Group Project Proposal (Science)

SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SINGAPORE

INVESTIGATIVE SKILLS IN SCIENCE

Names: Rachel, Xin Le, Mie Mie

Class: S2-07

Group Reference: C

A.    Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:

[    ] Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research

[    ] Measure a value: Experimental research (I)

[ X ] Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)

[    ] Construct a model: Theoretical sciences and applied mathematics

[    ] Observational and exploratory research

1. Type & Category

Type of research: 3

Category  –
8

Sub-category: E  Food Chemistry

Application of project relevant to SST Community, Society or the World:

This experiment may affect how people can enjoy a better cup of coffee with a healthier type of milk especially for people who are lactose intolerant

C.    Write down your research title:

Investigation of the effect of the temperature of coffee on the curdling of soy milk.

D.   (a) Aim / question being addressed

To find out the optimum temperature of coffee which causes the least curdling of the soy milk

(b) Independent variable

The independent variable is the temperature of coffee.
- 50
°C

- 40°C
- 30°C
- 20°C

- 10°C

*The sequence of pouring coffee into soy milk and vice versa.

*We have researched and found that the method of pouring the coffee gradually into the soy milk will reduce the curdling as it gives the soy milk time to adjust to the coffee’s high temperature as compared to pouring the soy milk into the coffee

(c) Dependent variable

The mass of curdle of soy milk in coffee

(d) Controlled variables

(a) The volume of soy milk used.

(b) The mass of coffee powder used.

(c) The dilution of coffee (amount of water used to make coffee).

(d) The temperature of the coffee.

(e) Hypothesis

The higher the temperature of the coffee, the more the soy milk will curdle.

E.    Method – Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)

(a) Equipment list:

 To obtain from the lab To purchase (\$30 budget) Equipment we own 500 ml Beakers x5 Soy milk (Vitasoy) Kettle 100 ml Beaker x1 1900g of coffee (Nescafe classic) Thermometer x6 Fridge (to store coffee) Weighing Scale Filter Paper x20

(b) Diagrams (To be drawn)

(c) Procedures: Detail all procedures and experimental design to be used for data collection

1. Boil 900 ml of water in a kettle and add 90g of coffee powder into the kettle to make the
2. coffee.Pour 180 ml of coffee into each of the 5 beakers.
3. Place a thermometer into each beaker and leave the beakers to cool.
4. Check the thermometers to see when the coffee has cooled to 50°C, 40°C, and 30°C.
5. Put the two other beakers into the fridge to cool to 20°C and 10°C.
6. Pour the coffee into beakers containing 95 ml of soy milk gradually and stir.
7. After a minute, pour the coffee and soy milk through a piece of filter paper.
8. if there is any curdled soy milk left in the filter paper, measure its mass.
9. Remove the two beakers from the fridge and let it warm up to the desired temperature. (20°C and 10°C)
10. Repeat steps 6-8.
11. Repeat the experiment two times and calculate the average result.
12. For second type of experiment, repeat steps 1-5.
13. Pour soy milk into coffee.
14. Repeat steps 7-11.
15. Repeat from 12-14 again for a more accurate result.

(d) Risk, Assessment and Management: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.

 Risk Assessment Management The coffee will be hot. If mishandled, there is a risk of getting scalded. Medium Handle the containers of coffee with care and be aware of surroundings to avoid accidentally knocking them over. Also use mitts when handling the containers The use of Bunsen burners are involved. Hence there is a possibility that someone may get burned. High Use proper equipment such as safety goggles when using bunsen burners. If we are not careful, the glass beakers may break due to the temperature changes (hot to cool) Low Make sure that the coffee in the beakers have cooled down before putting them in the fridge The kettle may be tampered with, causing it to overflow. Low Monitor the kettle as it is on, so that nobody can tamper with it and possibly scald themselves.

Table 3: Risk Assessment and Management table

(e) Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyze the data/results that answer research questions or hypothesis

1.    Strain the coffee with the filter paper and calculate the average mass of the curdled soy milk.

2.    Plot a graph of the average mass of the curdled soy milk against the temperature of coffee.

3.    From the graph, we can find out the optimum temperature of coffee which will cause the least curdling.

F. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major sources (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order for each type of source.

(a) Books

# William Shurtleff & Akiko Aoyagi (2013). History of Soymilk and Other Non-Dairy Milks (1226-2013).  Retrieved from

Craig J. Oberg (1986). Curdling chemistry - Coagulated milk products, 63(9), p770. DOI: 10.1021/ed063p770 Retrieved from:

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ed063p770

(b) Journals

Craig J. Oberg (1986). Curdling chemistry - Coagulated milk products, 63(9), p770. DOI: 10.1021/ed063p770 Retrieved from:

(c) Websites

about food (2014, December 10) Why Does Milk Curdle? The how, why, and when behind why milk curdles. Retrieved from