Tysiąc schodów, czyli Jaskinia Mamucia

Nocleg

http://www.singinghillsrvpark.com/site-map,-park-rules.html - mozliwe, $25 za noc

Singing Hills RV Park & Campground

4110 Mammoth Cave Road

Cave City, KY 42127

Phone: 270-773-3789

Fax: 270-773-3879

E-Mail ebrown@outdrs.net


STRESZCZENIE

Z domu do Louisville przez Indianapolis: 5h

Z L-ville do spania - półtorej godziny

Muzeum druku dla niewidomych: http://www.aph.org/museum/ - do trzeciej, darmoszka

The American Printing House for the Blind, Inc.

1839 Frankfort Avenue

P.O. Box 6085

Louisville, Kentucky 40206-0085

Flamerun - fabryczka szkla - do piątej

http://www.flamerun.com/visiting/ 

Adres: 815 W Market St Louisville, KY 40202

Most

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Four_Bridge   38.265556, -85.738889

OPCJA: wypozyczenie roweru albo dziwnego pojhazdu - do $25 http://www.wheelfunrentals.com/locations/louisville 

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Jaskinia Mamucia:

8:45 Domes & Dripstones (2h)

12:00 Historic Tour (2h)

7:30 - campfire at the amphitheater

Zapasowe szlaki: Cedar Sink Hole, Styx River

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Do domu :)


Szlaki

lista: https://www.nps.gov/maca/planyourvisit/summer-schedule.htm

Wybieramy:

Mapka: https://www.nps.gov/maca/planyourvisit/images/Domes-and-Dripstones_1.jpg 

Mapka: https://www.nps.gov/maca/planyourvisit/images/Historic-Tour_1.jpg 

OPCJA na wieczor:


O parku narodowym

Mapka: https://www.nps.gov/maca/planyourvisit/upload/Mammoth-Cave-National-Park-Map-Web.pdf 

Mapka centrum parku: http://www.mappery.com/maps/Mammoth-Cave-Tourist-Map.jpg 

Cedar Sink Hole trail

https://www.tripadvisor.com/Attraction_Review-g143043-d1856918-Reviews-Cedar_Sink_Trail-Mammoth_Cave_National_Park_Kentucky.html

http://alltrails.com/trail/us/kentucky/cedar-sink-trail

Cedar Sink

Distance: 1.6 miles round trip

Location: Located on Cedar Sink Rd/Highway 422, about .6 miles from highway 70, 3.2 miles north of the intersection with the visitor center road

The Cedar Sink Trail leads down hill through second growth forest, past several sinking streams and abundant wildflowers in the spring. At the end of the trail you can view Cedar Sink from a platform or descend down into this enormous sinkhole, where, in times of adequate rainfall, water emerges as a spring from one cave system and a few hundred feet later sinks into another cave. The large sinkhole shows clearly the layers of sandstone and limestone and provides an excellent opportunity to discuss karst geology.

River Styx Spring Trail

River Styx Spring Trail is a 0.6 mile lightly trafficked out and back trail

http://alltrails.com/trail/us/kentucky/river-styx-spring-trail

https://www.tripadvisor.com/LocationPhotoDirectLink-g143043-d146944-i79586247-Mammoth_Cave_National_Park-Mammoth_Cave_National_Park_Kentucky.html

Filmik: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XKj5phsYKXo 


Atrakcje w Louisville

Muzeum druku dla niewidomych: http://www.aph.org/museum/ - do trzeciej, darmoszka

The American Printing House for the Blind, Inc.

1839 Frankfort Avenue

P.O. Box 6085

Louisville, Kentucky 40206-0085

Flamerun - fabryczka szkla - do piątej

http://www.flamerun.com/visiting/ 

Flame Run is the largest privately owned hot shop in this section of the country.  We welcome all visitors, young and old, to enjoy the beauty and magic of glass with us.

Normal business hours are Monday-Friday 10am to 4pm, and Saturdays 10am to 5pm.

Admission to the gallery and viewing area is available for no charge, and handicapped access is located in the back of the building.  

Metered parking is available in front of the building on Market street, or there is a pay per day lot on ninth street north of Market.

Fajne informacje o szkle: http://www.flamerun.com/dictionary/ 

 

Adres: 815 W Market St Louisville, KY 40202

Most

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Four_Bridge

OPCJA: wypozyczenie roweru albo dziwnego pojhazdu - do $25 http://www.wheelfunrentals.com/locations/louisville 

Parking po stronie KY:

The Big Four Bridge is a six-span former railroad truss bridge that crosses the Ohio River, connecting Louisville, Kentucky, and Jeffersonville, Indiana. It was completed in 1895, and updated in 1929. The largest single span is 547 feet (167 m), with the entire bridge spanning 2,525 feet (770 m). It took its name from the defunct Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railway, which was nicknamed the "Big Four Railroad". It is now a converted pedestrian and bicycle bridge from Louisville into Jeffersonville, Indiana.

Access to the Big Four Bridge is limited to pedestrian and bicycle use. A pedestrian ramp on the Kentucky side was opened on February 7, 2013. The original approaches that carried rail traffic onto the main spans were first removed in 1969, earning the Big Four Bridge the nickname "Bridge That Goes Nowhere". The George Rogers Clark Memorial Bridge downstream, which carries U.S. 31 across the river, was previously the only bridge allowing bicyclists and pedestrians to travel between Louisville and the neighboring Indiana cities of New Albany, Clarksville, and Jeffersonville.

In February 2011, Kentucky Governor Steve Beshear and Indiana Governor Mitch Daniels announced that the two states, along with the City of Jeffersonville, would allocate $22 million in funding to complete the Big Four Bridge project, creating a pedestrian and bicycle path to link Louisville and Jeffersonville. Indiana would spend up to $8 million and the City of Jeffersonville would provide $2 million in matching dollars to pay for construction of a ramp to the Big Four Bridge. Kentucky pledged $12 million to replace the deck on the bridge and connect it to the spiral ramp that was completed in Waterfront Park.

Construction

Construction began on October 10, 1888. The Big Four Bridge would be the only Louisville bridge with serious accidents during its building; thirty-seven individuals died during its construction. The first twelve died while working on a pier foundation when a caisson that was supposed to hold back the river water flooded, drowning the workers. Another four men died a few months after that when a wooden beam broke while working on a different pier caisson.[6]

The Big Four Bridge had one of the biggest bridge disasters in the United States, occurring on December 15, 1893 when a construction crane was dislodged by a severe wind, causing the falsework support of a truss to be damaged and the truss—with forty-one workers on it—to fall into the Ohio River. Twenty of the workers survived, but twenty-one died. The accident almost cost more lives, as a ferry crossing the Ohio River just barely missed being hit by the truss. Hours later, a span next to the damaged span also fell into the river, but was unoccupied at the time, causing no injuries. As a result, falsework was longitudely reinforced to prevent further occurrences, and also to prevent strong winds from causing similar damage by using special bracing on the bottom frame of the truss. Also, a new rule was enforced: "never trust a bolted joint any longer than is necessary to put a riveted one in place".[6]

The Belle of Louisville crossing under the Bridge in the 2008 Great Steamboat Race

The Big Four Bridge was finally completed in September 1895. Because of the location of the bridge and the growth of the Kennedy Interchange, the interchange had to avoid the columns that were on the approach to the bridge, causing the interchange to have several two-lane ramps rather than a single stretch of highway, and helped earn the nickname Spaghetti Junction.[7] Due to the various accidents, the Louisville and Jeffersonville Bridge Company was financially strapped after building the bridge, and later in 1895 sold it to the Indianapolis-based Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railway, also known as the Big Four Railroad. This gave the railway its first entry into the Louisville market, although the railroad would have likely used the bridge even if they had not bought it, as they desired access to Louisville.[6]

Ownership

In 1988 Oscar Arias, President of Costa Rica, contacted Louisville mayor Jerry Abramson to inquire about buying the bridge to dismantle it and reassemble in Costa Rica, as he believed it would be cheaper to import the bridge than build a new one. At the time the city did not actually own the bridge, and the plan never went through.[13]

Ohio river

In L-ville

The Ohio River, which streams westward from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River in the United States. At the confluence, the Ohio is considerably bigger than the Mississippi (Ohio at Cairo: 281,500 cu ft/s (7,960 m3/s);[2] Mississippi at Thebes: 208,200 cu ft/s (5,897 m3/s)[3]) and, thus, is hydrologically the main stream of the whole river system, including the Allegheny River further upstream.

The 981-mile (1,579 km) river flows through or along the border of six states, and its drainage basin includes parts of 15 states. Through its largest tributary, the Tennessee River, the basin includes many of the states of the southeastern U.S. It is the source of drinking water for three million people.[4]

It is named in Iroquoian or Seneca: Ohi:yó, lit. "Good River"[5] or Shawnee: Pelewathiipi and Spelewathiipi.[6] The river had great significance in the history of the Native Americans, as numerous civilizations formed along its valley. For thousands of years, Native Americans used the river as a major transportation and trading route. Its waters connected communities. In the five centuries before European conquest, the Mississippian culture built numerous regional chiefdoms and major earthwork mounds in the Ohio Valley, such as Angel Mounds near Evansville, Indiana, as well as in the Mississippi Valley and the Southeast. The Osage, Omaha, Ponca and Kaw lived in the Ohio Valley, but under pressure from the Iroquois to the northeast, migrated west of the Mississippi River to Missouri, Arkansas and Oklahoma in the 17th century.

In 1669, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle led a French expedition to the Ohio River, becoming the first Europeans to see it. After European-American settlement, the river served as a border between present-day Kentucky and Indian Territories. It was a primary transportation route for pioneers during the westward expansion of the early U.S. In his Notes on the State of Virginia published in 1781–82, Thomas Jefferson stated: "The Ohio is the most beautiful river on earth. Its current gentle, waters clear, and bosom smooth and unbroken by rocks and rapids, a single instance only excepted."[7]

During the 19th century, the river was the southern boundary of the Northwest Territory. It is sometimes considered as the western extension of the Mason–Dixon Line that divided Pennsylvania from Maryland, and thus part of the border between free and slave territory, and between the Northern and Southern United States or Upper South. Where the river was narrow, it was the way to freedom for thousands of slaves escaping to the North, many helped by free blacks and whites of the Underground Railroad resistance movement.

The Ohio River is a climatic transition area, as its water runs along the periphery of the humid subtropical and humid continental climate areas. It is inhabited by fauna and flora of both climates. In winter, it regularly freezes over at Pittsburgh but rarely further south toward Cincinnati and Louisville. At Paducah, Kentucky, in the south, near the Ohio's confluence with the Mississippi, it is ice-free year-round. Paducah was founded there because it is the northernmost ice-free reach of the Ohio.

FALLS OF THE OHIO

The area is located at the Falls of the Ohio, which was the only navigational barrier on the river in earlier times. The falls were a series of rapids formed by the relatively recent erosion of the Ohio River operating on 386 million-year-old Devonian hard limestone rock shelves. Louisville, Kentucky, and the associated Indiana communities—Jeffersonville, Clarksville, and New Albany—all owe their existence as communities to the falls, as the navigational obstacles the falls presented meant that late 18th-century and early- to late-19th-century river traffic could benefit from local expertise in navigating the 26-foot (7.9 m) drop made by the river over a distance of two miles (3 km). In its original form, the falls could be characterized more as rapids extending over a length of the river, than as a point-like discontinuity in a river such as Niagara Falls. Still, the falls provided a singular, dramatic and daunting obstacle to navigation on this important inland waterway.

The first locks on the river, the Louisville and Portland Canal completed in 1830, were built within a bypass canal constructed to provide year-round navigation of the river. The falls were later largely covered by the McAlpine Locks and Dam, built by the Army Corps of Engineers. The taming of the Ohio River at the falls, with the attendant reduction in local flow velocity has of late led to the covering over of the fossil beds by large and increasing quantities of low-velocity effluvia: although an impediment to viewing of the fossils, this action serves to protect the portions of the falls covered over by sediment and therefore temporarily immune to direct weathering. However, a significant area of the fossil-rich Devonian limestone rock is still left exposed, and is accessible to visitors today. The best time for visitation is during the low water season of the Ohio River between August and October. Removal of fossils is prohibited.

The shallowness of the falls provided a favored crossing point for bison in pre-settlement times and, later, an easy crossing for Native Americans.

In 1990, a section of the area in Indiana became the Falls of the Ohio State Park. An interpretive center is open throughout the year.

Size and sound

Prior to modification, for industrial and navigational purposes, the Falls of the Ohio spanned the entire width of the Ohio River. Native Americans and early European explorers heard the crisp roar of the Ohio River crashing down the cascade falls more than 10 miles away.[2] Ranked by the product of river flow and river width, the Falls of the Ohio is the 7th largest waterfall in the world.[citation needed]

Geology

Large rugose coral (above hammer) in the Devonian Jeffersonville Limestone at the Falls of the Ohio, near Louisville, Kentucky.

The rock unit in which the falls are formed is referred to as the Jeffersonville Limestone. The limestone formed approximately 387 to 380 million years ago during the Emsian Age (in the latest part of the Early Devonian Period) and the Eifelian Age (Middle Devonian). The exposure is unique—large and diverse tabulate corals and rugose corals are exposed in lifelike positions. Brachiopods and bryozoans are also present, as are gastropods (snails).

Louisville and Portland Canal

                                                                        

                                                                        

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

                                                                                                                                                                 

Coordinates: 38.27170°N 85.77940°W

The modern canal after many enlargements.

The Louisville and Portland Canal was a 2-mile (3.2 km) canal bypassing the Falls of the Ohio River at Louisville, Kentucky. The Falls form the only barrier to navigation between the origin of the Ohio at Pittsburgh and the port of New Orleans on the Gulf of Mexico; circumventing them was long a goal for Pennsylvanian and Cincinnatian merchants.[1] The canal opened in 1830 as the private Louisville and Portland Canal Company but was gradually bought out during the 19th century by the federal government, which had invested heavily in its construction, maintenance, and improvement. The Louisville and Portland Canal became the McAlpine Locks and Dam in 1962 after extensive modernization.[2]

The canal was the first major improvement to be completed on a major river of the United States.[3]

Inne opcje:

Waterworks museum:

http://www.louisvillewatertower.com/waterworks-museum/hours-admission-tours - do trzeciej

http://kentuckypeerless.com/product/distillery-tour-louisville/ - $12


Atrakcje w KY

Bourbon Trail mapka http://10vsslmt3js29lu005tjzl1e.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/2015_map.pdf 


STARE NOTATKI

http://www.cavecountryrv.com/rates.html - chyba tylko RV

https://koa.com/campgrounds/horse-cave/site-type/tent-camping-sites/ - KOA ma ograniczenie 3 noce min. 800-562-2809

http://www.singinghillsrvpark.com/site-map,-park-rules.html - mozliwe, $25 za noc

Singing Hills RV Park & Campground

4110 Mammoth Cave Road

Cave City, KY 42127

Phone: 270-773-3789

Fax: 270-773-3879

E-Mail ebrown@outdrs.net

http://jellystonemammothcave.com/camping/reservations-rates/ - drozsze, $29

http://www.rvonthego.com/kentucky/diamond-caverns-rv-golf-club/rates - 3 noce minimum