CASE STUDY OF NORMAL WALKING CYCLE
I have taken 3D one character to walk [character name: andy ] [ thanks to who’s made this model of character and rigged ]. I have used this character for only learning purpose.
In this character, we can see different controls to make movement of part of body like hand controller, hip controller, head controller etc. [we can see maroon circle, green circle etc. are controllers. There are one master control to controlling of character like move character from one place to another. We have seen blue round is master control which is placed to below the character. ]
We can make a rotation and move parts of body by controllers.
There are different techniques to make walk cycle but it does depend on animator.
I am going to make walk cycle from below parts to upper parts of andry [character].
Before making walk cycle we need to make setting about time line that set a time to play 24 frames per second.
There are mainly five key steps in walk cycle :
Normally, we are taking 32 frames to make complete one two-step walk. Creating three contact poses on frame 1, frame 16 and frame 32. In which 1 and 32 frames repeat a contact pose.
On frame 1: [left leg is ahead and right leg is behind]. Toe of left leg is up and foot roll of right leg is up
On frame 16: [right leg is ahead and left leg is behind]. Toe of right leg is up and foot roll of left leg is up.
On frame 32: [left leg is ahead and right leg is behind]. Toe of left leg is up and foot roll of right leg is up
Two passing poses on frame 8 and frame 24.
On Frame 8 & On frame 24
On frame 8 , left leg is touching to ground and right leg above the ground and toe is down. Hip root is up more than contact pose.
On frame 24 , right leg is touching to ground and left leg above the ground and toe is down. Hip root is up more than contact pose.
Two UP poses on frame 12 and frame 28.
On frame 12 & on frame 28
On frame 12, left leg is above to the ground with toe is down and hip is up than passing position. Right leg is touching to the ground with more foot is up more than contact pose.
On frame 28, right leg is above to the ground with toe is down and hip is up than passing position.left leg is touching to the ground with more foot is up more than contact pose.
Two UP poses on frame 4 and frame 20.
On frame 4 & on frame 20
On frame 4, left leg is ahead and touching to the ground and right leg is also touching ground but foot roll is up. Hip is more down more than contact pose.
On frame 20, right leg is ahead and touching to the ground and right leg is also touching ground but foot roll is up. Hip is more down more than contact pose.
Now, we completed legs movements.
We need to make balance of hip , because whenever character walk than hip is rotate and translate.
In passing pose, hip translate the side of leg which is strait and touching to ground.
This is the one pose of passing in which translate the hip right side in which right leg is strait. See below snapshot.
In graph there created unnecessary keys, than we need to remove because that break the flow . We need soft movement, to check that just go to graph of hip to see. Like below:
In above graph there are some unnecessary keys. We removed that keys like below:
In walk, there are two rotations of X-ROTATION and Y-ROTATION.
In passing pose, rotate the hip in Z direction which leg is above the ground without touching.
In passing pose, rotate the hip in Y direction which leg is above the ground without touching. Because of leg is going to ahead which is joint to the hip that’s for rotate the hip in Y and in Z direction for making a balance of hip.
X-ROTATION [yellow] and Y-ROTATION [green]
In walk, rotate the chest opposite rotation of hip in z axes. [In both passing pose]
Above chest rotation is opposite direction of hip rotation just see yellow lines. Chest also rotate in Y axes. Rotate the chest in direction of which leg is ahead.
We can see graph of chest rotation like below:
In contact pose, little we can see C-CURVE of spine. Whenever walk than character bends from his back to make balance of weight.
In contact pose: in passing pose:
Graph of spine rotation with head and neck in X axis to bend:-
Graph of all these three controls of spine and head and neck rotation in X-AXIS.
But we need to make follow threw in this spine because whenever rotate the hip , rotation of above part of body which is joint to hip it’s take also rotate.
But we can make this follow threw by graph very easily.
Just shift graph of rotation by selecting all keys and shift the graph. But we need to add keys and remove keys whenever necessary.
Hand move opposite direction of lag.
Whenever left leg is ahead than right hand is left.
Same as both hands. Hand movement get the follow through like pendulum.
Whenever walking , we gives feel of weight to character . we can see weight in down pose.
Squash and stretch:-
Character gets squash when down position of character.
Stretching character whenever up pose of character.
Whenever character walking, hand move in follow through parts of hand.