Verb extensions in Kah consist of prefixed verbs altering the meaning of the verb they are attached to. This means that a single verb stem can be used to built new verbs from in a standardized manner. This method has proved to be a rich source of verbal derivation in many natural and constructed languages. For constructed languages the main benefit lies in the instant recognizability and logic it adds to the lexicon as well as the fact it keeps the minimum number of roots needed for a mature lexicon beneath acceptable perimeters.

 

Phonotactic rules

The phonotactic rules of verb extensions differ slightly from those of normal compounds. When a common verbal derivational prefix ending in a nasal stop (either -m, -n or -ng) is put in front of  f, v,h, l, r, a consonant combination (kw, sw and py) or another nasal stop, the final nasal is dropped:

jam + le  = jale                    (and not: *jamale)

mun + ren = muren          (and not: *munuren)

tom + reven = toreven     (and not: *tomoreven)

 

Reversive

The reversive extensions expressed the undoing of an action and is formed by prefixing the verb mon "to undo" to the original verb.  Compare:

Verb

Translation

Reversive

Translation

jo

to know

monjo

to forget

mas

to be stable

momas

to destabilize

zon

to sleep

monzon

to wake up

nenu

to fly

monenu

to land

 

Permissive

Permissive verbs are formed with the root  ten- expressing "to be able" and express something rather hard to describe. It denotes that an action or quality is possible, advisory or morally right.

Verb

Translation

Permissive

Translation

yun

to look

tenyun

to be visible

kuka

to predict

tenkuka

to be predictable

bum

to explode

tembum

to be explosive

 

Causative

A causative verbs express an action is caused to happen. The verb mun "to cause" is prefixed to the basic verb stem:

Verb

Translation

Causative

Translation

kwan

to learn

mukwan

to teach

bas

to stop

mumbas

to halt, make stop

him

to hear

muhim

to play a song

yai

to hurt

munyai

to inflict pain, hurt