Citing Sources for EE Draft:

Quick Guide to APA/MLA In-Text Citations & Chicago Footnotes

If you are summarizing, paraphrasing, or quoting a source, you MUST have it cited within the body of the essay. Only CHICAGO uses footnotes. If you are using MLA or APA, then you will use in-text citations.

MLA

MLA In-Text Citations[1] (USE FOR LITERATURE, HISTORY, VISUAL ARTS, THEATRE)

First, you will want to have your Works Cited entries completed.

Include in-text citations after each concrete detail or quote that you need to cite within the draft of your EE.  Please check out an example of a research paper in the MLA format  at https://style.mla.org/files/2017/03/Brandons_Paper_FINAL.pdf. Ignore including your name and a header. Use this as a guide for in-text citations and for Works Cited page only.

CITATION GENERATOR FOR MLA--Be sure you use MLA 8.

FORMAT FOR A WORKS CITED CITATION FOR MLA 8

 Author. Title of Source. Title of the container, Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication Date, Location.

EXAMPLE—BOOK

Copeland, Edward. “Money.” The Cambridge Companion to Jane Austen, edited by Copeland and Juliet McMaster, Cambridge UP, 1997, pp. 131-48.

IN-TEXT CITATION

(Copeland 131).

EXAMPLE — DIGITAL PDF

United States, Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2005 Assisted Reproductive Technology Success Rates: National Summary and Fertility Clinic Reports. Oct. 2007, www.cdc.gov/art/ART2005/508PDF/2005ART508.pdf.

IN-TEXT CITATION

(United States 61).

EXAMPLE —DATABASE ARTICLE NO AUTHOR

“Developments in the Law: The Law of Marriage and Family.” Harvard Law Review, vol. 116, no. 7, 2003, pp. 1996-2122. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/1342754

IN-TEXT CITATION

 (“Developments” 2069-71).

APA: 

APA In-Text Citations[2]  --USE FOR SCIENCE EXTENDED ESSAYS

First, you will want to have your bibliography completed called References. Include in-text citations after each concrete detail or quote that you need to cite within the draft of your EE. Please check out an example of a research paper in APA format at https://owl.english.purdue.edu/media/pdf/20090212013008_560.pdf or http://www.apastyle.org/manual/related/sample-experiment-paper-1.pdf.

CITATION GENERATOR FOR APA

Remember that APA requires the following:[3] 

FORMAT FOR PERIODICAL OR ARTICLE:

Author, A. A., Author,  B. B., & Author, C.C. (1994). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, xxx-xxx.

EXAMPLE:

 Kernis, M.H., Cornell, D.P., Sun, C.-R., Berr, A., & Harlow, T. (1993) There’s more to self esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1190-1204.

IN-TEXT CITATION:  

(Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berr & Harlow, 1993, p. 1191).

EXAMPLE FOR PERIODICAL OR ARTICLE WITH NO AUTHOR

All 33 Chile miners freed in flawless rescue. (2010, October 13). Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/39625809/ns/world_news-americas/

IN-TEXT CITATION

("All 33 Chile Miners," 2010).

FORMAT FOR NONPERIODICAL— BOOK

Author, A.A. (1994). Title of the work. Location: Publisher.

EXAMPLE

Robinson, D.N. (Ed.). (1992). Social discourse and moral judgment. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

IN-TEXT CITATION

(Robinson, 1992).


CHICAGO

CHICAGO In-Text Citations  (USE FOR LITERATURE, HISTORY, VISUAL ARTS, THEATRE)

First, you will want to have your bibliography completed. Chicago has the list of sources called Bibliography at the end of the essay. Include in-text citations after each concrete detail or quote that you need to cite within the draft of your EE. Please check out an example of a research paper in Chicago format at https://owl.english.purdue.edu/media/pdf/1300991022_717.pdf.

CITATION GENERATOR FOR CHICAGO

FORMAT OF FOOTNOTES: Footnotes should be used after every quote and concrete detail from your sources (such as facts, ideas, statistics, etc.) in order to give credit to your source. Every source should be listed on your bibliography.

  1. The first time you cite a source, use the FULL FOOTNOTED CITATION.  
  2. The second time you cite a source, use an ABBREVIATED FOOTNOTED CITATION: last name of the author, title of the work, and the page number.
  3. If you have TWO CONSECUTIVE FOOTNOTED CITATIONS (one right after the other), you can use Ibid and the page number.
  4. Please see example from BMCC Writing Center at http://www.bmcc.cuny.edu/writingcenter/upload/Chicago_Style_Footnotes.pdf.

BIBLIOGRAPHY ENTRIES[4]

FORMAT  FOR A BOOK

Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. (Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name, Date of Publication), #.

EXAMPLE TWO

FORMAT FOR A WEBSITE

ONLINE DATABASE[5]

ONLINE DATABASE


[1] Examples are taken from MLA official website on citing sources: https://style.mla.org/files/2017/03/Brandons_Paper_FINAL.pdf and https://style.mla.org/works-cited-a-quick-guide-book/.

[2]Please refer to APA Style Guide at http://www.apastyle.org/learn/quick-guide-on-references.aspx.

[3] Examples are taken from The Concise Rules of APA Style, The Official Pocket Guide from the American Psychological Association.

[4] Kate  Turabian.  A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, Eighth Edition: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers (Chicago Guides to Writing, Editing, and Publishing) (Kindle Locations 4092-4102). University of Chicago Press. Kindle Edition.

[5] “Citing Library Databases in CHICAGO Style.” Los Angeles Harbor College, Wilmington, CA.  https://www.lahc.edu/library/chicago.pdf