ACF Regionals 2014

Packet by MCTC (Rob Carson and Bernadette Spencer)

5/5 Literature

One character in this novel opines that drivers don’t know what grass or flowers are, because “they never see them slowly”. Another of its characters sends in some box-tops in order to perform the role of “Helen” in a play. Its epigraph is a Juan Ramon Jimenez quote advising the reader “If they give you ruled paper, write the other way”. A number of characters in this novel wear badges displaying salamanders, and its protagonist uses a “green bullet” to communicate with Faber. At the beginning of this novel, that protagonist meets Clarisse McClellan, and at its end, he becomes responsible for memorizing Ecclesiastes. Its protagonist horrifies his wife’s friends by reading “Dover Beach” aloud, then destroys a mechanical hound and kills Captain Beatty with his flamethrower. For 10 points, identify this dystopian novel about the book-burning Fireman Guy Montag, written by Ray Bradbury.

ANSWER: Fahrenheit-451

A much-disputed passage of this work describes one of the central characters being given “seven thousand” of some indeterminate thing. “No trembling, no tuned timber, no tumbling hawk” and “no swift horse” are among the absences lamented in a flashback in this work by the “last survivor”, whose “lay” is sometimes thought of as this work’s “fourth funeral”. Two women in this work serve in the role of “peace-weavers”, while its protagonist is accused of losing a swimming contest to Breca. A slave’s theft of a golden cup sparks this work’s final conflict, in which the protagonist is aided only by the loyal Wiglaf. Its protagonist uses giant’s sword to kill a descendant of Cain at the bottom of a lake and tears off a monster’s arm while defending Hrothgar’s mead hall Heorot. For 10 points, identify this Old English epic about the slayer of Grendel.

ANSWER: Beowulf

In a short story by this author, Ivan wanders away from a funeral and listens to the recently deceased gossip until his sneeze silences them. A critical analysis of this author asserted that “everything is still in the future and will always be in the future” in introducing the concept of “unfinalizability” and described the freedom of voice this author gave to his characters as “polyphony”. This author of “Bobok” was the subject of a Mikhail Bakhtin book about the “problems” of his “poetics”. One of his protagonists rooms with Ganya Ivolgin, discovers Nastassya Filippovna’s murder at the hands of Rogozhin, and suffers an epileptic fit after breaking a vase at a party. Another of his protagonists decides that he is an “extraordinary man”, which prompts him to axe-murder a pawnbroker. For 10 points, name this Russian who created Prince Myshkin and Raskolnikov in The Idiot and Crime and Punishment.

ANSWER: Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky [or Dostoevsky]

The protagonist of one of this man’s novels is a sea captain who is revealed to be a fraud, but is then redeemed when his ship, which he mistakenly ordered to be tied up with “all the ropes”, is the only one to survive a storm. A love triangle between Bullfinch, Corporal Martim, and Marialva is resolved in the first of three stories contained in another of his books. This author of Home is the Sailor wrote a book in which the conflict between Manuel of the Jaguars and other cacao barons against a young reformer forms a backdrop for a love story between the Syrian bar owner Nacib Saad and the titular skilled cook. Another of his protagonists marries Teodoro after Vadinho dies while dancing the samba. For 10 points, identify this Brazilian modernist who wrote Shepherds of the Night, Gabriela, Clove and Cinnamon, and Dona Flor and Her Two Husbands.

ANSWER: Jorge Amado [or Jorge Leal Amado de Faria]

In one appearance, this character’s execution clears the way for his widow to marry the Indian prince Cawwawkee. In another appearance, he orders a harper to “Play the French Tune, that Mrs. Slammekin was so fond of” before a reversal of fortune prompts him to lament how “At the tree I shall suffer with pleasure”. In a third work, he reveals that he is an old army friend of Tiger Brown, the Chief of Police, and at the end is arbitrarily pardoned and awarded a title by Queen Victoria. In that work, this character is compared to a shark which has “pearly white” teeth in the opening “Moritat”, or murder-ballad, and has a love interest who sings the song “Pirate Jenny”. This character marries Polly Peachum at the beginning of plays by John Gay and Bertolt Brecht. For 10 points, name this bandit anti-hero of The Beggar’s Opera and The Threepenny Opera, a man known for carrying a knife.

ANSWER: Macheath [or Mackie Messer; or Mack the Knife]

One of this author’s plays was dropped from consideration for the Pulitzer Prize because Hamlin Garland objected to the obscenities used by its Marine characters. For 10 points each:

[10] Identify this author of What Price Glory?, an American playwright who wrote about the trial of Socrates in Barefoot in Athens and fictionalized the Sacco and Vanzetti trial in Winterset.

ANSWER: Maxwell Anderson [or James Maxwell Anderson]

[10] In this Anderson play with a Shakespearean title, idealistic Representative Alan McLean attempts to fight a costly House Resolution, but his plan to add nonsensical amounts of pork to it to ensure a veto backfires when it passes with a supermajority.

ANSWER: Both Your Houses

[10] Van van Dorn, the protagonist of Anderson’s High Tor, encounters a group of ghostly Dutchmen very similar to the ninepins enthusiasts who put the protagonist of this Washington Irving story to sleep for twenty years.

ANSWER: “Rip van Winkle

Identify the following about literary castles, for 10 points each.

[10] A gigantic helmet falls from the sky and crushes Conrad, son of the villainous Manfred, at the beginning of  The Castle of Otranto, a pioneering Gothic novel by this son of the first Prime Minister of Great Britain.

ANSWER: Horace Walpole

[10] A giant pig named “The Empress of Blandings” lives with her owner Lord Emsworth at Blandings Castle, the setting of many stories by this English creator of Psmith and the Drones Club.

ANSWER:  Pelham Grenville Wodehouse

[10] “The Castle of Indolence” is the final completed poem by this Scotsman, whose more famous works include the lyrics to“Rule, Britannia!” and the poem cycle The Seasons.

ANSWER: James Thomson

This poet claimed “wine exalts the will, hashish destroys it” in his de Quincey-inspired book on recreational drug use, Artificial Paradises. For 10 points each:

[10] Identify this dissolute French author who addressed the “hypocrite reader--my likeness--my brother!” in the preface to a work that also includes the sections “Parisian Scenes” and “Spleen and Ideal”, his Fleurs du mal.

ANSWER: Charles Pierre Baudelaire

[10] One of the poems originally suppressed from Les Fleurs du mal was this one, whose speaker describes how the “opulent display” of the “sonorous” title objects make his otherwise-naked love look “triumphant, like Moorish concubines on their fortunate days”.

ANSWER: “Les Bijoux” [or “The Jewels”]

[10] “Les Bijoux” was written in this poetic form, which consists of twelve-syllable lines divided in two by a caesura. Pierre Corneille and Jean Racine generally wrote in rhyming couplets in this meter.

ANSWER: alexandrines

The alchemist Zeno of Bruges is the main character of this author’s novel The Abyss, while her most famous novel takes the form of a letter in which the main character frets about the violence of the Sarmatian Wars and rhapsodizes about his lover Antinous. For 10 points each:

[10] Identify this first female member of the Académie Française, the author of Memoirs of Hadrian.

ANSWER: Marguerite Yourcenar [or Marguerite Antoinette Jeanne Marie Ghislaine Cleenewerck de Crayencour]

[10] Yourcenar’s critical works include an extended essay subtitled A Vision of the Void, an examination of the suicide of this Japanese author of The Temple of the Golden Pavilion and the Sea of Fertility tetralogy.

ANSWER: Yukio Mishima [or Kimitake Hiraoka; accept either name in either order]

[10] A pair of Thai princes come to study at the Peers school  in this first Sea of Fertility novel, which ends with Kiyoaki Matsugae promising to see Shigekuni Honda again shortly before dying.

ANSWER: Spring Snow [or Haru no Yuki]

This character first appears sitting atop a wall keeping vigil over a house covered by a net, and is soon required to restrain his father, who has attempted to escape through the chimney by turning into smoke. For 10 points each:

[10] Identify this character who struggles to keep a handle on his phileliast father. His name refers to his loathing a certain demagogue.

ANSWER: Bdelycleon

[10] Bdelycleon arranges a mock trial between a pair of dogs in order to sate his father Philocleon’s addiction to jury service in this play, which was produced at the Lenaia in 422 BC.

ANSWER: The Wasps [or Sphekes]

[10] The Wasps is one of the many comedies written by this Athenian playwright of The Frogs and Lysistrata.

ANSWER: Aristophanes

5/5 History

A 1947 explosion at the O’Connor Electroplating Company left a 22-foot crater in this city; the aftermath of that event was broadcast by its first television station, W6XYZ. This city’s police chief Clemence Horrall was replaced with the reform-minded former Marine William Parker in the wake of a scandal involving noted madam Brenda Allen. Racial conflicts sparked by the Sleepy Lagoon murder and the wartime rationing of wool led to one conflict in this city, whose Herald-Express and Examiner newspapers gave murder victim Elizabeth Short the nickname “Black Dahlia”. Naval servicemen and gangs of pachucos clashed in the Zoot Suit Riots in this city, which hosted the Eastern Bloc-boycotted 1984 Olympics and erupted in violence in 1992 after the acquittal of police officers who were taped beating Rodney King. For 10 points, identify this California city, the location of Hollywood.

ANSWER: Los Angeles, California [or L.A.]

Forces of this kingdom likely lost the battle of Hehil, leading to the establishment of Dumnonia, whose king Geraint was later defeated by this kingdom’s ruler Ine. While returning from a pilgrimage to Rome, one ruler of this kingdom married Judith of Flanders, the daughter of Charles the Bald. Old Sarum was captured by its second king Cynric, who was the son of its founder Cerdic. The monk Asser served as a biographer to another ruler of this kingdom, who ordered the construction of a series of fortified towns called burhs and defeated the Great Heathen Army of Guthrum the Old at Edington, thus preventing a Danish invasion of this kingdom. That king put forth the Doom Book and personally translated The Consolation of Philosophy and other works into English. For 10 points, identify this Saxon kingdom which eventually unified England under the descendants of its greatest ruler, Alfred the Great.

ANSWER: Kingdom of Wessex [or the Kingdom of West Saxons before “Saxon” is read]

A number of spotters were crushed by a falling church bell in Medole during this battle, at which the withdrawal of Lauingen and Zedtwitz deprived the losing side of its left wing’s cavalry reserve. Adolphe Niel was promoted to marshal during this battle, the end of which saw the losing forces retreat to the Quadrilateral, covered by the rear-guard action of Ludwig von Benedek. This battle was followed by an armistice signed in Villafranca that was later ratified by the Treaty of Zurich, the terms of which caused Conte di Cavour to resign in protest. It was the last major battle at which the armies involved were personally led by their monarchs, as Franz Joseph I was defeated by the Franco-Sardinian alliance led by Victor Emmanuel II and Napoleon III. For 10 points, identify this 1859 battle whose many casualties prompted Jean-Henri Dunant to begin the creation of the Red Cross.

ANSWER: the Battle of Solferino and San Martino

This name was adopted as a sobriquet by the writer of the protest song “Dying of Hunger, Dying of Cold”, a man who was executed for leading the Conspiracy of the Equals. One man with this last name served as Magister Equitum under the dictator Marcus Junius Pera, while another adopted a rhetorical tactic in which speeches were given facing away from the curia and toward the Forum. Followers of that latter holder of this cognomen killed Quintus Antyllius, leading to the suicide of that man and the death of his ally Fulvius Flaccus at the hands of the consul Lucius Opimius. The most famous holder of this name was murdered by the optimates after arranging the passage of the Lex Sempronia Agraria, which redistributed public land to the poor. For 10 points, give this cognomen shared by the tribune brothers Gaius and Tiberius.

ANSWER: Gracchus [or Gracchi; accept Gracchus Babeuf but do not accept “Babeuf”]

A general of this polity won a major victory at Buir Lake but was put to death five years later when ten thousand swords were discovered in his possession. That man was one of the ten Muslim generals who served this dynasty’s founder, who himself wrote the “Hundred Word Eulogy” in praise of Islam. That ruler of this dynasty defeated a navy under Chen Youliang at the Battle of Lake Poyang and counted among his subordinates the two military officers who outlined the various martial uses of gunpowder in their Fire Dragon Manual. This dynasty fell after Li Zicheng sacked its capital, prompting Emperor Chongzhen to commit suicide, after which Wu Sangui allied with the unified Jurchen tribes and seized control. Its first ruler, the Hongwu Emperor, took power during the collapse of the preceding Yuan. For 10 points, identify this Chinese dynasty which was succeeded by the Qing and is famous for its innovations in ceramics.

ANSWER: the Ming dynasty [or the Empire of the Great Ming; or Da Ming Chao]

Herbert Storing’s seven-volume collection of them and Morton Borden’s arrangement of the 85 most significant ones both include the one that claims that “it is very difficult to convert tyranny into freedom” and is titled “Rhode Island is Right!” For 10 points each:

[10] Identify this collection of works written under such pseudonyms as “Centinel”, “Brutus”, “The Federal Farmer”, and “Cato”.

ANSWER: the Anti-Federalist Papers

[10] “Cato” is generally thought to be this politician, who served as Vice President under both Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. He spent 21 nonconsecutive years as governor of New York, a position later held by his nephew DeWitt.

ANSWER: George Clinton [prompt on “Clinton”]

[10] Clinton finished third in the 1808 presidential election, trailing both Madison and this Federalist, who along with John Marshall and Elbridge Gerry made up the American delegation involved in the XYZ affair.

ANSWER: Charles Cotesworth Pinckney

A sort of revenge for this action was taken two weeks after it happened, near the Belgian village of Chenogne. For 10 points each:

[10] Identify this December 17, 1944 event, in which members of the 1st SS Panzer Division under the command of Joachim Peiper suddenly executed more than 80 American POWs near the crossroads of Baugnez.

ANSWER: the Malmedy massacre

[10] The Malmedy massacre took place during this final major German counter-offensive of World War II, in which the Axis forces attempted to break through Allied lines in a major attack through the Ardennes forest.

ANSWER: the Battle of the Bulge [or Operation Watch on the Rhine; or Unternehmen Wacht am Rhein; prompt on “Bataille des Ardennes” or “Battle of the Ardennes” or “the Ardennes Counteroffensive”]

[10] After the Germans surrounded Bastogne during the Bulge, Heinrich von Luettwitz requested the Allies’ surrender, to which 101st Airborne commander Anthony McAuliffe gave this famously pithy one-word reply.

ANSWER: “Nuts!”

In one theater of this military operation, Saxon forces led by Anselm of Havelberg and Henry the Lion attempted to expel or Christianize the Polabian Slavs, also known as the Wends. For 10 points each:

[10] Identify this twelfth-century crusade that was sparked by Zengi’s capture of the County of Edessa, preached by St. Bernard of Clairvaux, and authorized by Pope Eugene III’s bull Quantum praedecessores.

ANSWER: the Second Crusade [accept word forms]

[10] Henry the Lion was a member of this older branch of the House of Este. An Italianate form of this dynasty’s name was adopted by a group of 12th- and 13th-century partisans who opposed the anti-papal Ghibellines; either name is acceptable.

ANSWER: Guelphs [or Welfs; or the Welf dynasty/House of Welf/etc.; or Welf-Este]

[10] Ratibor I and Bishop Adalbert of Pomerania managed to negotiate an end to the Wendish crusaders’ siege of this now-Polish city. Winston Churchill claimed that an “iron curtain” had descended between this city and Trieste.

ANSWER: Stettin [or Szczecin]

Identify the following about the adventures of George Canning, for 10 points each.

[10] Canning was the foremost among the group of former Pitt the Younger devotees who refused to join this wide-ranging coalition government formed in 1806 by William Grenville.

ANSWER: the Ministry of All the Talents

[10] Canning spent most of 1809 feuding with this Irish statesman, culminating in a lopsided duel on Putney Heath. This man led the British delegation at the Congress of Vienna.

ANSWER: Lord Castlereagh [accept either underlined part of Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh; or the 2nd Marquess of Londonderry]

[10] Canning was a prominent critic of Pitt’s successor Henry Addington, whose administration negotiated this 1702 truce with France in the wake of Nelson’s victory at Copenhagen.

ANSWER: the Treaty of Amiens [or Peace of Amiens]

This man’s highest governmental position replaced the one held prior to his 1980 election by Josiah Zion Gumede. For 10 points each:

[10] Identify this Methodist minister and author of The Gospel According to the Ghetto, who was overshadowed during his term as the first president of a certain African nation by his powerful Prime Minister and eventual successor, Robert Mugabe.

ANSWER: Canaan Sodindo Banana

[10] Banana and Mugabe have been the only two presidents of this African nation, which was known as Rhodesia until it gained majority rule and independence in 1980.

ANSWER: the Republic of Zimbabwe

[10] Mugabe unleashed his Fifth Brigade in an operation called Gukurahundi, which targeted the Ndebele supporters of this founder of the ZAPU party, who fled to Botswana in the aftermath.

ANSWER: Joshua Mqabuko Nyongolo Nkomo

5/5 Science

Part of this structure is removed in a Girdlestone operation. Children who experience a lack of blood flow to one part of this structure may suffer from Legg-Calvé-Perthes syndrome. Its fractures can be described by the Winquist classification, and it is the more proximal of the two bones rotated laterally by the popliteus muscle. Its posterior surface contains the pectineal line, which runs between the linea aspera and its lesser trochanter, and it contains the origins of the three vastus muscles. Its head articulates with the acetabulum, a structure formed by the three os coxae. The lateral and medial heads of the gastrocnemius attach to the corresponding condyles of this bone, which are found at its lower extremity behind the patella, where it articulates with the tibia. For 10 points, identify this longest bone of the human body, found in the thigh.

ANSWER: the human femur

One equivalent of DIBAL-H can be used at low temperatures to reduce nitriles to these compounds. One type of these compounds can be produced by reacting pyrimidine salts with secondary amines and are named for Theodor Zincke. Otto Roelen discovered a process by which these compounds are produced from the pressurized addition of carbon monoxide and hydrogen to alkenes; that reaction is the oxo process. One of the most important examples of these compounds is produced through the oxidation of ethylene in the Wacker process. The simplest of these compounds was the first polyatomic organic molecule detected in the interstellar medium and is more commonly used as an embalming agent. For 10 points, identify these organic compounds which produce a silver mirror in the Tollens test and, unlike ketones, feature a carbonyl group attached to the end of a carbon chain.

ANSWER: aldehydes [or formyl groups; prompt on “carbonyls”]

This man is the first namesake of a theorem which was recently challenged by Ott, Bonitz, and Loewen, who simulated the rapid cooling of a liquid layer of charged particles and found that the liquid failed to immediately crystallize in the presence of a strong magnetic field. That theorem is also named for Hendrika van Leeuwen. One quantity named for this man is multiplied by the the total angular momentum and the Lande g factor, then divided by h-bar, to give the total magnetic moment of an electron. This scientist co-names a generalized quantization rule for systems with multiple degrees of freedom with Arnold Sommerfeld. He asserted that when quantum numbers are large, quantum mechanical systems’ behavior reproduces that of classical systems, in his correspondence principle. Electrons travel in discrete, stable circular orbits around the nucleus in the atomic model named for this man. For 10 points, name this Danish physicist.

ANSWER: Niels Henrik David Bohr

Boris Tsybakov invented an algorithm with this name that uses a slotted channel to stably resolve collisions in situations where the ALOHA system becomes unstable. This structure is employed in an algorithm that solves the 2D convex hull problem called the “Graham scan” algorithm. PDAs are distinguished from ordinary finite state machines by their inclusion of one of these structures. Some implementations of these structures use so-called “canary” values to prevent buffer overflows in them. The x86 architecture implements these structures using the SP and SS registers, and they are also to implement reverse Polish notation calculators. Objects are added to and removed from these structures using operations called “push” and “pop”, respectively. For 10 points, identify this last-in first-out data structure.

ANSWER: call stacks

A series describing various materials’ susceptibility to this process was designed by Samuel Goldich, while Jull, Wlotzka, and Donohue developed a scale to describe the extent to which meteorites experience it. This process is responsible for the production of eluvium. A leading cause of the formation of honeycomb-like tafoni is a variety of this process called haloclasty. Another variety of this process occurs when the release of pressure allows intrusive igneous rocks to expand and is called unloading. Repeated freeze-thaw cycles can cause frost wedging, an instance of the physical form of this process, while acidic rainfall can cause its chemical variety. For 10 points, identify this process of breaking down rocks, minerals, and other materials that happens in situ, unlike erosion.

ANSWER: weathering [accept word forms; accept word forms of dissolution until, say, “meteorites”; maybe you want to anti-prompt on specific types, like chemical or physical weathering, until they’re mentioned?]

Succinate dehydrogenase, which also participates in the citric acid cycle, passes this process’s namesake particles to ubiquinone. For 10 points each:

[10] Identify this final major step in aerobic respiration, in which the namesake charged particles, usually donated by NADH and FADH2, are shuttled through a proton gradient across the mitochondrial membrane.

ANSWER: the electron transport chain [or the ETC; accept “transfer” for “transport” and “system” for “chain”, and thus the associated acronyms as well]

[10] According to Peter Mitchell’s chemiosmotic hypothesis, the proton gradient created by the ETC powers this process, which uses the energy generated by the flow of electrons to produce NAD+ and, more critically, ATP.

ANSWER: oxidative phosphorylation

[10] This final enzyme in the mitochondrial electron transport chain converts a molecule of oxygen into two molecules of water. Its activity can be inhibited by the cyanide ion, accounting for that ion’s toxicity.

ANSWER: cytochrome c oxidase [or complex IV]

[I hope I have not inadvertently filled this with lies. --RC]

Answer the following about, uh, math, for 10 points each:

[10] The Heine-Borel theorem states that a subspace of R-n is compact if and only if it has these two properties, which in layman’s terms mean respectively that it contains all its limit points and that it is finite.

ANSWER: it is closed and bounded [accept in either order; both parts needed]

[10] This similar theorem states that a subset of R-n is sequentially compact if and only if it is closed and bounded, or equivalently that every bounded sequence of reals contains a convergent subsequence.

ANSWER: the Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem

[10] Two Italians developed this other theorem, which states that a subset of all the continuous functions defined on the interval [0,1] is compact if and only if it is closed, bounded, and equicontinuous.

ANSWER: the Arzelà-Ascoli theorem

Versene contains a sodium salt of this compound that was discovered by Ferdinand Munz, a Nazi scientist who was searching for a cheap alternative to citric acid. For 10 points each:

[10] Identify this hexadentate ligand, often used to treat heavy metal poisoning or decontaminate radioactive areas by sequestering metal ions.

ANSWER: EDTA [or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; or diaminoethane-tetraacetic acid; or edetic acid; or ethylenedinitrilo-tetraacetic acid]

[10] Coordination compounds involving EDTA generally adopt this molecular geometry, which can convert to trigonal prismatic geometry through the Bailar twist.

ANSWER: octahedral geometry

[10] Octahedral complexes of transition metals often undergo an effect in which they are distorted in shape in order to remove ground-state degeneracies; that effect is named for Hermann Jahn and this Hungarian-American “father of the hydrogen bomb”.

ANSWER: Edward Teller [or Teller Ede; or the Jahn-Teller effect]

In one material, this quantity can be calculated by taking the square root of the quantity “the permittivity of free space times Boltzmann’s constant times electron temperature over electron density times electron charge squared”. For 10 points each:

[10] Identify this quantity named for a Dutch scientist, the depth to which an electric field can penetrate a certain phase of matter.

ANSWER: the Debye length [or lambda-sub-D]

[10] The Debye length is the characteristic shielding radius for this fourth fundamental phase of matter, which can be conceptualized as a fluid consisting of ionized molecules.

ANSWER: plasmas

[10] Due to the effects of the electric field on a given charged particle being shielded outside the Debye length, charged particles in plasmas experience this type of elastic collision, the manifold small effects of which cause a test particle’s initial velocity to decelerate and its direction of motion to diffuse.

ANSWER: Coulomb collisions

[sorry if this last part is not gettable or badly-written; it seemed interesting and I looked it up in a textbook! --RC]

The dark area found in between two of these entities is named for Alexander of Aphrodisias. For 10 points each:

[10] Identify this optical phenomenon, related to the ice-produced halo and the wave-tunneling-produced glory, in which light being reflected through dispersed water droplets produces an arc-shaped color spectrum.

ANSWER: rainbows

[10] C.T.R. Wilson’s observation of a glory on Ben Nevis in 1894 prompted him to attempt to recreate the phenomenon in miniature, eventually producing the first of these particle-detecting devices.

ANSWER: a cloud chamber [prompt on “Wilson chamber”]

[10] A phenomenon consisting of the simultaneous appearance of a halo and a fog-bow is alternately named for either  Antonio de Ulloa or this Frenchman, the first man to discover what later became known as the Beer-Lambert law.

ANSWER: Pierre Bouguer

3/3 Fine Arts

One of this artist’s paintings features background architecture very similar to the Mass of the Dead from the Turin-Milan Hours, lending evidence to the theory that this artist is that work’s anonymous “Hand G”. This artist of Madonna in the Church included a blue-robed St. Donatian carrying a candelabra in a painting whose donor is depicted reading from a book of hours. The landscape of Autun can be seen in the background of a painting by this man in which an angel holds an elaborate crown over the head of the Virgin, who extends the Christ child toward the namesake Burgundian bureaucrat. This artist depicted the Madonna with Canon van der Paele and with Chancellor Rolin. The Just Judges is the missing lower-left panel of a twelve-panel polyptych whose central panel features a ring of angels surrounding the Lamb of God, a collaboration between this artist and his brother Hubert. For 10 points, name this Flemish painter of the Ghent Altarpiece and the Arnolfini Wedding.

ANSWER: Jan van Eyck [or Johannes de Eyck]

One composition in this genre contains a D flat major third movement marked “Pezzo serioso”, features a male chorus singing passages from Adam Oehlenschläger’s Aladdin in its final movement, and was composed by Ferruccio Busoni. Another work in this genre, an expansion of its composer’s 1841 Phantasie, opens with an E natural chord in the orchestra followed by a descent into the main key. An 1859 performance of that piece inspired another composer to produce one of these pieces which opens with a timpani roll leading into a motif consisting of a descending minor second and a major third. Those two examples, both in the key of A minor, were composed by Schumann and Grieg. The second movement of Mozart’s twenty-first one was featured prominently in the film Elvira Madigan, while Johann Baptist Cramer nicknamed Beethoven’s E-flat-major fifth one the “Emperor”. For 10 points, identify this type of composition for orchestra and a solo keyboard instrument.

ANSWER: piano concertos [or piano concerti]

A 2013 recording of this opera conducted by Giovanni Antonini with an orchestra playing period instruments eliminated the traditional massive gong strikes near the end of the trio “Oh! Di qual sei tu vittima”. One character in this opera repeatedly entreats God to protect her in the aria “Sgombra è la sacra selva”. This opera’s protagonist sings “Teneri, teneri figli” while holding a dagger and contemplating murdering her children in their sleep, and later remits responsibility for those children to Oroveso. One character in this opera expresses his love for the handmaid Adalgisa in the aria “Meco all'altar di Venere”, while another cuts mistletoe while praying to a moon goddess in its most famous aria, “Casta Diva”. At this opera’s end, the Roman proconsul Pollione joins his lover, the title character, on a funeral pyre. For 10 points, identify this Vincenzo Bellini opera about a Druid priestess.

ANSWER: Norma

One member of this movement gave his paintings deceptively interesting titles like Vir Heroicus Sublimus and Who’s Afraid of Red, Yellow, and Blue, and was fond of dividing his canvases with lines called “zips”. For 10 points each:

[10] Identify this twentieth-century art movement, closely related to abstract expressionism, which included painters like Barnett Newman and the artist of the characteristic Magenta, Black, Green on Orange.

ANSWER: color field painting

[10]  Magenta, Black, Green on Orange, like many of this Latvian-born artist’s late paintings, consisted of large blurry blocks of color. This man was also commissioned to create murals for the Four Seasons restaurant in the Seagram building.

ANSWER: Mark Rothko [or Marcus Yakovlevich Rothkowitz]

[10] Clement Greenberg included color field artists Kenneth Noland and Morris Louis in an exhibition titled for this sort of “abstraction”. This term refers to the lack of highly technical detail present in the relevant works.

ANSWER: post-painterly abstraction

The first surviving polyphonic work in this genre, composed by Johannes Ockeghem, lacks the Sanctus, Communion, and Agnus Dei sections, but does include settings of the Tract and the Gradual. For 10 points each:

[10] Identify this liturgical genre of music. Verdi’s was first performed on the one-year anniversary of the death of Alessandro Manzoni, its dedicatee, while Mozart’s unfinished one was completed by Franz Xaver Süssmayr.

ANSWER: requiem masses [accept “mass for the dead” or “missa pro defunctis” or equivalents; prompt on “mass”]

[10] The Dies Irae is omitted from this French composer’s Requiem, which  features a soprano aria in its fourth movement Pie Jesu. This man also composed the Dolly Suite, the Masques et Bergamasques, and a famous Pavane.

ANSWER: Gabriel Urbain Fauré

[10] Like Fauré, this French organist omitted the Dies Irae in his Vichy-commissioned 1947 Requiem, which sets the Pie Jesu in its fifth movement as a mezzo-soprano solo with an obbligato cello.

ANSWER: Maurice Duruflé

Name these vaguely artistic old things, for 10 points each.

[10] This 22,000-year-old, eleven-inch-high limestone carving of a voluptuous nude woman, which some speculate is a self-portrait, was discovered in Austria in 1908.

ANSWER: Venus of Willendorf [or Woman of Willendorf]

[10] The Yoruba carved art from this type of stone, which the Great Zimbabwe culture used to sculpt animals, including the Zimbabwe national bird. The outer portions of Christ the Redeemer statue are carved from this metamorphic rock

ANSWER: soapstone [or steatite; or soaprock]

[10] Soapstone was one type of rock used to create these tall relief carvings. These structures were often used to publish laws and declarations or to commemorate famous or dead heroes.

ANSWER: stele [or stela; or stelae]

3/3 RMP

One holder of this belief founded the Southist faction of the Nasrani. Zeno closed the Edessa School for following this belief and those of its founder’s teacher, Theodore of Mopsuestia. This doctrine’s supporter John of Antioch  later recanted his position in the “Formula of Reunion”. The major opponent of this position issued twelve anathemas against its founder at a council called by Theodosius II. That council decried this sect’s use of the term “Christotokos” for the Virgin Mary and rejected this heresy in favor of Cyril of Alexandria’s doctrine of the hypostatic union of Christ. For 10 points, name this heresy condemned at the Council of Ephesus that claims that Jesus has two natures, one human and one divine.

ANSWER: Nestorianism

The entrance to the jewel-studded capital city of these characters is surrounded by anthills. One of these figures was granted immortality in order to avoid being eaten, allowing him to marry the daughter of Matali. Another of these beings is worshipped by the cult of Kuttantavar, which celebrates his decision to sacrifice himself in exchange for a one-day marriage to Krishna’s female form Mohini. That one, Iravan, was the son of Arjuna and Ulupi, a princess of these characters. These beings are the offspring of Kadru, whose enslavement of Vinata ended when the latter’s son brought amrita to these characters, thus beginning a lifelong enmity between these characters and that son, Garuda. Prominent examples included the sage Shesha and their king, Vasuki. For 10 points, identify these snakelike demigods from Hindu mythology.

ANSWER: nagas [prompt on “snakes” or “serpents” or “cobras”; accept nagi or nagini]

At one point in this text, the author expresses relief that he is saner than people who assert that “their head is made of clay” or “that they are gourds”. Early in its final section, its author notes that while he can conceive of a “chiliogon” as being a thousand-sided figure, he cannot imagine those sides as easy as he can the three sides of a triangle. Another section of this work divides ideas into “innate”, “adventitious”, and “factitious” types, before segueing into a circular proof of God. Its second section asserts that perception “by the intellect alone”, rather than through any physical properties, allows one to identify a piece of wax. Its first section hypothesizes an illusory external world created by an “evil demon”, which prompts the author to methodically doubt everything but his own existence. For 10 points, name this six-part expansion on René Descartes’s Discourse on Method.

ANSWER: Meditations on First Philosophy [or Méditations Metaphysiques; or Meditationes de prima philosophia, in qua Dei existentia et animæ immortalitas demonstratur; accept René Descartes’s Meditations before “Descartes” is read]

Members of this religion are baptized during the amrit sanchar to become members of the khalsa. For 10 points each:

[10] Name this monotheistic religion that reveres ten gurus, the last of which is the scripture Adi Granth.

ANSWER: Sikhism [or Sikhi]

[10] Sikhism and later forms of Hinduism consider the world’s temptations to be maya, or this type of thing. Sigmund Freud lambasted religion as “wish-fulfillment” in a book that examined the “future of” this.

ANSWER: an illusion; or unreal [accept word variations like illusory; or non-real]

[10] Guru Nanak began the very real custom of Langar, during which Gurdwaras offer this every day to all people, regardless of religion. The distribution of it often occurs in open air, especially during large festivals like Holla Mohalla.

ANSWER: free meals or free food

Athenaeus claimed that this man chased a hare around Mt. Oria until it collapsed from exhaustion, then revived it with grass from a spring. For 10 points each:

[10] Identify this fisherman who discovered an herb that could bring fish back to life and who, upon tasting the herb, grew fins and a fish’s tail and thereafter became a prophetic sea-god.

ANSWER: Glaucus

[10] According to one story, Glaucus sought a love potion from Circe in order to woo this woman, but Circe poisoned her, turning her into a horrifying multi-headed sea monster who then hung out on a cliff across from the whirlpool Charybdis.

ANSWER: Scylla

[10] The Aeneid claims that Glaucus was the father of this figure, who sold three books of prophecies to Tarquinius Superbus after burning six others and escorted Aeneas to the underworld through a tunnel near Lake Avernus.

ANSWER: the Cumaean Sibyl [or Deiphobe; or Herophile]

He described two attitudes toward the world, distinguishing those who seek to theorize about something from those who seek to achieve something, called “present-at-hand” and “ready-to-hand”. For 10 points each:

[10] Identify this German philosopher who described existence as a “thrown-ness into the world” characterized by dasein in his 1927 magnum opus, Being and Time.

ANSWER: Martin Heidegger

[10] Tomonobu Imamichi pissed off Gadamer by claiming that Heidegger had lifted his concept of dasein from this thinker’s The Book of Tea. This student of Ernest Fenollosa claimed that “Asia is one” in The Ideals of the East.

ANSWER: Okakura Kakuzo [accept names in either order]

[10] Okakura developed his concept of “being-in-the-world-ness” to analyze the Taoist thought of this skeptical philosopher, who once dreamed he was a butterfly and was thereafter unsure he was not a butterfly dreaming he was a man.

ANSWER: Zhuangzi [or Zhuang Zhou; or Master Zhuang; or Chuang Tzu; “zh-” can be pronounced like “j-”]

1/1 Social Science

The “blurring” of this concept, leading to a state where it exists primarily “in general”, was examined in a 1959 book by Martin Marty. Another essay about that type of this concept asserted that the “third time of trial” would cause it to adopt “vital international symbolism”. Aspects of this concept were labeled “historical” and “para-historical” in the sevenfold schema of analyzing it developed by Ninian Smart. Clifford Geertz claimed that it clothed its conceptions of order with “an aura of factuality” in an article about it “as a cultural system”, while Robert Bellah discussed its “civil” variety in America. Its primary purpose was identified as the emotional unification of society by Emile Durkheim, while James George Frazer placed it in the evolution of ideas at a stage between magic and science. Durkheim wrote about the “Elementary Forms” of, for 10 points, which type of “Life”, a concept exemplified by Islam or Christianity?

ANSWER: religion [accept word forms; accept “civil religion” or “civic religion” or “American religion”]

The slope of this graph at any given point is called the marginal rate of transformation. For 10 points each:

[10] Identify this usually-concave graph from economics, the most famous example of which plots guns versus butter.

ANSWER: the production possibilities frontier [or production possibilities curve; or production possibilities boundary; or PPF; or PPC; or PPB]

[10] Only at points where the the marginal rate of transformation is equal to all marginal rates of substitution does a PPF exhibit this quality, a state where resources are allocated such that no individual can be made better off without making another individual worse off.

ANSWER: Pareto efficiency [or Pareto optimality]

[10] The PPF can be derived by plotting the outputs of the two involved firms on one of these constructs, a plot of the set of Pareto-optimal allocations contained in an Edgeworth box.

ANSWER: a contract curve

1/1 Geography

The only oil field in production in this country is near the town of Spanish Lookout, one of its Mennonite communities. This home of the Holy Saturday Cross Country Cycling Classic has major population centers at Dangriga and Orange Walk Town. A multi-week holiday season in this country centered on its independence day and Battle of St George’s Caye Day is known as the September Celebrations. A gigantic sinkhole called the Great Blue Hole and the island of Ambergris Caye can be found in its namesake barrier reef, the second longest in the world. In 1965, this country’s then-capital was flattened by Hurricane Hattie, prompting a move inland, closer to its borders with Mexico and Guatemala. For 10 points, name this Central American country, the only one without a border on the Pacific Ocean and the only one whose official languages include English.

ANSWER: Belize

Identify some archaeological sites with a couple of things in common, for 10 points each.

[10] The Y and Z holes are found outside the circle of Sarsen stones that make up this monument, which consists of a ring of standing stones and several rings of earthworks, and is located in Wiltshire, England.

ANSWER: Stonehenge

[10] Raedwald of East Anglia and his son Sigeberht are generally held to be the most likely identities of the occupant of the large ship buried under a mound at this archaeological site near Woodbridge in Suffolk County.

ANSWER: Sutton Hoo

[10] Grooved ware pottery and skaill knives are among the artifacts found at this site, a cluster of eight Neolithic stone houses found on Mainland in the Orkneys.

ANSWER: Skara Brae

1/1 Trash/Other

In July 2013, this team signed the brother of Falcons receiver Harry Douglas. This team played several games at their former home, the Cow Palace, during the 1975 Finals, in which they swept the Bullets under coach Al Attles. The playoff record of 29 points scored by one player in one quarter was set in the 1987 playoffs by this team’s then-point guard Sleepy Floyd. This team drafted, then after a five-year ABA stint re-signed, noted asshole Rick Barry. Latrell Sprewell choked P.J. Carlesimo while both were employed by this team, whose high-scoring late-80s and early-90s offense was led by the “Run TMC” trio. This team’s recent offseason acquisitions include Jermaine O’Neal and Andre Iguodala. For 10 points, identify this Mark Jackson-coached NBA team, currently led by Klay Thompson and Steph Curry and based in Oakland.

ANSWER: the Golden State Warriors [accept either underlined portion; accept the San Francisco Warriors]

The title situation is referred to as “tough, kid, but it’s life” in this song, whose listener is advised “don’t forget to pack a wife” and is mocked for bragging about knowing how “the slums got so much soul”. For 10 points each:

[10] Identify this song which also features a repeated chant of “Pol Pot!” before the final repetition of the chorus. In 1998, Jello Biafra was sued by his bandmates for refusing to allow this song to be used in a Levi’s commercial.

ANSWER: “Holiday in Cambodia

[10] “Holiday in Cambodia” is a song by this punk band, fronted by the aforementioned Jello Biafra. They recorded “Kill the Poor” and “Too Drunk to Fuck” and attacked Jerry Brown in “California Über Alles”.

ANSWER: The Dead Kennedys

[10] The B-side to “Holiday in Cambodia” was this song, whose speaker beats up drunks and rapes prostitutes, dismissing the concerns of “the left newspapers”. Its chorus repeats the line “Ride, ride, how we ride”.

ANSWER: “Police Truck