressive language, vocabulary, and grammar

PRO-ED

60-180 minutes

Word and Spelling Test

(WIST)

7-0 to 18-11

Measures word identification, spelling, and sound-symbol knowledge. Identifies students who are struggling with reading and spelling. Includes an elementary version (Grades 2-5) and a secondary version (Grades 6-12)

PRO-ED

40 minutes

Test of Language Development (Primary) - 4th Edition

(TOLDP4)

4-0 to 8-11

Assess spoken language providing composite scores for semantics and grammar, listening, organizing, speaking, and overall language ability

Academic Therapy Publications

60 minutes

Test of Language Development (Intermediate)-4th Edition

(TOLD-I-4)

8-0 through 17-11

Measures spoken language skills including semantics, grammar, listening, organizing and speaking

Academic Therapy Publications

30-60 minutes

Commonly Used Standardized Measures/Screening Tests of Phonological Awareness

Test

Age/Grade Range

Abilities Measured

Publisher

Administration Time

Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing , 2nd edition (CTOPP2)

5-0 to 24-11

Measures phonological awareness (elision, blending words, sound matching), phonological memory (memory for digits, nonword repetition), and rapid naming

PRO-ED

30 minutes

Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement

(KTEA-II)

4-6 to 90+

Measures phonological awareness, associational fluency, naming facility

Pearson

varies

Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization Test, 3rd. edition

(LAC-3; 2004)

5-0 to 18-11

Measures ability to perceive and conceptualize speech sounds using a visual medium

PRO-ED

20-30 minutes

Phonemic Awareness Skills Screening (PASS; 2000)

1 to 2 grades

Measures phonological skills including rhyming, sentence segmentation, blending, syllable segmentation, deletion, phoneme isolation, phoneme segmentation, and substitution

PRO-ED

15 minutes

Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening (PALS Pre-K; 2004)

3-0 to 5-0

Measures name writing, alphabet knowledge, and print word awareness

University of Virginia

20 minutes

Pre-Reading Inventory of Phonological Awareness (PIPA; 2003)

4-0 to 6-11

Measures a child's phonological awareness skills with six subtests including rhyme awareness, syllable segmentation, alliteration awareness, sound isolation, sound segmentation, and letter-sound knowledge

Pearson

25-35 minutes

Test of Phonological Awareness, 2nd edition; PLUS (TOPA-2+; 2004)

5-0 to 8-0

Measures phonological awareness. The test has two versions-a Kindergarten version and an Early Elementary version-that measure young children's ability to (a) isolate individual phonemes in spoken words and (b) understand the relationships between letters and phonemes in English.

PRO-ED

Kindergarten

30-45 minutes

Early Elementary

15-30 minutes

Test of Phonological Awareness in Spanish

(TPAS; 2004)

4-0 to 10-11

A standardized assessment that measures phonological awareness in Spanish-speaking children. Subtests measure the child's ability to determine initial sounds, final sounds, rhyming words, and sound/syllable deletion.

PRO-ED

15-30 minutes

Test of Phonological Awareness Skills (TOPAS; 2003)

5-0 to 10-11

Comprises four subtests (Rhyming, Incomplete Words, Sound Sequencing, and Sound Deletion) that measure three areas of phonological awareness: sound comparison, phoneme blending, and phoneme segmentation.

PRO-ED

15-30 minutes

Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities

2-0 to 90+

Blending, auditory attention, incomplete words, auditory memory, phonemic awareness, rapid naming

Riverside Publishing

varies

Commonly Used Standardized Measures of Rapid Automatized Naming

Test

Age/Grade Range

Abilities Measured

Publisher

Administration Time

Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP)

5-0 to 24-0

Phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid naming

PRO-ED

30 minutes

Dyslexia Early Screening Test, 2nd edition

4-6 to 6-5

Phonological awareness, rapid naming

Pearson

30 minutes

Kaufman Test of Educational   Achievement

(KTEA-II)

4-6 to 25-0

Measures phonological awareness, associational fluency, naming facility

Pearson

30-80 minutes  

Rapid Automatized Naming and Rapid Alternating Stimulus Tests (RAN/RAS)

5-0 to 18-11

Measures rapid naming skills including naming  letters, colors, numbers, or objects

Measures processing speed in alternating tasks including  letters, numbers, and colors

PRO-ED

5-10 minutes

Process Assessment of the Learner: Test Battery for Reading and Writing

Grades K-6

Measures phonological awareness, rapid naming, orthographic awareness

Pearson

varies

Woodcock-Johnson III Normative Update Tests of Cognitive Abilities

(WJ III NU)

2-0 to 90+

Measures rapid naming of simple pictures

Riverside Publishing

varies

 

Commonly Used Standard Measures of Cognitive Functioning

Test

Age/GradeRange

Abilities Measured

Publisher

Administration Time

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition Integrated

6-0 to 16-11

verbal, perceptual, working memory, processing speed

Pearson

varies

Woodcock-Johnson III Normative Update  Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ III NU)

2 to 90+

measures general intellectual abilities and specific cognitive abilities including general knowledge, reasoning, memory and retrieval, speed, auditory processing, and visual-spatial thinking

Riverside Publishing

55-65 minutes

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale V

PreK to Adult

Measures fluid reasoning, knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial processing, and working memory

Riverside Publishing

5 minutes per subtest

Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS)

3 to 94

Measures verbal and nonverbal intelligence and memory

Psychological Assessment Resources

30-35 minutes

Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second edition

(KABC-II)

3 to 18

Measures processing and cognitive abilities

Pearson

35-70 minutes

Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, Fourth edition (TONI-4)

6-0 through 89

Non-verbal measure of intelligence; ideal for those with language, hearing, or motor impairments

Academic Therapy Publications

10-15 minutes

Commonly Used Standardized Measures of Achievement

Test  

Age/Grade Range

Abilities

Publisher

Administration Time

Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, Second edition (KTEA-II)

4-6 to 25-0

Measures academic achievement in reading, mathematics, written language, oral language

Pearson

30 to 90 minutes

Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Third edition (WIAT-III)

4-0 to 50-11

Measures academic achievement in reading, mathematics, written language, and oral language

Pearson

varies

Woodcock Johnson-III Tests of Achievement (WJ III ACH)

2 to 90+

Measures academic achievement in reading, mathematics, written language, and general knowledge

Riverside

5 minutes per test

Diagnostic Achievement Battery, 3rd edition

6-0 to 14-11

Measures academic achievement and provides composite scores for Total Achievement, Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing, Mathematics, Spoken Language, Written Language

PRO-ED

90-120 minutes

Diagnostic Achievement Battery - Intermediate (DAB-I)

13-0 to 17-11

Measures academic achievement  in spoken language, reading, writing, mathematics, and basic academic skills

PRO-ED

 60-90 minutes

 

Commonly Used Standardized Measures/Screening Tests for Preschool and Kindergarten

Test

Age/Grade Range

Abilities measured

Publisher

Administration Time

Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Fourth edition (PPVT-4)

2.6 to 90+

Measures receptive single-word vocabulary

Pearson

10-15 minutes

Expressive Vocabulary Test- Second edition (EVT-2)

2.6 to 90+

Measures expressive single-word vocabulary and word retrieval skills

Pearson

10-20 minutes

Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-4 (CELF-4)

5 to 21

Measures receptive and expressive language abilities and provides  composite scores for Language Structure, Language Content, Language Content and Memory, and Working Memory.

Pearson or Psychological?

30-60 minutes

Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language (CASL)

3 to 21

Fifteen tests measure language processing skills (comprehension, expression, and retrieval) in four language structure categories including Lexical/Semantic, Syntactic, Supralinguistic, and Pragmatic skills

Pearson

30-45 minutes

Test of Language Development (Primary) - 4th Edition

(TOLDP4)

4-0 to 8-11

Assess spoken language providing composite scores for semantics and grammar, listening, organizing, speaking, and overall language ability

Academic Therapy Publications

60 minutes

Oral and Written Language Scales-II: Written Expression (OWLS-II Written Expression)

5.0 to 21.11

Measures use of conventions,  linguistic forms,  and the ability to communicate meaningfully in writing  

Pearson

10-40 minutes

Test of Early Written Language 2

(TEWL 2)

3 to 10

Measures emerging (basic and contextual) written language skills

Pearson

30-45 minutes

Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, 2nd edition (CTOPP2)

5-0 to 24-11

Measures phonological awareness (elision, blending words, sound matching), phonological memory (memory for digits, nonword repetition), and rapid naming

PRO-ED

30 minutes

Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening (PALS Pre-K; 2004)

3-0 to 5-0

Measures name writing, alphabet knowledge, and print word awareness

University of Virginia

20 minutes

Pre-Reading Inventory of Phonological Awareness (PIPA; 2003)

4-0 to 6-11

Measures a child's phonological awareness skills with six subtests including rhyme awareness, syllable segmentation, alliteration awareness, sound isolation, sound segmentation, and letter-sound knowledge

Pearson

25-35 minutes

Dyslexia Early Screening Test, 2nd edition

4-6 to 6-5

Phonological awareness, rapid naming

Pearson

30 minutes

Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization Test, 3rd. edition

(LAC-3; 2004)

5-0 to 18-11

Measures ability to perceive and conceptualize speech sounds using a visual medium

PRO-ED

20-30 minutes

Early Reading Diagnostic Assessment (ERDA)

K-3

Measures early reading skills including phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and reading comprehension

Pearson

45-90 minutes

Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, 4th edition

(GMRT-4)

PreK-12

Measures literary concepts, phonological awareness, letters and letter/sound correspondence, and listening comprehension

Riverside

75-100 minutes

Group Reading Assessment & Diagnostic Evaluation (GRADE)

PreK-3

Assesses phonological awareness and phonics skills including vocabulary, reading comprehension, and listening comprehension  

Pearson

50-90 minutes

WJ III Diagnostic Reading Battery (WDRB)

2-0 to 80+

Measures phonological awareness, phonics knowledge, fluency, vocabulary, and reading comprehension

Riverside Publishing

5-10 minutes

 per test

Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests III

(WRMT-III)

4-6 to 75+

Measures phonological awareness, listening comprehension, letter identification, word identification, rapid automatic naming, oral reading fluency, word attack, word comprehension, and passage comprehension

Pearson

15-45 minutes

Diagnostic Assessments of Reading, Second Edition (DAR-2)

5-0 through adult

Assesses reading achievement in nine skill areas including  print awareness, phonological awareness, letters and sounds, word recognition, word analysis, oral reading (accuracy/fluency), silent reading (comprehension), spelling, and word meaning

Academic Therapy Publications

30 minutes

Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills, 6th Edition (DIBELS-6)

PK-3

Measures initial sound fluency, letter naming fluency, phoneme segmentation fluency, nonsense word fluency, retell fluency, and oral reading fluency

University of Oregon

10 minutes

Test of Early Reading Ability, Third edition (TERA-3)

3-6 to 8-6

Measures the reading ability of young children. Assesses the knowledge of contextual meaning, alphabet, and conventions.

PRO-ED

varies

Woodcock-Johnson III Normative Update  Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ III NU)

2 to 90+

measures general intellectual abilities and specific cognitive abilities including general knowledge, reasoning, memory and retrieval, speed, auditory processing, and visual-spatial thinking

Riverside Publishing

55-65 minutes

 

Resources:

Gunning, T.G. (2010). Assessing and Correcting Reading and Writing Difficulties, Fourth Edition. USA: Pearson Education, Inc.

Lonigan, C.J., Keller, K.D., Phillips, B.M. (2004). Standardized Assessment of Children’s Emergent Literacy Skills. Handbook on family literacy: Research and services. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Mather, N., Wendling, B.J., (2012) Essentials of Dyslexia Assessment and Intervention. NJ: John Wiley & Sons

Shaywitz, S. (2003) Overcoming Dyslexia: A New and Complete Science-Based Program for Reading Problems at Any Level. New York: Alfred A. Knopf

Concord Special Education Parent Advisory Committee. www.concordspedpac.org

DyslexiaHelp at the University of Michigan. www.dyslexiahelp.umich.edu

Florida Center for Reading Research (FCRR). www.fcrr.org

Reading Assessment Database - Early Reading Assessments for PreK-3. Southwest Educational Development Laboratory. www.sedl.org/reading

Tennessee Center for the Study and Treatment of Dyslexia. www.mtsu.edu/dyslexia

compiled by Wendy Stacy, M.S., CCC-SLP, CALT, QI, LDT

ReadWrite Language and Literacy Center   www.readwritecenter.com