Part B: Resources - DRAFT
1. Unit of Work - A cruise ship to Auschwitz
This thematic unit of work - "A cruise ship to Auschwitz" - is organised around Europe's refugee crisis prior to and during World War Two. Year 10 students studying German as a second language will deepen their listening, reading, writing and speaking skills by describing past events and social issues and interacting with native German speakers. This unit addresses the following areas of the German Curriculum:
-Key concepts (ACLGEC171 and ACLGEU031):
text construction, perspectives, future, past
-Key processes (ACLGEC171 and ACLGEU031):
analysing, applying, sustaining interactions, discussing
applying social and ethical protocols and practices when using ICT, investigating with ICT, creating with ICT, communicating with ICT
This unit comprises four lessons. During lessons one to three, a historical 'real time' role-play chronicling the journey of the M.S. St. Louis in 1939 will be carried out. The students will form groups of four and independently research a passenger on the cruise ship. Rolling formative feedback will be provided in class as each group compiles three short texts collaboratively using Google Docs (during lessons one to three) and complete a Kahoot! drill (lesson four). This unit will be assessed through the submission of the three multimedia texts on the class Tumblr blog. Group entries on the class Tumblr blog will be labeled with the appropriate hashtags denoting each group and phase of the journey (e.g. #Gruppe 1, #Hinreise). To conclude the unit, the students will take a virtual tour of Auschwitz and Skype with a Holocaust survivor in German during lesson four.
2. Resource descriptions
1. QR Codes
Link: QR Code Generator
Quick Response (QR) codes - or barcodes that can be programmed to open web pages that you would like your students to access on their devices - will be used at the start of the unit to introduce the topic. Print out passenger photographs (see 2. Online Encyclopedia) on individual sheets of paper and place around the classroom. Pair each photograph with a QR code (note: ensure that each QR code is linked with a different passenger biography to the photograph that it is paired with). Split the students into groups of four and ensure that each group has access to one mobile device running Android or iOS with a QR reader installed, Internet access and an answer sheet showing the photographs with an empty space for the passengers' names, ages, and origins. Allow the groups to compete against each other in a reading race for five to ten minutes, comparing the photographs to the descriptions on the website and identifying the passengers on the answer sheet.
This activity is structured to assist students to “understand (process), remember (encode and store), and transfer (receive)” the information they will need to begin the unit (Roblyer & Doering, 2014, p. 61). It is influenced by information-processing and cognitive behavioral theories derived from the work of Skinner, Gagné, Atkinson and Shiffrin (Roblyer & Doering, 2014, p. 51).
2. Online Encyclopedia
Link: Holocaust Encyclopedia, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
The 'Holocaust Encyclopedia' - accessible through the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum website - provides access to a range of primary and secondary multimedia resources including photos, maps, original documents and interviews about the voyage of the M.S. St. Louis. This resource can also be used to source the photographs and descriptions for the QR code reading race (see 1. QR Codes) and for students to use as they independently research passengers for the role-play. Students will require one device per group of four (mobile phone, tablet or laptop) and Internet access to use this resource.
This resource can be used to create an authentic, “visual and experiential” learning experience (Roblyer & Doering, 2014, p. 59). Its inclusion in this unit is influenced by Dewey’s research on experience-based learning (Roblyer & Doering, 2014, p. 55).
3. Google Docs
Google Docs is a free collaborative writing application that can be accessed through both a mobile app and a web browser. Students will require one device per group of four (mobile phone or tablet running Android or iOS, laptop) and Internet access. Mobile phones and tablets require the free Google Docs app (available on the app stores); laptops require the latest version of either Chrome, Firefox, Safari or Edge. If students have their own Google accounts these can be used, if not the teacher can generate a separate brainstorming document for each group which the students can access via a link or a link embedded in a QR code (see link 2 above). As the students compile their texts collaboratively, the teacher can provide rolling formative feedback directly in the documents that the students are working on by logging into Google Drive (see link 3. above).
This activity can be used to foster collaborative writing skills. Its inclusion in this unit is based on the social constructivist approach pioneered by Vygotsky (1986). Vygotsky theorised that learning outcomes can be improved when students collaborate with adults or peers – all of whom possess a variety of skills and levels of expertise - and receive timely, actionable feedback.
Historical footage and passenger interviews from the documentary "The Voyage of the St. Louis" (see link 2. above) will be used at the start of lessons one to three as a writing prompt. The documentary is accessible via YouTube, a free video-hosting website that allows registered users to upload and share videos online (see link 1. above). YouTube videos can be shown in class without infringing copyright laws as long as the videos are streamed directly from the YouTube site - which includes embedded videos - and the audience is restricted to staff and students of the school (see link 3. above). This can either be completed as a whole class or group activity. For the whole class activity, a video projector attached to a laptop with Internet access is required. For the group activity, students will require one device per group of four (mobile phone or tablet running Android or iOS, laptop) and an Internet connection with 500+ Kbps. Mobile phones and tablets require the YouTube app (if the resource is embedded in the class blog only the link to the class blog is required); laptops require the latest versions of either Chrome, Firefox, Safari or Edge, or the latest version of Adobe Flash Player (see link 4. above).
This resource can be used as a writing prompt to create an authentic, “visual and experiential” learning experience (Roblyer & Doering, 2014, p. 59). Its inclusion in this unit is influenced by Dewey’s research on experience-based learning (Roblyer & Doering, 2014, p. 55).
This unit will be assessed through the submission of the three multimedia texts over three consecutive lessons on the class Tumblr blog. For this unit the teacher can set up a free class Tumblr with a password protected login to protect the students’ identities and allow themselves and the students to upload and embed photos, sound bites and videos, run a real-time role play with post-level commenting and organise content with hashtags. The class Tumblr should also include an ask feature for students to post questions anonymously, a submit feature for the students to post their writing samples without requiring a Tumblr account of their own (both features can be enabled in the Tumblr control panel under ‘Settings’) and a resources page with links to information about the voyage and the passengers on the M.S. St. Louis. For this unit, the class Tumblr and all associated features (submit feature, ask feature etc.) should be made available through a separate URL (listed in the Tumblr control panel under ‘Settings’). The teacher can give students access to the blog via a link or a link embedded in a QR code. The advantage of sharing access to the site via the separate URL is that the students do not need to enter the Tumblr site, open a Tumblr account or download the Tumblr app to access the course material, blocking advertising and unsavory content while allowing the students to interact with each other in a safe online environment (see link 2. above). Students will require one device per group of four (mobile phone or tablet running Android or iOS, laptop) and an Internet connection with 500+ Kbps (primarily to play the YouTube clips that are embedded in the blog). Mobile devices require the latests version of Chrome, Firefox, Safari or Edge; laptops require the latest versions of either Chrome, Firefox, Safari or Edge (see link 3. above).
Tumblr is an ideal tool to engage students in subject matter and extend their “Internet world [ICT competencies] beyond their first language” (Godwin Jones in Stanley, 2013, p. 121). The use of Tumblr and other forms of multimedia can assist students in learning how to communicate information online and develop their information literacy (see ‘General Capabilities’ under ‘Unit Description’ above). The real-time role play and assessment is designed to promote social, student-driven exploration (Roblyer & Doering, 2014, p. 61) and is influenced by the social constructivist approach pioneered by Vygotsky (1986).
6. Google Cardboard
In preparation for their Skype call with a Holocaust survivor (see 7. Skype), the students will take a virtual tour of Auschwitz in German using the 360° documentary published on YouTube ‘INSIDE AUSCHWITZ - Das ehemalige Konzentrationslager in 360°’ (see link 2. above) and the Google Cardboard platform. Google Cardboard is a virtual reality platform consisting of a free mobile app for Android and iOS and a Google Cardboard viewer that can be made out of cardboard (see link 1. above). To take the tour and 'walk around', each student will require a Google Cardboard viewer, a smartphone running either Android 4.1 or higher or iOs version 8.0 or higher, the free Google Cardboard app and the free YouTube app (see link 3. above). Note: The tour can be completed as a whole class activity with one laptop, a video projector and Internet access.
The virtual reality tour in German is designed to deepen the students understanding of the subject matter. The students will listen to their native speaker guides who experienced this period of time and have the opportunity to practice speaking themselves at the conclusion of the tour, strengthening their language competencies prior to the Skype call (see 7. Skype). This approach is based on Brunner’s concept of ‘scaffolding’ learning, or building on past knowledge which is an extension of Vygotsky’s research on the zone of proximal development (see Roblyer & Doering, 2014, p. 56 and Vygotsky, 1986).
Skype is a free software application by Microsoft that allows registered users to communicate through instant messaging, voice chat and video chat. To conclude the unit the students will use Skype video with a Holocaust survivor in German through Microsoft's 'Witness to History: Skype with a Holocaust survivor’ program (see link 1. above). This can either be completed as a whole class or group activity. For the whole class activity, a video projector attached to a laptop with Internet access and a school Skype account are required. For the group activity, the students will require one device per group of four (mobile phone, tablet, laptop), Internet access, the Skype app and access to the school Skype account (see link 2. above).
The Skype call will give the students an opportunity to transfer the skills and knowledge they have acquired during the unit to a real-life situation. This approach is designed to avoid ‘inert knowledge’ (Roblyer & Doering, 2014, p. 64) - or acquiring vocabulary which is not used in an authentic conversation and quickly forgotten. This activity is an extension of the Google Cardboard activity (see 6. Google Cardboard) and based on Brunner’s concept of ‘scaffolding’ learning, or building on past knowledge (Roblyer & Doering, 2014, p. 56).
To revise the subject content and vocabulary learnt during the unit, a Kahoot! quiz will be used to provide formative feedback. Kahoot! is a free game-based platform that can be used to create quizzes on specific topics. Students use their mobile devices as clickers to participate and answer questions. This can either be completed as an individual or group activity. For both the individual and group activities, an interactive whiteboard (or a video projector and a laptop) and Internet access is required. For the individual activity, each student will require a mobile device with Internet access. For the group activity, one device per group of four (mobile phone, tablet, laptop) and Internet access is required. All devices require the latest two versions of either Chrome, Firefox, Safari or Edge (see link 2. above).
This activity takes a directed instructional approach to technology integration and is based on Skinner’s reinforcement theory of motivation (Roblyer & Doering, 2014, p. 53). The use of a timer and rolling ‘right or wrong’ feedback - provided on the students’ devices to the background of entertaining music - provides motivation to complete the vocabulary drill and aids knowledge retention.
There is not yet enough quantitative evidence to suggest that the technologies described above have a greater influence on student outcomes than more traditional low-tech or no-tech approaches (Hattie, 2009). However, the learning theories that the use of these technologies are influenced by (social constructivism, information-processing and cognitive behavioral theories) promote feedback, challenge and practice at the right level, peer-to-peer learning and formative assessment. All of these factors have been proven to be particularly impactful on learning (Hattie, 2009, pp. 297-298).
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